Dietary habit and exercise are clearly essential factors to promote good health during adulthood as well as other life stages. Regarding metabolic syndrome, obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and hypertension are frequently improved by energy-restricted diet and/or aerobic exercise. For preventing or improving sarcopenia, sufficient energy and adequate nutrients such as protein, vitamin D, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids etc. are required. And, mechanically loaded and/or resistance exercise is typically used to increase muscle mass and bone mineral density.
Changes in glucose and lipid metabolism during weight-loss programs, and the effects of dietary restriction and/or exercise have been reported. Body weight reduction by exercise is more effective than by dietary restriction even when dietary condition is equal except for energy supplied from carbohydrate and fat. Exercise during body weight increase has also beneficial effects for lipid metabolism.
Although it is well known that hyperinsulinemia is improved by exercise, insulin secretion volume has not been examined in detail. We investigated the effects of walking exercise on urinary C-peptide immunoreactivity (CPR) excretion levels. Walking at 6 km/h for more than 2 hours decreased urinary CPR excretion levels without increasing physical stress.
Protein intake, particularly branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), and exercise have opposing actions on insulin secretion, but the same action on protein anabolism. We examined the effects of BCAA-rich fat-free milk intake and/or exercise on levels of insulin secretion and indices related to muscle protein metabolism in order to assess the potency of dietary and exercise therapies against metabolic and locomotive disorders. BCAA-rich fat-free milk intake enhanced insulin secretion and suppressed muscle protein degradation, but these effects are attenuated by exercise accompanied with increase in catecholamine secretion.
Asia differs substantially among and within its regions populated by diverse ethnic groups with different cultures and unique diets. Asian Microbiome Project, which is a consortium research project participated by ten Asian countries, is investigating on the gut microbiome diversity which may link with these diverse diets. Thus far, we found country-specific features as well as enterotype-like global variations in the Asian microbiomes. Notably, Japanese have unique features such as less alpha- and beta-diversities, low abundance of potentially pathogenic bacteria groups and high abundance of Bifidobacterium. This may reflect unique Japanese life and dietary styles. Regarding enterotypes, majority of southeast Asian populations carry the Prevotella-type (P-type) in reflection of high consumption of rice. However, a cross-sectional study on the gut microbiota of school-age children on Leyte island in Philippines showed the enterotype-shift from P-type to Bacteroides/Bifidobacterium-type (BB-type), which associated with dietary Westernization. Another cross-sectional study on Thai children further indicated decrease of short chain fatty acid concentration in the feces of children in urban city, who consumed much less vegetables compared with children in rural city. Altogether, although Asian people have evolved their gut microbiomes in association with their unique diets, current urbanization hampers their structure and function. It warrants further studies on the impact of altered gut microbiomes on the health of Asian people.
This study aimed to clarify the influence of dietary habits and daily intake of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota, 1.5×1010 cfu/65 mL/day, on bowel habits in elderly nursing home residents. A total of 20 elderly nursing home residents (2 men, 18 women, age 88.1±6.7 years) participated in this study. We recorded the amount of food intake and bowel habits (defecation frequency and laxative administration) of residents during a designated non-intake period (6 months) and an intake period (6 months). During the intake period, defecation frequency increased from 36.5±13.7 to 41.0±14.4% (p<0.05). Frequency of laxative administration decreased slightly from 26.6±13.0 to 24.9±14.2% (there is no significant difference). Among participants who had improved defecation frequency, the amount of food intake (individual eating rate) was slightly larger than that in those that did not improve defecation frequency (94.0±5.1% vs. 89.1±13.6%). These findings suggest that daily intake of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota might provide benefits including improved bowel habits in elderly nursing home residents.
Mass transfer is important in many food processing methods, such as cooking, and it has been typical to assume a single diffusion coefficient (Fick’s diffusion coefficient). However, we applied the combination theory of dual diffusion coefficient to the interpretation of the diffusion behavior of the sodium ion or glucose in several food materials during cooking (85℃), and the theoretical value showed a good agreement with the actual value. We then studied the diffusion of both the sodium ion (NaCl) and glucose in ingredients, such as konjac, pumpkin, fish paste, potato and heat-coagulated egg white, at 99℃ using a steam convection oven. By incorporation of the contribution degree of dual Fick's diffusion coefficient, we could theoretically understand the diffusion phenomenon at 10% glucose and 3% NaCl except for konjac and potato. Especially, this analytical method was effective for the diffusion analysis of the sodium ion and glucose in pumpkin.
We examined the effects of powdered Mekabu (sporophyll of Undaria pinnatifida) extract on bowel movement disorder among 15 elderly aged 65 years old or more and living in nursing homes.
The participants were administered 1 g of powdered Mekabu extract (Mekabu group, n=10) or starch (control group, n=5) along with their meal once a day for 4 weeks.
In the Mekabu group, the frequency of defecation, amount of stool per defecation and amount of stool per week significantly increased after ingestion for 4 weeks (p<0.05) . Moreover, fecal microbiota analysis of the Mekabu group showed that the occupancy rates of Lactobacilli (p<0.05) and Clostridium subcluster XIVa (p<0.01) significantly increased after ingestion for 4 weeks. Furthermore, the phenol concentration of the Mekabu group significantly decreased after ingestion for 4 weeks (p<0.01) .
These results suggest that intake of powdered Mekabu extract improves the bowel movements of elderly people.
This study aimed to assess the effect of a salt reduction program among junior college students with respect to their awareness of salt reduction and intake. Student nutritionists at T Junior College were included, and the study was implemented in individual and team units. Surveys were conducted in Terms I, II, and III considering scholastic levels. Food service management training was used to administer three tests: taste tests, dietary habit surveys, and salt intake surveys. The program comprised learning about salt reduction, devising reduced-salt menus and continuous intake, and creating leaflets. The analysis targets were 53 individuals and 5 teams with completed data. In the taste tests, salt intake levels selected as close to everyday salt flavors were significantly lower in Term II than in Term I (p<0.05). In the salt intake surveys, the estimated salt intake was significantly lower in Term II than in Term I (p<0.05). From Term II onward, because of continuous learning of nutrition and specialized knowledge during lectures and practice, congruence developed between subjects’ taste of salt and their knowledge concerning appropriate salt levels. Thus, through this program, students developed the knowledge and taste of reduced salt and could devise salt-reduced meals.
A shokuiku (dietary education) program focusing on vegetable intake and salt reduction was conducted among seniors aged ≧60 years (n=29; 6 men, 23 women) in order to improve healthy dietary behaviors. The program comprised three classes, each comprising a lecture with group work, cooking lunch, eating lunch, and homework, combined with a lecture. A follow-up class was performed 4 months after the last class in order to check the effects of the program on their diet. The effects of the shokuiku program were verified by a questionnaire survey. The results obtained were as follows:
1）The percentage of seniors who made efforts to reduce salt intake was increased from 81.5% to 100.0% after the program; 95.0% continued 4 months after the program.
2）The percentage of seniors who ate more than 1-2 servings of vegetables during every meal increased from 60.0% to 80.0%; 95.0% continued 4 months after the program.
3）All seniors who attended the follow-up class at 4 months after the program made efforts to maintain a well-balanced diet.
4）All seniors answered that "the program was very helpful for them to practice healthy dietary behaviors” in the questionnaire after the program.
These results suggested that the present shokuiku program performed by combining lecture with cooking and eating lunch was effective for seniors to improve healthy dietary behaviors.