Conventionally, Akita has been a prefecture with the highest mortality rate due to cerebrovascular diseases in Japan, nearly twice the rate of the national average for both men and women. This is because Akita prefecture has positioned stroke as a disease specific to Akita people and implemented a comprehensive stroke prevention project that aims to reduce the mortality rate due to stroke by half. Specifically a campaign was conducted, jointly by public and private sectors, to remedy dietary tendencies characteristic of Akita people, a high intake of salt and nutritional bias.
Periodontal disease is an infectious disease affecting the supporting tissue of the teeth, periodontium. The main purpose in the treating periodontal disease is removal of plaque, which is a mass of bacterial accumulation on the tooth surface and is the cause of the disorder, and to prevent re-infection by controlling the supra-gingival plaque that was its origin. As a result of the findings of Jan Lindhe's research group and other Scandinavian researchers, a Scandinavian approach to periodontal therapy has developed, based on non-surgical therapy or restricted surgical indications, scrupulous plaque control and use of antiseptics and antibiotics. Main aim of the treatment is to stop the progression of the disease. This was accomplished in the middle of 80s. Since the late 80s there has been a paradigm shift in the purpose of the periodontal treatment from prevention of infection toward regeneration of the lost periodontium. The first biologically oriented approach is the Guided Tissue Regeneration technique, which was developed by the Gothenburg Univ. group consisted of Drs. Jan Lindhe, Sture Nyman and Thorklid Karring. The second generation of regeneration procedure is Emdogain® therapy based on the biologic process of developing tooth roots and their supporting tissues. The technique was introduced from Sweden and well accepted. Recently, dental implants, which have been used in edentulous jaws, have been applied to partially absent teeth, and its utility has been confirmed. Sometimes the removal of several teeth cannot be avoided in patients with severe periodontal disease. In such cases implants have begun to be used to restore lost oral cavity function.
According to recent research, food and health has very close interrelationship. Other than nutritional role, researchers has focused on the health beneficial role of foods, which is termed as food functionality. Recently, the functions of foods, which are performed in human system are divided into three types ; 1. Nutritional function, 2. Sensory function, 3. Regulatory function. The functionality of wheat and their products is summarized on the basis of the latest research reports. Wheat is cultivated from Northern Europe to South America as the staple crop. Many studies are available about the functionality and nutraceutical use of wheat and their products. From the nutritional point of view, wheat is the major source of carbohydrates and protein. Simultaneously, wheat is the source of dietary fiber, vitamin and minerals. Reported regulatory functions of wheat are : 1) leaf of wheat plants are source of fiber, folic acid, carotenoids, 2) wheat bran are the source of fiber, phytic acid, ferulic acid, 3) wheat germ oil contains α-linolenic acid and high content of vitamin E, 4) wheat gluten hydrolysate (WGH : hydrolysate of gluten, major protein of wheat), 5) wheat ceramide, etc. Many scientific reports showed that dietary fiber from wheat bran has various health beneficial effects, includes, decreasing the risk of coronary heart disease, decrease the costipation and irritable bowel syndrome. WGH was also developed as the stable supply source of glutamine. Additionally, it was reported that specific peptide present in WGH which inhibits angiotensin conversion enzyme. Wheat ceramide showed that it functioned as the barrier in the skin surface by oral administration to an atopic dermatitis patient. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) from wheat germ controls the elevation of blood pressure. Wheat and their products have various health beneficial roles for human health, therefore, we might utilize them as the source of nutrients, as well as, as functional factor to prevent the diet related chronic disease.
We investigated articles about the function of food, in the consumer magazine, “Tashikana Me” and added some examination to articles in general-interest magazines. The results were as follows. 1) The number of articles on food in “Tashikana Me” accounted for about 26% of the total articles. 2) The number of articles on the physiological function of food in “Tashikana Me” has been from 1.5 to 2 times the number of articles on nutritive function in the period of five years from 1991 to 1995. 3) The names of functional composition that appeared at high frequency for certain periods in “Tashikana Me” were lipid and non-nutrient in the articles on physiological function, and vitamin and mineral in the articles on nutritive function. 4) There were high appearance of names of non-nutrient composition, and vague expressions about the function of foods in the general-interest magazines. 5) These results showed a recent tendency to pay attention to the specific functional composition of food. 6) Based on the investigation, the authors indicated it was necessary to consider learning content of home economics about the function of food as to food information, and made some proposals.
A questionnaire study was performed for the elementary school children in the 5th and 6th grades (n=3065) and junior high school students in the 2nd grade (n=1345), who had not yet established their ego-identity, in order to investigate the relationship between the establishment of their feeling of self-esteem and the atmosphere of their mealtime at home. According to their development, students who could enjoy their mealtime not only at school, but also at home, were shown to be decreased. Especially, whether they could enjoy their mealtime at home was shown to be significantly (p<0.01) related to their family attachment. The pass model established by the hypothesis that the mealtime atmosphere at home reflected the parent-child relation showed that those who enjoy mealtime at home were more apt to be put their mind at rest and culture their feeling of self-esteem.
Vitamin B-12 (B-12) is a water-soluble vitamin and is one of the necessary nutrients for the body. However, in elder people, shortage of B-12 has been reported to be associated with impairments in health15). Therefore to evaluate whether we could improve these impairments by daily dietary supplementation of methionine, we raised a B-12 deficient animal model and then analyzed differences in the pattern of protein expression. Two proteins, GRP58 and ALDH2, were identified as molecules whose expression level changed during B-12 deficiency. Moreover, this change in expression of both molecules was showed opposite pattern in the liver and testis. However, this change in expression was recovered during supplementation with methionine, which suggests that methionine may partially attenuate the effects of B-12 deficiency.
The elderly are at risk for the low intake of nutrients. This study was performed to evaluate the present status of nutrition, and daily dietary selenium intake in twentyseven home residents over 65 years old. Duplicate diets and between meal snacks were collected over 3-day periods. There were no restrictions in the daily living of the home residents. The energy and nutrient intakes were estimated by calculation using food composition tables. The selenium intake was assessed by chemical analysis. In many home residents, the levels of nutrient intakes except for calcium, magnesium, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin B2, vitamin C and dietary fiber, were lower than those of the RDAs for Japanese. However, individuals in home residents should improve their intake of some nutrients. The mean dietary selenium intake was about 60μg/day and higher than the RDA for Japanese. Moreover, the selenium intakes expressed as 1,000kcal energy intake and per kg body weight were also higher than those of the RDA for Japanese. On the other hand, fish accounted for 43.3% of the daily total selenium intake, followed by meat (14.7%) and vegetable (12.0%), et al.
In the present study, the relationship between iron-deficiency anemia and desire for slenderness among young women was investigated in 288 women's junior college students. The following results were obtained : 1) The distribution of subjects as underweight, normal, and obese based on BMI was 25.7%, 60.4%, and 13.9%, respectively. A total of 89.6% of subjects had a desire for slenderness. In addition, regarding the incidence of iron-deficiency anemia, 13.5% of subjects were in the anemia group, 38.2% in the tendency toward anemia group, and 48.3% in the normal group. 2) Body weight, body fat percentage, and BMI were significantly lower among subjects with a desire for slenderness in the anemia group compared to those with a desire for slenderness in the normal group. 3) Nutritional intake was significantly lower among subjects both with and without a desire for slenderness in the anemia group compared to other groups. 4) Therefore, subjects with a desire for slenderness in the anemia group had a particularly strong desire for weight loss as well as a low intake of nutrients and were at a risk of iron deficiency due to menstruation. A significant difference was observed for menstruation in the anemia group. Specifically, in this group, subjects with a desire for slenderness had a more regular menstruation in addition to a tendency toward prolonged bleeding compared to subjects without a desire for slenderness. These findings indicate that promotion of health awareness among young women by enhancing their understanding of the various physiological changes associated with a desire for slenderness as well as iron-deficiency anemia is important from the perspective of primary prevention.
The composition of nine essential amino acids in vegetable foods is different from that in meat. We drew graphs comparing the composition in a food with the FAO/WHO/UNU reference pattern (1985), an ideal composition for protein nutrition. In constructing the graphs, we used the ratio of each amino acid's content to the geometric mean of the nine amino acids'contents in a food. A glance at the graphs shows the extent to which the relative quantity of each amino acid in a given vegetable food is lower or higher than the reference. We found that chestnuts, squash and potatoes have a composition close to the reference, thus showing a high protein quality. This fact suggests that the chestnuts which were eaten by the Jomon people in Sannai Maruyama, north-east Japan, from 3500 to 2000 BCE, the squash eaten by the Aztecs in Central America to the 16th century A.D., and the potatoes eaten by the Incas in South America to the 16th century A.D. constituted not only an energy source but also an important protein source.
This survey examined the Indonesian college students' knowledge of Japanese and Korean food as well as the interest of Korean college students in Southeast Asian food. Although many Indonesian college students have prior experience of eating Japanese food in Indonesia, only few of them have prior experience of eating Korean food. Despite the lack of the experience on eating Korean food, “kimchi” is well-known among them. The surveyed Korean college students have low interest in Southeast Asian food and they seem to lack the knowledge on Islamic religious food taboos. The students not only in Korea but also in Japan, majoring in food science and food-related subjects at colleges, should be encouraged to have more interest and knowledge concerning food taboos, and more information on Japanese and Korean food should be made available to Indonesian people. This may lead to expansion of Korean and Japanese-food-related businesses in South-east Asia, including Indonesia. The authors consider the necessity of propagation of awareness on Korean and Japanese food, the creation of impression on Korean and Japanese food as healthy dishes, and the introduction of much healthier food in Southeast Asian countries like Indonesia.
A short-term frozen storage time has no effect on the taste of Tricholoma matsutake (abbrev. matsutake) in soup and foil-roast, and Pholiota nameko (nameko) in rice porridge. The taste of frozen matsutake and nameko have taste similar to the fresh ones in sensory tests. A three-month frozen storage is utilized for dried shiitake which is rehydrated before freezing. The rehydrating method is for 8 to 12 hours at 5°C in a household freezer.
A survey using the Internet about the current situation of how people use convenience stores (CVS) to buy lunch boxes and rice balls was carried out. The following results were obtained. The most common case was that people tended to buy lunch boxes and rice balls at CVS one or two times per week. In addition, there were more purchases by men than women, and particularly, those aged 30-39 years purchased these items at CVS. As a result of the correspondence analysis, people who were interested in the nutritional ingredients of the lunch boxes and rice balls tended to be concerned about issues of “additives” and nutrition balance”. People interested in the nutritional ingredients on average tended to be concerned about issues of “volume” and “taste”, while people not interested in nutrition tended to focus on “price”. When people purchased the CVS lunch boxes and rice balls, about 70% identified the food indication label and about 85%of them believed what was printed on the label. About 80% answered that they do not know the difference between “sodium” and “salt” on the food indication label. Most of them knew that there was a recommended daily intake of salt, however, they did not know that it was under 10g per day. Combined with the people who knew neither the recommended intake of salt per day nor the 10g, about 70%of the total did not know that the recommended daily intake limit of salt is 10g., The most important item that people believe to be necessary other than the mentioned food ingredients, was “production date and time” which was particularly evident in the 40-49 year old group. According to the correspondence analysis, people who were more interested in the nutritional ingredient suggested that more ingredients should be labeled. On the other hand, people who were not very interested in nutrition suggested that the production place and country of origin should be printed on the label.