A questionnaire survey was conducted among 435 female college students living in Sapporo area, Hokkaido, to study their attitude toward health and dietary life a seen in their living styles. 1) A comparison of attitude toward diet at home among three living styles suggested that 97% of those in their own house and 85% of students in dormitory consider that they enjoy meal either “little” or “much” or “ very much”, which indicate that both groups enjoy meal. On the other hand, a higher figure of 24% of students in boarding houses compared to only 15% of students in dormitory consider that they are “not enjoying” meal, which confirmed that higher number of students in boarding houses don't enjoy meal (among three living styles p<0.001, between their own houses and dormitory p<0.05, between their own house and boarding houses p<0.001). 2) Comparatively higher food intake rate was observed in students in their own houses, followed by students in dormitory, and students in boarding houses at the lowest.Compared to students in their own houses, the kind of foods which showed lower food intake rate in students in dormitory were seafood and seaweed, which showed statistical significance (seafood p<0.001 and seaweed p<0.05). 3) A higher figure of 54% of students in boarding houses compared to 32% of those in their own houses and 43% of those in dormitory skip meal either “quite often” or “sometimes” . On the other hand, a lower figure of 46% of students in boarding houses compared to 68% of students in their own houses and 57% of students in dormitory “do not skip meal”, which showed a tendency of higher meal skipping rate in students in boarding houses (among three living styles p<0.001, between their own houses and boarding houses p<0.001).
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has various physiological effects, such as anticarcinogenesis, immune modulation, reducing fat mass in overweight people, and lowering serum cholesterol.One of the CLAs is cis-9, trans-11-octadecadienoic acid that is usually found in meat, milk and the resulting dairy products of ruminants, and that the quantity increases by certain types of heat treatments. In this research, we examined the quantity of c-9, t-11 CLA in beef baked or steamed at various temperatures and periods.Next, we examined the change in the quantity of CLA and some of the main fatty acids in beef in the cook-chill system.The results are as follows. 1.We examined the quantity of c-9, t-11 CLA in beef baked or steamed (heating for 1 minute after reaching a 75°C central temperature).The quantity of c-9, t-11 CLA in the baked beef was significantly increased over the raw beef (p<0.05), but not significantly in the steamed beef.In the baked beef, the actual increase based on the raw beef was 28.0%. 2.During baking, c-9, t-11 CLA was found in greater quantities when the meat was cooked at higher temperatures, than observed after longer heating times.However, the increasing amount of c-9, t-11 CLA was reduced by too much heating. 3.As for the quantity of c-9, t-11 CLA in the cook-chill system, no change was observed during chilled storage.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of sweet potato leaves as a food supply source. We prepared bread containing a freeze-drying powder of sweet potato leaves, and evaluated its bread-making properties and quality. Farinograms of strong flour containing a freeze-drying powder of sweet potato leaves showed a decrease in stability by mixing. However, the expansion ability of the dough of bread containing this powder slightly improved. There was no other problem in bread-making properties. Bread containing a freeze-drying powder of sweet potato leaves showed a volume, water content, degree of starch gelatinization, and bread hardness similar to those of bread not containing this powder, but was slightly inferior to bread containing a dry powder of Jew's marrow leaves in terms of brightness. Analytic sensory tests revealed similar results between bread containing a freeze-drying powder of sweet potato leaves and that containing a dry powder of Jew's marrow leaves. Taste sensory tests showed no significant difference in any item other than brightness of color between breads containing and not containing a freeze-drying powder of sweet potato leaves. Therefore, the quality of bread containing a freeze-drying powder of sweet potato leaves was considered to be good. Since addition of a freeze-drying powder of sweet potato leaves increases food fiber, carotene, calcium, and polyphenol, the functional value of bread may improve.
The addition and use of salt in cooking was investigated using a questionnaire administered to S junior college students, their parents and the parents of pre-schoolers at the end of September, beginning of October in2001.The results were as follows: 1. Many students replied that their study experience of cooking was gained at school and by parents, while parents of pre-schoolers and students' parents gained their experience from parents and the mass media in addition to school. The ratio of studying from parents was60%in general, and the parents'generation that studied through the mass media was about53%. 2. The eating ratio of greens was92-97%in the young generation, although that of students' parents was100%. The boiling method for cooking greens was more popular than other methods. 3. Although many people used a large amount of boiling water, students used about10times the quantity of boiling water, but students' parents used more than10 times the quantity in general. 4. When spinach was boiled, a pinch of salt was used in all cases, and most of the concentration was0.1%or less. 5. Salt was added to improve color, remove bitter taste. 6. Acquisition of the knowledge of salt addition was gained through parents and from school. 7. All generations cooked greens without paying due consideration to the boiling quantity and amount of water suitable for cooking, as well as using salt etc., and it was assumed that children inherited this behavior from parents.
We report that we have studied the effectiveness of a medicinal herb related to health and longevity and a poisonous mushroom found in an ancient document. The following is a short summary of the findings of our research. 1. It is noted that Ashitaba taken all year round is an effective medicine for small pox as well as longevity.2. It is reported that there is a natural poison found in mushroom which causes food poisoning.
This study was conducted to compare two different types of chinpi leaves and Roselle. The significant characteristic of the Chinpi leaf was its bitter taste and that of Roselle was its sour taste. To reduce the bitterness of the Chinpi leaves, a pretreatment with steaming and drying was necessary. This pretreatment was not needed for the Roselle leaves. Based on an analysis of the sourness, it was found that both the Chinpi leaves and Roselle leaves included malic greater than in Chinpi. Also, from analyzing the bitterness, a remarkably higher amount of catechin compounds was detected in the Chinpi leaves than in the Roselle leaves. By adding Roselle, the amount of calcium was found to be 6 times greater than when adding Chinpi leaves. However, on significant difference was found in the amount of iron and fibers contained in the Chinpi leaves and Roselle leaves. The sensory taste of bread with added Chinpi and Roselle leaves showed that adding more Roselle would be more practicable than Chinpi. Based on these results, it was considered that in lieu of Chinpi, Roselle was more appropriate for use as a food additive.