By using a sequence analysis of 16S rRNA clone libraries, the whole stracture of human gut microbiota has emerged. A profile of human gut microbiota with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to characterize and compare gut microbiota in individuals. A differential profile comparing gut microbiota between health and disease were noted. Probiotics are live microbial food ingradients that have a beneficial effect on human health. It will be of particular value to have good prospective evidence that links the habitual intake of a specified probiotic component with subsequent disease risk and control.
In order to evaluate the effects of leanness on autonomic regulatory functions, resting metabolism, width of the middle finger veins, daily activity, and urinary catecholamine, as well as their metabolite, vanylmanderic acid (VMA), excretions were compared in young normal and lean women. It was observed in lean subjects that resting metabolism was significantly higher. Urinary excretions per kg body weight of dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) were significantly larger in lean subjects than control ones, while those of adrenaline and VMA tended to be larger in the lean group. Both NA/DA ratio and VMA/NA ratio did not differ between groups. It is surmised from the present results, concomitant with those from a previous study, that an increased protein intake might improve modified autonomic regulatory functions, probably via a suppression of excess sympathetic activity observed in lean subjects.
Based on the hypothesis that the dishes school children to want to eat on their birthday must be the dishes that they love, the food preference of school children (in the 1st 6th grades) was investigated in Kyoto, Japan and in Seoul, Korea. Although the total number of varieties of menus drawn was more by the Japanese pupils than the Korean pupils, the number of menus drawn by one pupil was less by the Japanese pupils than the Korean pupils. This means that the preferred menus of Korean pupils more resembles each other, and that of the Japanese pupils were different from each other depending on their diet experiences. Through their drawings, the progress of socialization of the diet life of pupils and their food preference to Western-style dishes and meat dishes were shown to be promoted in both countries. Traditional dishes on special days in both countries were not the dishes that the pupils wanted to eat.
The HPLC method is now commonly used for fractional determination of chlorogenic acid (Chl). We determined the quantity of Chl (5 -CQA + 3 -CQA) contained in raw coffee beans, and examined the influence of different roasting times and extraction conditions (temperature, device, water). The results were as follows: (1) Raw coffee beans contained 4.5 to 6.0% of Chl. This Chl was reduced by roasting, that is, about 60% of Chl was lost by mild roasting, 60 to 70% by moderate roasting, 70 to 80% by moderate to strong roasting, and 90 to 99% by strong roasting. (2) The influence of temperature on the extraction of Chl was slight, but the quantity of Chl extracted tended to be slightly higher at 95°C, followed in a descending order by 90°C and 85°C. (3) The quantities of Chl extracted by a spirit lamp siphon and paper drip were the same, while that extracted by an electric coffee maker was smaller. (4) The quantities of Chl extracted with distilled water and soft water were the same, but that extracted with hard water was smaller.
The effects of estimating their father's character on their sense of eating with the family was investigated by questionnaire studies for junior and senior high school and university students who were in the psychologically weaning stage. Although male students showed the tendency to accept the dignity for their father as a good characteristic according to their development, female students showed the tendency to regard it as an unfavorable characteristic. In the case of female students, their sense of eating with the family was shown to be more influenced by more complicated factors than the male students, i.e., pleasant memories with father, frequency of eating alone through their daily life and evaluation of their father's life. Althought male students had many pleasant memories with their father qualitatively, female students made much of it not only qualitatively but quantitatively. The most important factor that influences their sense of eating with families was thought to be the affirmative sense for their father through respect and friendliness. The frequency of eating alone was correlated with unpleasant memories with families and with a sense of solitary in the family.
In order to assess the basic cooking and processing properties of Aquagas-treated food materials, a comparison between Aquagas treatment and boiling and steaming using conventional cooking methods was undertaken using broccoli as a test material. Quality was assessed using physical properties, color, levels of vitamin C and organoleptic criteria and the following results were obtained: 1. Aquagas-treated broccoli scored significantly higher in evaluations of the less watery texture, high degree of sweetness, proper balance of tastes and total score compared to boiled and steamed broccoli, indicating the superior nature of Aquagas food treatment over conventional methods. 2. Physical properties of Aquagas-treated broccoli showed higher values in “skin firmness”, “fracture energy” and “interior firmness.” These results were consistent with total texture scores of the sensory evaluations and meant that Aquagas-treated broccoli was preferred rather than steamed broccoli. 3. Comparisons in color tones between three broccoli samples subjected to different treatments showed significant differences in the green-color indicator-a* value. The intensity of green color was highest in the boiled broccoli, followed by the Aquagas and steam-treated samples, but no significant differences were observed in sensory evaluations of color and color differences (ΔE*) among the three samples were minor. Changes in the green color indicator-a* value in broccoli samples subjected to the three treatments after five days of chilled storage were less noticeable under dark storage conditions compared to illuminated storage conditions. The Aquagas-treated broccoli samples exhibited the smallest change in color. 4. After treatment, the amount of vitamin C remaining in the broccoli samples was 100%, 68%, and 48% for the Aquagas-treated, boiled and steamed broccoli samples, respectively.
For the purpose of utilizing the seed coat, a by-product of Adzuki bean jam production, as a food material, the drying and milling of the seed coat, then the seed coat refined with or without ultrasonication (pastes), their respective color tone, proximate component, dietary fiber, mineral components, free amino acids, polyphenols and tissue structures were compared and discussed. The average yield of the seed coat powder was 31.2%. The capacity for water-holding and oil absorption of the seed coat powder was 3 times and 1.6 times higher than soft wheat flour, respectively. The protein, lipid and ash of the seed coat powder refined by ultrasonication slightly decreased, but the carbohydrate and total dietary fiber relatively increased. There was no significant difference among the 9 kinds of minerals, free amino acids and polyphenols. The tissue observation by scanning electron microscopy indicated clearer depressions and winkles on the surface of the seed coat powder treated by ultrasonication compared the unrefined seed coat powder, proving the refining effect of ultrasonication. As a result of a sensory evaluation, a 15-minute ultrasonic cleaning removed any unpleasant odors from the seed coat powder, and the red tint became even darker.
The study was undertake to investigate of psychological aspect of young men and the difference in attitudes between men and women, as to a young woman's dieting. An interview survey was conducted with special focus being placed on each interviewee's personality and life-style. The interviewed group included 26 young men, 20-25 years old, living in a metropolitan area. Thirteen of the subjects were students and 13 were nonstudents. The result of the interview showed that the young men from half the member up is grasping the dieting on a position of gender equality. The difference in their point of view between men and women was that the young men tend to grasp dieting as a subject of society. To prevent young women from dieting unnecessarily, it is effective that the young men and women jointly agree on the subject of dieting. Consequently, they can change the idea about dieting and the behavior of each other.
The distribution of organic agricultural products (OAP) was examined at 396 food stores in Tokyo and Kobe between 1999 and 2001. Also, 473 students living in Tokyo and Kobe were surveyed about their consumption of OAP in 1999 and 2002 by either asking the students themselves or their mothers. It was found that approximately 70% of food stores stocked OAP throughout three year. In 2001, the proportion of department stores stocking OAP had decreased to 83% while this figure was unchanged at 62% for supermarkets and actually had increased for convenience stores. The following main OAP were all stocked at over 60% of food stores: carrots, tomatoes, onions, potatoes, and green tea. The volume of OAP consumed increased in 2000 but decreased the following year. OAP imports increased. The use of OAP agrichemicals and fertilizers in the country increased after the OAP labeling system was introduced in Japan. It was seen that 32.1% of food stores had a special OAP section in 1999. However, this number had reduced to 25.2% by 2001. In the vast majority of stores, OAP were found alongside regular agricultural products. Around 65% of people surveyed (mostly female university students) said they were interested in OAP. However, around 70% of them had the impression that OAP is somewhat expensive. Over 50% of the students had a favorable impression regarding the quality and freshness of OAP. It was generally pointed out that there should be some changes in the way that OAP is labeled. About 90% of the consumers surveyed responded that they were “very interested” or “interested” in OAP. Reasons cited for choosing OAP included that they are healthier, more environmentally friendly, fresher, and even that they taste better. In 2002, 68.5% of consumers surveyed bought OAP. Remarkably, 75.3% of the consumers in Kobe bought OAP in 2002. Supermarket stores were the most popular places for purchasing OAP, being chosen by 50% of the consumers asked. At the same time, the number of consumers buying at coop stores or directly from farmers increased significantly in 2002. Regarding the future of OAP, 52.4% of consumers hoped for lower prices, 38.7% wanted increased purchasing convenience, 35.1% hoped for clearer information regarding the producer, while 29.4% were looking for a greater range of products to be stocked in stores along with more abundant in quantity and items. It was found that consumers were more receptive to OAP compared to three years previously. The organic Japanese Agricultural Standard enforced in 2001 promoted the expansion of OAP in Kobe, but actually hindered the situation in Tokyo.
We analyzed the dietary records at a Zen monastery from the view point of nutritional intake and food ingestion. The mean levels of the total energy intake and protein and fat were 1,119±139kcal, 27.3±5.0g, and 13.1±5.3g, which were significantly lower than the results from a national nutrition survey. The amounts of the other nutrients had the same tendency. We especially recognized the influence of the diet which follows the discipline of avoiding meat and fish, as the remarkably low intake of vitamin B12 revealed. Based on the calculated results of the intake of food it was revealed that no animal products were consumed. The intake of cereal, mushrooms and seaweed almost met the objective, which were extremely better than any other food groups. There was a tendency that rice and barley rice were eaten for yakuseki (dinner). Shiitake and shimeji, which were highly applicable, were used in various dishes for yakuseki. Konbu was the most applicable seaweed for shojiki (breakfast), chujiki (lunch) and yakuseki.