Glucosamine, a naturally occurring amino monosaccharide, has been widely used to treat osteoarthritis in humans. Several clinical trials have shown the significant symptom-modifying effect of glucosamine on osteoarthritis. Administration of glucosamine normalizes cartilage metabolism, so as to inhibit the degradation and stimulate the synthesis of proteoglycans, and to restore the articular function. In addition to the chondroprotective action, glucosamine is expected to exhibit anti-inflammatory actions by suppressing neutrophil functions such as superoxide generation, phagocytosis, granule enzyme release and chemotaxis. Moreover, glucosamine has been demonstrated to suppress the progression of adjuvant arthritis (a model of rheumatoid arthritis) possibly by inhibiting synovial cell activation and production of inflammatory mediators (such as prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide). Finally, glucosamine can suppress platelet aggregation, release of granule constituents, thromboxane A2 production, calcium mobilization and phosphorylation of Syk possibly via the inhibition of ADP-binding to the receptors. Thus, glucosamine could be expected as a novel anti-platelet agent for thrombotic disorders due to its suppressive actions on platelets.
Music therapy has so far been considered useful for patients with a variety of diseases. In particular, in a modern society where there are a lot of stresses caused by external stimuli with malignant influences on both physiological and psycological functions in human, music is of great importance in the healthy care to reduce such stresses and anxiety. Also, it is a big problem that as unpleasant stresses strongly compromise bioactivities by adversely affecting the human nervous and endocrine systems as well as the immune system with a key role in prevention of infectious diseases and cancer. Here, I mentioned the effectiveness of music therapy with a Mozart music in maintaining our health. Our experiments concerning the Mozart music therapy show that (1)faster decreases of heart rate and blood pressure are seen, (2)the salivary IgA antibody and digestive enzyme levels are elevated, (3)the body temparature is raised, (4)an ability of salivary secretion is enhanced, (5)the salivary cortisol level is decreased, (6)the salivary insulin level is increased, and finally (7)the number of peripheral lymphocytes and also the interferon-γ production are augmented and so on. Additionally, other investigators have reported that listening to Mozart music enhances spatial-reasoning and IQ by 8-9 points, improves cognitive performance of patients of Alzheimer's disease, and ameliorate auditory disturbance. Thus, it is suggested that Mozart music therapy will be of great help to improve the various diseases caused by unbalance in autonomic nervous system, particularly by a stress-induced hyper-activation of sympathetic nervous system in everyday life-style. In conclusion, pleasant music such as Mozart music can be used as an intervention against diseases which are associated with our life-style.
We investigated the reductive metabolism of Carophyll-yellow, which is the cold-water soluble beadlets of the β-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester, to retinol. Thirty male rats (STD Wistar, 3-weeks old) were Fed a Vitamin A deficient diet (AIN-76) for 35 days prior to experiment. They were than divided into 5 groups, 2 of which were used as the control group. Each of the remaining 3 groups was fed a diet containing β-carotene, Carophyll-yellow, or retinyl acetate for 8 days, and the changes in there body weights during the experiment period were investigated. After a one-day fast, the concentrations of retinol, 3,4-didehydroretinol and retinyl ester in the plasma and liver were measured. The increased body weight of the Carophyll-yellow group was 1.4 times that of the control group. In the Carophyll-yellow group, the retinol content was 1.9 nmol/ml in the plasma and 1.9 nmol/ml in the liver, and that of 3,4-didehydroretinol was 1.8 nmol/ml in the plasma and 1.6 nmol/ml in the liver. Based on these results, it is apparent that the 3,4-didehydro-β- apo-8'- carotenoic acid ethyl ester in Carophyll- yellow is converted into retinol by the reductive metabolism via 3,4-didehydroretinol.
We obtained lettuces, komatsunas (Japanese mustard spinaches), and spinaches from farmers in several prefectures for the purpose of comparing organically-grown vegetables with conventionally-grown vegetables that farmers cultivated, and then performed the sensory assessment tests on each vegetable. The following results were found : 1)There was no difference between the cultivation methods of the raw lettuces. 2)Boiled organically-grown komatsunas were sweeter and more tasteful in the overall evaluations than the boiled conventionally-grown ones. The results of the organoleptic evaluation of the komatsunas showed that the difference in the variety had a stronger effect than did the difference between the cultivation techniques. 3)Boiled conventionally-grown spinaches were more colorful than the boiled organically-grown ones. “The overall evaluation” of the lettuces, komatsunas and spinaches was most strongly associated with the “taste” among the “appearance”, “aroma”, “texture” and “taste” factors. “The aftertaste” was closely related to“the overall evaluation of taste”. These results suggest that the cultivation technique is an important factor when growing vegetables with a good quality.
In order to identify applications for the effective reuse of whey protein, we have been examining the usefulness of whey protein isolate (WPI) in model gelatin gels. In this report, we analyzed the effects of tannin on the properties of the model jelly, as tea powder or fruit juice, which are often added to jelly, may contain tannin. Addition of tannin into the clear gelatin gel produced an opaque and soft jelly. In contrast, addition of tannin into WPI-containing gels had little effect on their transparency, but increased viscosity. On HPLC analysis, greater polymerization was seen in the WPI-containing with tannin added at 100 mg%. Under these conditions, gels showed the highest rupture properties among the model jellies. The hot wire method also showed a reduction in gelation time and an elevation in gelation temperature in samples containing higher tannin levels. Addition of WPI thus prevents the deterioration of gelatin gels, even at high tannin levels. This may provide a useful application for the use of whey protein.
A questionnaire survey on the manners and the custom of rice porridge with green tea was conducted an object of inhabitants aged 50 or older on in Shimane and Yamaguchi Prefectures from 2003 to 2004 . The following were found : (1) In habitants, 60% and 83% of of the population in Shimane and Yamaguchi prefectures, respectively, who have experiences to eat rice porridge with green tea. The manners and customs of eating rice porridge with green tea has been widespread in both prefectures. (2) A common name for rice porridge with green tea was “Chagai” or “Chagayu” whose frequency of use was the highest in both prefectures. (3) Rice porridge with green tea was had for breakfast in both prefectures. Sweet potatoes were very popular ingredients in rice porridge with green tea, and then glutinous rice cake and broad beans were sometimes used.. (4) Rice porridge with green tea has been recognized as a meal to save rice, or to be good for health, and it has been inherited as a cuisine that meets preference in both prefectures.
Our questionnaire survey reveals that there are the manners and the custom of rice porridge with green tea common to Shimane and Yamaguchi prefectures. These results suggest that the manners and custom of rice porridge with green tea in both prefectures has been inherited since the Edo period.
We conducted a survey for students about lifestyle habitats such as eating habits and monitored skin conditions to study the effects of the eating habit on skin conditions. This eating habit survey showed that n-6/n-3 ratio is on the increase due to the excessive consumption of fat and the insufficient intake of fish. Furthermore, there was a trend that there was a lack of many nutrients. For the relationship between nutrient uptake and skin conditions, there was a significant positive correlation between the take of n-6/n-3 and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and the consumption of alachidonic acid and icosatrienoic acid and the extent of the incidence of acne. These results suggested that nutrient component taken from eating affects skin conditions. In addition, it is indicated that n-3 or n-6 fatty acid is strongly related to the barrier function of the horny cell layer and the incidence of acne.
The determinations of Al using various chemical reagents have already been reported. The detection of Al eluted from the Al-Pan was investigated using the pigment of eggplant rind that is not a chemical reagent. This method is environmentally safe and the eggplant is easily utilized. This pigment was extracted with water from the rind obtained by heating the eggplant in an electric range. This pigment color is reddish-violet and changed to bluish-violet by adding Al to the pigment solution. The absorption maxima of the absorption curve using this pigment solution is 530nm. The absorption maxima of the mixed solution of Al and the pigment is 580nm. The absorption of the pigment has no effect on the detection of Al at 580nm. The calibration curve at 580nm was a straight line from 0.240×10-4 to 1.68×10-4M of Al Concentration. Using this method, Al eluted from the Pans was readily detected.
The antioxidant abilities of various health teas (i. e., lotus leaf, striped bamboo, persimmon leaf, mugwort, perilla, cedar leaf or dokudami) both singly and in cookies containing these individual teas were examined using a powder model system in the water activity (Aw) range of 0.2-1.0 at 50°C. Potato starch (control) had no antioxidant ability over the entire investigated Aw range. The peaks of the peroxide value (PV) appeared for the lotus leaf and striped bamboo in the Aw range of 0.2-0.8 and for the persimmon leaf at Aw0.2-0.4. Those PV peaks did not appear for the mugwort, perilla, cedar leaf and dokudami in the entire Aw range. Cookies were prepared by baking the dough at 160°C for 20 minutes, which consisted of ingredients supporting oil (72% soft flour, 3% baking powder, 25% powdered health tea or potato starch), linoleic acid and water in the ratio 4 : 1 : 1.5 by weight. No antioxidant ability was obtained over the entire Aw range when potato starch (control) was added to the cookies. Although PV peaks for the cookies at a level similar to the control appeared with added persimmon leaf at lower than Aw0.4, no remarkable peaks were observed for the mugwort, perilla, cedar leaf and dokudami at higher than Aw0.6.
A survey of the awareness and preference of school dietitians was conducted in order to apply “Oomura sushi”, a traditional local cuisine of Nagasaki Prefecture, for school lunch. The Oomura sushi was provided for school lunch, and the responses of school children were monitored. Most of the school dietitians were interested in traditional local cuisine and considered to succeed in the propagation of food culture. Although 78% of the subjects wanted to succeed Oomura sushi, only 12.5% of it had been provided to school. 30.3% of the subjects wanted to provide Oomura sushi for school lunch as food for special occasions and food for cultural education. 69.7% of the subjects was reluctant to provide of Oomura sushi for school lunch for the following reasons; there are no cooking utensils, the working process is complex and difficulty of sanitation control. However, the above problems were improved and the inclusion of Oomura sushi for school lunch was operated. The students who have had Oomura sushi gave affirmative opinions and the teachers welcomed Oomura sushi, and traditional local cuisine for school luch. These results imply that there is a possibility of inclusion of traditional local cuisine for school lunch which was considered to be almost impossible so far. The introduction of traditional local cuisine to school lunch may lead to food education. Hence, we expect more often application of the traditional local cuisine to school lunch.
The use of foods that are labeled with the nutrient function claims has been increasing in Japan. Food with health claims is food having permission from and notification by the national government. It is expected that many questions will emerge about food with health claims directed from patients to the medical staff in a clinical context. However, very little is known regarding the recognition of food with health claims by the medical staff. We studied the existence of food with health claims by requesting 59 medical staff members to fill out a self-entry type questionnaire. Forty-nine staff members (83.1%) could recognize the names of foods with health claims that was categorized into two groups; i. e., foods with nutrient function claims and foods for specified health uses. Thirty five staff members (59.3%) had received such a query from patients, while 39 (66.1%) lacked information about foods with health claims. Many of the medical staff members wanted to obtain more information through the internet or at a congress. These results suggested that the recognition of and the information about foods with health claims amongst the medical staff members is inadequate.
A survey was conducted with people aged 50 or older on the custom and literature of green tea rice porridge in Gifu, Aichi, Hyogo, Okayama, Hiroshima, and Tokushima prefectures from 2003 to 2005. A literature survey was also conducted on the custom. The surveys found the following : (1) The custom of green tea rice porridge was not found either in Gifu prefecture. Also, it was seldom found popular in Aichi, Hyogo, Okayama, Hiroshima, or Tokushima prefecture. (2) Rice porridge with green tea was had for breakfast. Sweet potatoes were very popular ingredients in rice porridge with green tea. This custom was also abserved Wakayama, Nara, Osaka, Kyoto, Shiga, Mie, Saga, Shimane and Yamaguchi prefectures. (3) A common name for rice porridge with green tea was “Chagai” or “Chagayu” whose frequency of use was the highest in all prefectures surveyed. This similar tendency was observed in Osaka, Kyoto, Shiga, Mie, Shimane and Yamaguchi prefectures.