The sense evaluation was done to examine the influences of the color of the table on the impression of foods. The background was changed by using a paper covers in eight different colors, i. e. yellow, orange, red, purple, blue, green, white and black. The evaluation was done using the SD method with 10 pair descriptions word. The results are as follows. 1. When orange was the background, the impression of the table was evaluated as “It seems to be favorable.” “It seems to be delicious.” “It seems to be nutritious.” And when purple was the background, it showed a tendency to evaluate it as “like a bumpkin” “older for their age” “It isn't clean.” “It seems to be nonnutritious.” “It is vulgar.” “It isn't beautiful.” . No differences were hardly recognized between the colors except for orange and purple. 2. The main factors could not be determined in spite of using a factor analysis for the results of the SD method. 3. A correlation was recognized between the preference for the colors and the impressions by the colors of the table. In other words, the impression of the food is influenced by one's favorite colors.
Studies on the consciousness of health and dietary style were conducted among 329 male and 406 female students living in Kinki and Okayama areas. Many students were interested in maintaining good health, but male students were more interested in “amusement or pleasure” and “love”, while females “fashion” and “amuse ment or pleasure” . Most students considered that the most important factor for good health was “sleepingtime” or “good balanced nutrient”, not “exercise” . Foods which students tried to eat were milk and dairy products and vegetables. Male student preferred mostly “western-style a table d'hôte”, while females, “a la carte” when they ate out. Students who were more interested in their health paid more attention to balanced diets, tried to obtain more information concerning health and nutrition and scored higher on the evaluation of their dietary style. Students who scored lower on the evaluation of their dietary style ate more out and sweets.
Investigations were made to a group of 259 female college students in Sapporo, Hokkaido area (the average age was 19.4 years old) and 259 of their mothers (the average age was 48.4 years old) in order to study the consciousness of their own diet style and health. 1) Statistical significance was observed (p<0.001), between a group which has a proper diet style to maintain good health (54% of the students and 71% of the mother) and a group which doesn't (20% of the students and 5% of the mother). Upon considering the relation between the consciousness of health and skipping meal, more than half of the students and mothers who don't skip meal claimed that they have diet style which is appropriate to maintain good health, and those (39% of the students and 56% of the mother) who skip meal feel that they don't. This finding indicates that there is a correlation between the consciousness of health and skipping meal. 2) The relation between health and defecation suggested that only 22% of students and 45% of mothers defecate on a daily basis, and the percentage of the students who defecate less than three times a week, which has a tendency for constipation, was 19%, which was higher than 7% for such mothers (p<0.001). The statistical significance was observed for the relation between constipation and whether the meal was skipped, which indicated that those with a habit to skip meal have a tendency for irregular defecation (23% of the students and 11% of the mothers). 3) The statistical significance was observed for the relation between students with a habit of skipping meal and their lower frequency for consumption of marine products, eggs, greenish yellow vegetables and seaweeds.
The reductive metabolic conversion to retinol of beta-carotene and canthaxanthin, in the presence or absence of cholic acid, fed to vitamin A-deficient rats was investigated by the Conjunctival Impression Cytology (CIC) method. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 3 weeks old, were raised for 42 days on a Vitamin Adeficient diet prior to the experiment.Beta-carotene, canthaxanthin, in the presence or absence of cholic acid, and retinyl acetate was given for 21 days, and the CIC samples from each group were prepared. To identify the development and differentiation level of each conjunctival impression cell, the progress of the squamous metaplasia was grading according to six stages, and three ranks; i. e. normal (stage 0, 1), borderline (stage 2, 3), and abnormal (stage 4, 5). The correlation of the normal CIC population and serum retinol level was also examined. The normal CIC percentage in the beta-carotene group, especially in the presence of the cholic acid group, was higher than that in the control group (2.1 and 2.7 times). The same tendency was observed in the canthaxanthin group, but the normal CIC percentage was lower than the beta-carotene group. The retinyl acetate group also showed higher normal CIC levels compared with the control group (1.9 times). The serum retinol level in each group well reflected each normal CIC percentage. Together with all of these results, the assessment of the CIC method seems to be useful for identifying the reductive metabolic conversion to retinol by the administration of carotenoids.
It is well known that D-glutamic acid (D-Glu) is a major compound in poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) which is one of the major components in the viscous substances of Natto. However, no information has been obtained for the existence of D-amino acids except for D-Glu in Natto. Thus, D-amino acids were widely surveyed using the combination method of TLC and HPLC for the amino acid derivatives synthesized by reacting FDAA (fluoro-dinitrophenyl-L-Ala-NH2) with amino acids in the water-soluble fraction of the viscous parts of Natto. The results obtained in this study were as follows:(1) D-aspartic acid (D-Asp) and D-alanine (D-Ala) as well as D-Glu were detected in the viscous parts.(2) D-Glu was found not only in the conjugated form but also in the free form. However, D-Asp was only in the conjugated form and most of D-Ala was in the free form.(3) The content of the conjugated D-Glu was 3mmole per 100g Natto or more, while those of the free DGlu, conjugated D-Asp and free D-Ala were 0.5 mmole per 100g Natto or less.
Trimethylamine (TMA) component and the summary of the other component and the physical characteristic of commercial konjac (Arnorphophallus konjac) were analyzed. The sensory evaluation including the odor was carried out.The correlation analysis between the chemical property, physical characteristics and sensory evaluation was examined, and results were as follows. (1) There was anegative correlation between the ash content and evaluation of the intensity of the transparency and whiteness.(2) There was the positive correlation between the ash content and evaluation of the odor intensity.(3) There was a positive correlation between the calcium content and evaluation of the acrid intensity.(4) There was a positive correlation between the TMA content and evaluation of the odor intensity. The TMA content of konjac decreased with an increase in the boiling time; a50% decrease in 10 minutes.
The vitamin B12 analogue was detected by a simple column chromatography method from a bamboo shoot that was expected to contain the vitamin B12 analogue. The vitamin B12 analogue was extracted in a Tris buffer containing 0.1% KCN from etiolated bamboo shoots, and the extract was applied to the HPLC for isolation using ionexchange and reverse-phase columns. Both of the optimum densities of 278 and 361 nm were detected in the fraction that has the same retention time as the authentic cyanocobalamin in chromatography used as a standard. In the mass analysis of the fraction, one of the signals (1346.4) closely resembled the cyanocobalamin (1331.4) molecule, indicating that the fraction reasonably contained the vitamin B12 analogue. Additionally, this column chromatography method was used in parallel to the fractionated crude extracts from rice seedlings and asparagus shoots which are both known not to contain cyanocobalamin. No fractions from the rice and the asparagus were detected by the examination of the specific spectrum of the optimum density of cyanocobalamin from absorbance in the range of 200nm to 600nm.The analysis method was consequently effective and conventional in the detection of the vitamin B12 analogue in a nutrimental plant at the present time.
An inhibitory effect on the increase in the postprandial blood glucose level was evaluated with a test soft drink containing indigestible dextrin (ID). After 27 healthy volunteers consisting of 14 males and 13 females were given the test soft drink supplemented with ID (6g as dietary fiber) together with a 537 kcal starchy diet, blood glucose levels were determined at 30, 60, and 120 minutes after meal. Additionally, after the same subjects were given a control soft drink without ID together with the same starchy diet, blood glucose levels were determined to compare inhibitory effect on the increase in postprandial blood levels in a cross over experimental design. Subjects were first divided into two groups with a peak blood glucose level at 30 minutes and 60 minutes after meal and they were further divided into two groups the higher and lower blood glucose levels. The effects were comparatively evaluated with the respective subjects between the test and control soft drink ingesting periods. As a result, a clear significant inhibitory effect of the soft drink supplemented with ID on the postprandial blood glucose level in 23 subjects who showed a peak blood glucose level at 30 minutes after diet and 12 subjects who were apt to elevate their blood sugar levels (the former at p<0.05 and the latter at p<0.01). However, no significant effect was observed in 11 subjects who were hard to elevate their blood glucose levels. It is accordingly become clear that the test soft drink supplemented with ID has the inhibitory effect on the postprandial blood glucose level in subjects who were apt to elevate their blood sugar levels. No clear evaluation was made with subjects who showed their peak blood glucose levels at 60 minutes after meal because of the small number of replications of this group. As shown above, as the test soft drink supplemented with ID showed an inhibitory effect on the postprandial blood glucose level in healthy volunteers who were apt to elevate their blood glucose levels and it did not cause side reactions such as hypoglycemia or digestive disorders, it is suggested that the soft drink with supplemented with ID may be of great use as a safe and simple tea beverage to reduce the high postprandial blood glucose levels.
Twenty-one female college students were selected for the present study that investigated the conditions of the stools over a period of two weeks based on the amount, the defecating frequency, characteristics of the stools, and the time of the day when passing the stools. 1. The feces weighed between 154.0g/day to 20.6g/day, with a mean of 84.1g/day. The weight of the stools showed a nomal distribution. 2. Fecal output occurred everyday or every other day in 66.7% of the students, every three days in 23.8% who tend to be constipated, and more than four days in 9.5% who are constipated. 3. Type of stools and gastroinestinal symptom: The more easily the subjects tend to be constipated, the harder their stools, the stronger feeling of incomplete defecation and they have a reduted emptying sensation. 4. Time of the day when passing stools: most of the subjects pass stools between the time when they get up and 10:00a.m. The fecal output is lass frequent while they are at work or at night.
Recently, the technology for preserving dried foods for certain types of potatoes and beans has become significantly enhanced.These dried foods were then developed as manufactured foods, which have become staples for all of Japan. In this paper, the transition of certain dried foods involving specific types of potatoes and beans in the patent gazette from the early Showa era are considered.