Each farmers is developing their own organic farm system by a variety of technique and the EU organic standard, according to the inspector in Austria which is the highest ratio of organic farm management in EU. The common point is to build up trust with consumers by a direct marketing to a direct sale place and the regular market. I think that management will consider localization and move into "local production for local consumption" as a main channel in future.
For the purpose of considering the loss of the nutritional ingredient under the influence of light, the riboflavin content was analyzed in commercial milk and cheese.The riboflavin contents of the commercial milk being added to a paper container and a glass bottle were measured. The amount of riboflavin contents of the milk in the glass bottle was no less than a 23 to 56% loss as compared to that in the paper container. The illumination that was exposed to milk from a fluorescent light at the store was from 1000 to a maximum of 4210 lx.Subsequently, the rates of riboflavin loss from the milk and cheese were measured during irradiation by a fluorescent light of various illuminations and irradiation times. The rates of riboflavin loss were so high when the illumination was high and irradiation time was long, which were 25.6% by 4000 lx, and 13.8% by 2000 lx for only a 2-hour irradiation. When the illumination in a typical home was assumed, the rates of loss were 7% for a 2-hour irradiation, 35% for 10 hours by 1000 lx, and 3% for 2 hours, 15% for 10 hours by 300 lx.The riboflavin contents of cheese were more easily af fected by light compared to the milk. It rapidly decreased to 53% by the short irradiation time of 40 minutes by 4200 lx, and the loss rate was 65% in 100 minutes. On the other hand, by 1000 lx, it rapidly decreased to 50% after a 2-hour irradiation, and the loss rate was 65% in 7 hours.The illumination from a fluorescent light at the store of natural cheese was from 1000 lx to a maximum of 5500 lx. When the irradiated riboflavin contents of the outside and inside of the cheese were measured, the outside riboflavin rate of loss was 27.5 to 57.8% as compared to the inside.
We examined the effects of live Lactobacillus paracasei NFRI 7415 isolated from Japanese fermented fish ( funa-sushi ) on the fecal cholesterol excretion of mice. Female BALB/c mice were fed a control diet ( CO ) and control diet + Lb. paracasei NFRI 7415 ( 106 cfu/mL ) ( LB ) for 4 weeks. The plasma triacylglycerol and T-cholesterol concentrations of the LB group were lower than those of the CO group. Although no significant difference in the fecal bile acid concentration was observed in both groups, the fecal Tcholesterol excretion of the LB group increased during the experimental period. These results indicated that live Lb. paracasei NFRI 7415 has the capacity of fecal cholesterol excretion, and it effectively reduced the plasma T-cholesterol concentration.
After having investigated the actual situation of the breakfasts of 122 young women, the breath hydrogen (H2) excretion and subjective symptoms were measured during expiration for six hours after the meal intake (the three kinds of examinations meals, A: rice meal, B: bread meal, C: cereals meal) in healthy humans for the purpose of clarifying the effectiveness of the breakfast meal. The subjects of the breath hydrogen analysis were nine young healthy women. The examinations meal A (A) had a greater intake and quantity of dietary fiber than the other test meals, and a stomach colon reflection occurred earlier, and the total breath H2 quantity was significantly higher. The small intestine transit time for A was 145±17 min, B was 297±22 min, and C was 208±18 min. The significant difference was seen between A and B (p＜0. 001), A and C (p＜0. 05), and B and C (p＜0. 05) . The blood sugar was not influenced by the meal. The feeling of hunger of A became stronger than the feeling of a full stomach from 210-225 minutes. However, the feeling of a full stomach of B at the same level as acalories-in disappeared sooner. In other words, the meal with more carbohydrates was able to provide a feeling of a full stomach that lasted for a long time. The A food consisting of soup, three side dishes and rice contains more dietary fiber and produces more H2 , and it is thought that H2 is involved in the removal of the active oxygen. The rice meal for the breakfast is regarded as an effective meal for increasing the breath H2 production.
The Effects of a brown rice diet on clinical laborator y data in cholesterolemia patients (n=20, 2 men and 18 women) were studied. They had been diagnosed with cholesterolemia having over a 180 mg/dL total cholesterol level and received HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors for treatment of their cholesterolemia. All of the patients usually ingested a polished rice diet. They ingested a brown rice diet instead of a polished one 2 out of 3 meals ( breakfast, lunch and dinner ) for 3 months. The mean levels of the total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol after the study had significantly decreased more than those before the stud y. There was a tendency that the triglyceride after the study had decreased. Also, the mean levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen after the study had significantly decreased more than those before the study. These results suggested that the ingestion of a brown rice diet suppor ts health care by improving lipidsis in cholesterolemia.
This research aims at revealing how family mealtimes have influenced family relations and the present contentment by comparing Japan and China. This paper is based on the sur vey of university students in both countries and clarifies that Japanese and Chinese have different notions about family mealtimes. First, Japanese students enjoy food served and Chinese students relish sharing a meal with their family and friends. That is, Japanese students evaluate family mealtimes by the contents of the meal. Conversely, Chinese students give importance to communication with others by having meal together. Secondly, it is assumed that a good conversational exchange within the family unit during junior high school time leads to future contentment and good family relationships Japanese and Chinese.
Japanese tend to give importance to the contents of the meal, but a conversational exchange in family mealtimes during junior high school time needs to be more evaluated as the key to the future contentment and good family relationships.
With the growing interest among consumers for food safety, many food service and catering facilities use the microbial sterilization of food by the scientific sterilization method; the chlorite and electrolyzed water acidic aqueous solution. However, this method is accompanied by residual chlorine and the drastic decrease in runoff of soluble nutrients and flavor due to the inevitable rinse with plenty of water.Compared to this conventional way, Aqua-Gas ( micro-water droplets containing superheated steam ) can sterilize many vegetables without requiring a scientific sterilization method. Aqua-Gas has a higher heat transfer by control of the heating dr ying speed and possible adjustment of the moisture content of the ingredients heating by containing micro-droplets of superheated steam in the atmosphere. A remarkable bactericidal ef fect in a shor t time by the aquagas-treated heat occurs when compared to other heating methods with a high heat transfer ef ficiency, and the ef fects on the microbial control of the agricultural sur face are already occur ring, especially for vegetables and raw heating.Results of the bactericidal ef fect on the extension of the viable cell count due to the aquagas-treated heating sterilization revealed that purpose of the various ingredients of the souring heating time on the measurement and experiment, and the heating time during the aquagas-treatment in many agricultural products, 10 seconds became safe and hygienic while retaining the texture life in 30 seconds. Also concerning the viable cell count due to the aquagas-treated heating ingredients, the viable cell count increased even after 96 hours of chilled storage, thus an increase in the shelf-life could impr ove the sterilization ef fect. Aquagas-tr eated heating having a high bactericidal ef fect suggests that it can lead to a simplification of work processes such as pre-heating and heat the ingredients faster.
Brassicaceae vegetables contain glucosinolates, and have been known to contribute to the promotion of health in human beings. The objective of this study was to identify the composition and content of glucosinolates, and to identify the distribution of ω-methylsulfinyl, phenetyl, and indolyl-3-methyl glucosinolates, which are the precursors of isothiocyanates which induce phase Ⅱ enzymes and/or inhibit phase Ⅰ enzymes, in the 15 species of Brassicaceae vegetables which were har vested during autumn and winter in Japan.Glucosinolate profiles were investigated by LC-MS.Twenty-five species of glucosinolates were identified (aliphatic 18, aromatic 3, indole 4). 4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate was included in broccoli sprouts ( 111.15±15.46μmol・gDW-1 ), broccoli ( 10.45±5.05 ), cabbage ( 5.05±5.82 ), and rocket salad ( 4.15±1.83 ). 5-methylsulfinylpentyl glucosinolate was included in tur nip leaves ( 2.96±1.39 ) and field mustard ( nabana ) ( 2.10±1.73 ). In watercress, 6-methylsulfinylhexyl ( 2.96±0.98 ), 7-methylsulfinylheptyl ( 25.08±5.20 ), and 8-methylsulfinyloctyl glucosinolate ( 4.24±3.07 ) were included at a higher content than in any other vegetables. Phenethyl glucosinolate was included in many kinds of Blassica vegetables. These were watercress ( 30.03±8.88 ), tur nip rapa ( 5.64±1.86 ) and leaves ( 2.42±0.17 ), field mustard ( 1.73±0.51 ), broccoli sprouts ( 1.47±0.05 ), and komatsuna ( 1.30±1.12 ). Indolyl-3-methyl glucosinolate was included in many vegetables excluding Japanese radish and rocket salad.
We provided a low-vitamin C (C) diet to 17 healthy females ( age, 21.0±1.1 y ) for three days before the experimental day and the orally administered 1 mmol ascorbic acid crystal ( 1 mmol 176 mg ) or dehydroascorbic acid ( 1 mmol 174 mg ). Then we measured the total amount of C in urine and blood samples. This metabolism test was conducted by the crossover method. The wash out period was put to be a month.At 24h after administration of 1 mmol of VC, total VC excretion ( 46.7±18.1 mg ) by AA homozygotes of GTSP 1 was greater ( p＜0.0069 ) than that ( 28.2 ± 14.0 mg ) by GA heterozygotes. One hour after administration of VC, blood total VC levels were also significantly different ( p＜0.0036 ) between the homozygotes and heterozygotes. The effects of other polymorphisms in xenobiotic enzymes on VC metabolism were small.
Anthocyanin and carotenoid pigments in cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. The following anthocyanin pigments were detected: cyaniding 3-galactoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-arabinoside, peonidin 3-galactoside, peonidin 3-glucoside and peonidin 3-arabinoside were detected. Peonidin 3-galactoside and cyanidin 3-galactoside were found predominantly. The following carotenoid pigments were detected: violaxanthin, lutein, and β-carotene were detected. Lutien were found predominantly.