We have investigated the nutritional components (saccharides, vitamin C) and taste of various vegetables after low temperature steam cooking. We also performed a hygienic study of cut vegetables. Tuber vegetables (sweet potato and potato), fruit vegetables (pumpkin), root vegetables (Japanese radish and carrot), leaf vegetables (komatsuna, garland chrysanthemum, spinach and cabbage) and black gram sprout were evaluated in this study. The saccharides and vitamin C remained more in the samples steamed at a lower temperature compared to boiled samples. In sweet potatoes, the maltose content significantly increased after the low temperature steam cooking. The vitamin C in komatsuna and garland chrysanthemum increased in the samples steamed for 10 minutes at 40-50°C. The vitamin C in spinach showed a tendency to increase when the samples were heated for 30 minutes at 50°C. The cut-cabbage and black gram sprout steamed at 50-55°C were sterilized without any decrease in the vitamin C. Although the Japanese radish and carrot steamed at 70°C were as hard as the fresh ones, the penetration of sodium chloride and sucrose was as fast as the boiled ones. A sensory evaluation indicated that low temperature steam cooking produced a good result in the texture profiles. These results indicated that low temperature steam cooking was a superior vegetable cooking method for better nutrition, freshness, penetration of seasoning fluids and taste.
Background: This study analyzed the effects of the motivation for food choice contributing to the promotion of healthy eating habits by elderly. However, other than the recent research on food choice perceptions by the elderly, such studies have been limited. The present study explored the effects of the motivation for food choice on dietary variety and intake by elderly people living in communities. Method: A Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to measure the dietary variety and intake, and a Food Choice Questionnaire New Version (FCQ-N) was used to measure the motivation for food choice by 249 elderly people living in communities. Result: The “Nutrition and Health” scores were higher, but the “Convenience” scores were lower in elderly people. The “Nutrition and Health” scores and “Sensory Appeal” scores were higher in females than in males. For males, the “Nutrition and Health” scores predicted the higher intake of sea vegetables. The “Weight control” scores predicted the higher intake of frozen foods, but the lower intake of eggs. The “Convenience” scores predicted the higher intake of OSOZAI. For females, the “Weight control” scores predicted the lower intake of eggs. The “Convenience” scores predicted the higher intake of noodles and convenience foods, but the lower intake of pickles and processed goods containing soybeans. The “Sensory Appeal” scores predicted the higher intake of pickles. Conclusions: The results of this study suggested that we should understand the perceived individual motivation for food choices by the elderly when developing health promotion programs.
Basic cooking and processing properties of aqua-gas treated food materials (Part4) -using aroid- The purpose of this research is to clarify the basic cooking processing characteristic of the aqua-gas heating ingredient. This report involved the aqua-gas heating and existing heating method (boiled and steamed) using aroid. Moreover, the use of the aqua-gas heating for preliminary heating to control the viscosity was examined. The results are as follows. 1. The Color difference (δE*) between the three kinds of heating (aqua-gas heated, boiled and steamed) was “slight” (by the NBS unit) , and there were no remarkable difference in the properties of matter value. However, the overall evaluation of the texture and the taste from using the aqua-gas heating was more dominant than that of other heating methods as a result of the organoleptic assessment. 2. The comparison of the total neating time in “Preliminary aqua-gas heating” and the past preliminary neating (preliminary boiledor steamed) were not significantly differences between the three methods. However, the peeling work after the “preliminary aqua-gas heating” was easy, and it was recognized to be effective for better work efficiency and safety. Moreover on the quality side, it was suggested that the preliminary aqua-gas heating could be used based on the following experiment results. 1) As for the evaluation of the organoleptic assessment, a significant difference was not observed in the overall evaluation, the texture and the comprehensive evaluation of taste. 2) As for color difference, there was a “slight” difference between the “preliminary aqua-gas heating” and “no preliminary heating”. The “preliminary aqua-gas heating” did not change with the preliminary heating method (boiling) done in the field of food service, and the color evaluation of the organoleptic assessment was “Normal”. 3) As for the physical properties, the difference in stiffness in this preliminary three heating methods was slight. However, the values of the adherence and adherability were low in the “preliminary aqua-gas heating” .. 4) For the “preliminary aqua-gas heating”, the growth rate of theγ-aminobutyric acid was high compared to no heating. 5) The contents of the mineral, potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus in the “preliminary aqua-gas heating” were compared to the no heating, and no difference was observed.
In order to contribute to the planning of menus and nutrition in school lunches, we investigated 193 first- and second-year female students who specialized in food and nutrition. Using a meal balance guide (Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top, JFGST), we clarified the state of their dietary behavior and studied the training methods for lunch management and also the effects of the education. The number of 'servings (SVs)' ingested during a holiday was lower than that on a weekday. The fully prepared meal, such as a combination of grain dishes, fish and meat dishes, and vegetable dishes in each meal was 68%, and the lack of prudence was conspicuous. As for the style of the lunch, 70% of the students were in the lunch box group and 30% were in the eating-out group. Although the number of SVs of the JFGST was higher in the lunch box group than in the eating-out group, nutritional repletion was inferior in both groups. Among the students, 31% belonged to the self-cooking group (A) and 69% was in the non-cooking group (B) . It was more difficult for the B group than the A group to make a menu. For the menu planning, the main dish was decided first in both groups. Meat was mostly used for the Western-style menu (81-85%), while fish was used in the Japanese style menu (77-79%). The number of servings was significantly increased, and the target of 16-19 SVs was achieved in the lunch menu. As assessed by the students themselves and their mothers, the practiced real menu was better than the planned menu. In conclusion, a practical education to raise the self-efficacy of the students was found to be effective for the improvement and innovation of their dietary behavior.
The effects of black soybean extract on the glucose metabolism. Objective : To investigate the effects of black soybean extract (SE) on the glucose metabolism. Materials & Methods : The effects of SE on the activity of α-glucosidase were examined in vitro. The effects of the simultaneous SE ingestion on the 75 g oral sucrose and glucose tolerance tests and those of long-term (4 weeks) SE ingestion for young healthy women were then examined. Results : SE inhibited the α-glucosidase activity in vitro. The simultaneous ingestion of SE ameliorated the rise in blood glucose levels induced by 75 g of sucrose and glucose during the tolerance tests. The long-term ingestion of SE improved the glucose metabolism, increased the serum biological antioxidant potential, and decreased the serum reactive oxygen metabolites. Conclusion : In the present study, the ingestion of SE improved the glucose tolerance and increased the antioxidant status. The daily ingestion of SE will be useful for the prevention of glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus.
In order to assess the basic cooking and processing properties of Aqua-gas treated food materials, a comparison between the Aqua-gas treatment and boiling and steaming using conventional cooking methods was undertaken using carrots as the test material. The quality was assessed on the bases of its properties, color, levels of components (total vitamin C, carotene, free amino acids) and the organoleptic test. The results are as follows. 1. The temperature increase of the Aqua-gas heating was similar to the steam heating. In addition, regarding the quantity of water, the Aqua-gas heating was better able to control the water decrease than the steam heating. 2. Regarding the color, the a∗value of the Aqua-gas heating was significantly higher in comparison with the steam heating value. The L∗value between the steam heating and boiling values, and a significant difference was noted. However, for a person to visually observe, there was only a slight defference and it would be hard to recognize a difference. 3. For the total vitamin C quantity of the 3 methods, the Aqua-gas heating was the most. As for the Aqua-gas heating, the total weight of the free amino acids was intentionally less than the steaming heating and the boiling ones. However, the amino acids, such as arginine that presented bitterness, were few. The amount of alanine, aspartic acid and glutamate levels in the Aqua-gas heating were situated between the boiling and the steam heating. For the amount of carotene, no significant difference was recognized between the three heating methods. 4. As for texture, the boiling was the hardest in the cortical part, while the steam heating was the hardest in the marrow part. The Aqua-gas heating was the softest in both parts. 5. Based on “the sweetness”, “the total evaluation by taste” and “total assessment” in the organoleptic test, the Aqua-gas heating and the steam heating were significantly better than the boiling.
Antioxdative activity of brown pigment melanoidin, which is responsible for the color of soybean paste, was examined by measuring of chromaticity with a color-difference meter and DPPH radical scavenging activity with a spectrophotometer. There are a variety of soybean paste colors, such as dark brownish red, brownish red and pale yellow. Results indicated that the darkest colored soybean paste, which had the highest melanoidin content, showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity. Soybean has a high antioxidant content, and soybean paste made from soybean only had higher DPPH radical scavenging activity than any other soybean pastes. There were a negative correlation (r=-0.755 ; α‹0.05) between value of soybean paste and DPPH radical scavenging activity, and a strong positive correlation, (r=0.961 ; α‹0.01) between the quantities of melanoidins, which are created by amino-carbonyl reaction of L-lysine and D-glucose, and DPPH radical scavenging avility. We examined soybean paste, a Japanese traditional food, and found that people who eat soybean paste every day have a constant antioxidative composition.
The objectives of the present study were to demonstrate recipes for meals for individuals with mastication and swallowing difficulty (soft food) that was introduced to nursing homes. Furthermore, this study aimed to promote the introduction of soft food under various care conditions and elucidate the specific physical value of soft foods, which are recognized as safe foods with a high eating rate. The following samples were prepared according to the routine cooking procedures provided by facilities: 1) porridge, 2) steamed tuna with grated yam, 3) spinach with kudzu sauce, and 4) soup (six types) . 1) Porridge served as a staple food became gel-like as the temperature decreased, and its hardness was such that it could be mashed with the tongue and picked up using chopsticks. 2) Steamed tuna with grated yam served as a main dish was significantly softer than porridge and spinach with kudzu sauce. 3) The hardness of the staple food, main dish, and side dish was determined to be approximately 5×103 to 1×104 N/m2, which satisfied the conditions for food for individuals with mastication and swallowing difficulty according to the food authorization standards set by the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare, as well as foods that are “hard enough to be mashed with the tongue” according to the universal design food classification of the Japan Care Food Conference. 4) Viscosity of soups ranged from 4.9×104 mPa.s to 1.0×104 mPa⋅s, with a mean of 2.4±1.4×104 mPa⋅s. This value may be an indicator for food served as soups and pureed food. 5) The rotation dependency index of soups varied little, indicating that soups were easy to swallow.
The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effectiveness of a menu (a total of four items, specifically staple food, main dish, and two side dishes) as dietary guidance for the elderly. Subjects were 57 women (mean age, 65.4±3.7 years) residing in town M, Okayama Prefecture. After reviewing the findings of a survey on the weekly diet of subjects based on the number of items per meal, subjects were assigned to the following three groups : A, three items per meal ; B, four items per meal ; and C, ≥five items per meal. The estimated average requirements determined by the dietary intake standards for Japanese individuals were compared among these groups. Regarding energy intake and PFC balance, groups A and B had energy intake levels that were relatively close to standard levels, but had a slightly higher fat intake as well as a slightly lower protein intake. Group C had energy intake levels that exceeded standard levels by 30 to 50%, in addition to high intake of fats (around 30%) and carbohydrates (≤55%) . As for intake of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients, all groups had a deficiency of dietary fiber. These findings suggest that planning of menus based on a menu (a total of four items, specifically staple food, main dish, and two side dishes) and review of diet as dietary guidance for the elderly were easy to understand and effective for promoting a balanced diet among the elderly.
Dissatisfaction with food and food service is a serious issue among elderly people that leads to lower QOL as well as malnutrition. However, there are only a limited number of surveys on the elderly hospitalized in facilities compared to hospitalized and at-home elderly people. The purpose of the present study was to examine the satisfaction with food and food service in institutionalized elderly people. We investigated how communications between staff and institutionalized elderly people affect this satisfaction. We interviewed 68 elderly people (83.1±7.2 years old) via questionnaire. Satisfaction was measured in seven categories: overall evaluation”, taste”, quantity”, tableware”, meal plans”, meal times”,and snacks”. Satisfaction was lower for taste” and meal plans” than for the other five categories. Significant correlations were found between satisfaction with food and food service” and meal requests are met” (P‹0.05) and The staff seemed friendly and considerable” (P‹0.05) . Those who had conversations with the facility staff concerning the meals felt that the meal requests were met (P‹0.001) . In order to increase the satisfaction with food and food service, this survey suggests that more communication is needed , such as hearing meal requests, between institutionalized elderly people and staff.
In order to check the basic properties of clotted cream, we examined the color tone and dynamic viscoelasticity of Hokkaido-produced clotted cream and measured it by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) . As applications of clotted cream, experienced college students in Ebetsu City in Hokkaido baked confectioneries using Ebetsu-grown wheat and performed sensory assessment tests on the baked confectioneries garnished with or without the clotted cream. The following results were found: (1) Compared with whipping cream, the clotted cream’s color tone was light yellow. (2) As for the dynamic viscoelasticity, the maximum storage elastic modulus of the whipping cream or clotted cream was at around 5°C. As the temperature increased, the viscosity also increased. (3) The endothermic enthalpy of the clotted cream was greated than that of milk fat cream. (4) In the cooking experience using Hokkaido-grown ingredients, we observed that the college students mixed many kinds of jams or powdered green tea into the clotted cream. (5) “The overall evaluation” of the baked confectioneries garnished with clotted cream was significantly better than that without the clotted cream. As stated above, it is suggested that the clotted cream has a potential use with baked confectioneries, such as a mixture of jam and the clotted cream, and as a garnish by squeezing the clotted cream with or without jam out the tube.
Okara contains several kinds of functional substances, but most of it is treated as industrial waste. We investigated the effect of adding dry okara on the taste and properties of cake. An increasing amount of dry okara resulted in cakes with a decreasing specific loaf volume and cohesiveness. The decreasing cohesiveness corresponded to the result of a sensory evaluation. Changes in the adhesiveness and hardness were not detected by rheological measurements. No significant difference in the total sensory evaluation scores was detected between the ordinary cake and cake with added dry okara.