In a modern society, there are various kinds of diseases directly related to human life style due to unbalance of the autonomic nervous system, because some emotion of anxiety, sorrow and fear caused by uncomfortable stresses is increasing in human life. Generally, such life style-related disease are took place by domination of sympathetic nervous system in everyday life. Thus, it will be needed to induce or activate the parasympathetic nervous system to suppress the body condition under the domination of sympathetic nervous system leading to a worse function of alimentary canal such as constipation or diarrhea. This actually means the decline of our eating habit. From this viewpoint, I have long been involved in the study on seeking the significant methods to get a well-balanced life style including exercise, functional food or music. Particularly, since music therapy is well known to reduce unpleasant stresses and anxiety, I have focused on finding out the effective music to suppress the sympathetic nervous system or to activate the parasympathetic nervous system. Here, I would like to mention the effectiveness of music therapy using a Mozart music in recovering from a lot of disorders (Mibyou) caused by the ascendancy of sympathetic nervous system over parasympathetic nervous system. Results clearly showed that Mozart music is greatly useful in improving the various diseases caused by unbalance in autonomic nervous system including the disorders of digestive organs. Accordingly, music therapy with a Mozart music can be introduced as an easy tool to overcome the diseases associated with our life style, leading to a better and satisfactory eating habit.
The present age is said the high stressful society and aging society, and wishes that everyone completes a healthy long life. It is necessary to maintain an important, healthy brain function to eating habits in daily. The brain neurotransmitter that plays an important role in the brain function is synthesized from the amino acid, and, up to now, has clarified that various dietary constituents make the brain neurotransmitter change comparatively easily. Moreover, a certain kind of brain function was also affected by some food component. This time, I want to be related, to give priority to the anti-stressful effect and relaxation to the mind and body stress etc. As the relation among the explanation of the studying method concerning the dietary constituent and the brain function, the brain neurotransmitter, and the brain function. For example, (1) Cranial nerve action with unique green tea amino acid, theanine: Theanine stimulated dopamine release, improved memory-learning ability by various animal studies, and the ameliorating effect of the brain function was observed. Moreover, in human volunteer examination, the effect of relaxation was observed from improving the discharge frequency of the α waves by theanine, and also for PMS. (2) Cranial nerve action with odor components in citrus fruit such as lemon: When the metabolite of the odor component was incorporated into the brain, a certain kind of neurotransmitter changed, too. Moreover, the stress reduced action with the odor component was confirmed. (3) Cranial nerve action with γ-aminobutyric acid, GABA: The anti-stressful effect was observed by the cranial nerve action for human volunteer examination.
In Japan, the consumer trust in food labeling has been shaken due to cases of people falsifying the origin country of produce or ingredients of processed food recently. We have international standards for food labeling. Codex, an international organization which was created to develop food standards and related texts, has adopted the “General Standard for the Labeling of Prepackaged Foods”. In Japan, the Law Concerning Standardization and Proper Labeling of Agricultural and Forestry Products (JAS law) sets up food labeling regulations which require operators to label mandatory information for consumer′s choice, including country of origin for produce and list of ingredients and net contents for processed food. The Food Sanitation Act sets up a regulation in order to prevent health damage, which includes labeling of ingredients that cause allergies. Falsification is not a recent problem. It has been an perplexing issue of food trading. It is difficult to know whether sugar is added to honey or not by looking. Analysis is an important tool to prove authenticity. A method of stable-isotope analysis is described in the Codex standard for honey for determination of added sugar. Nowadays new technologies are introduced to analyze for authenticity. DNA analysis is used to determine species of fish and livestock. We can deduce the region or country of origin of produce by mineral composition which reflects the soil it grew in.
The production of refined konnyaku (Amorphophallus konjiac) sol (1) Aimed at promoting the utilization of konnyaku powder sol, we developed a mannan washing apparatus equipped with the ultrasonication treatment system that allows the refinement of the powder on an industrial scale. Then, we attempted to determine the optimum conditions for its refinement and to improve the powder's sol quality, using the apparatus. Regarding the optimum conditions for the refinement of konnyaku powder sol, it was found that the ethanol concentration of 30% and the refinement temperature of 30°C were critical and the treatment by ultrasonication twice, for 10 min and 5 min was most effective for the treatment. The konnyaku powder sol produced by the method with ultrasonication treatment showed a higher degree of whiteness than that produced without ultrasonication treatment. Furthermore, the levels of undesirable odors from the sol were markedly reduced and the appearance, viscosity and dietary fiber content were superior in the former product with ultrasonication. In addition the sensory evaluation quality of the sol was higher in the product prepared by using ultrasonication. It was thus demonstrated that the quality of konnyaku powder sol was improved using the newly developed apparatus. (2) Soba (buckwheat) noodles were made from soba flour with konnyaku powder sol added as a binder. The results showed that the best product was obtained using soba flour containing 2% konnyaku powder. The addition of konnyaku powder was thus recognized to improve the quality of the soba noodles.
The use of the wastes such as the coat and the eluate of adzuki bean seed: (1) This study was performed in order to make good use of seed-coat powder that was dried and milled (Material A), and the eluate from adzuki bean seeds (Material a), a by-product of adzuki bean jam. The reaction conditions of 40°C and the duration of 15 min (Material B) or 10 min (Material b) were found to be optimal for the ultrasonication of seed-coat powder and the eluate from adzuki bean seed. The odor decreased and the hue of adzuki beans of Material B and Material b increased by the refinement with ultrasonication. Comparatively large amounts of components such as protein, dietary fiber and minerals were contained in this Material B. Material B also showed a strong anti-oxidative activity. (2) The usage of adzuki beans as a food material was tested by preparing muffin, steamed sponge cake and cookies, and their physical properties, palatability and preservation were studied. Material B could be substituted for flour by up 20% in muffin, steamed sponge cake or cookies without any effect on their physical properties and palatability. Moreover, whole adzuki bean powder showed similar favorable results. Sample B (adzuki bean jelly with Material b) showed the hue of adzuki beans, low odor, and was favored more than sample S (control) or sample A (adzuki bean jelly with Material a). The 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and total polyphenol content of sample B and sample A were higher than those of sample S. Further addition of konnyaku sol at 2.4% to the adzuki bean jelly made it harder in texture and lower in syneresis. Observation of the tissue by cryo-scanning electron microscopy showed percolation of the konnyaku sol into the agar network of sample B. Ultrasonication was proved to be promising for the improvement of the quality of the seed-coat powder, the eluate from adzuki bean seeds, and whole adzuki bean powder.
The use of cereals is being reexamined as people become more health conscious. When compared to grass cereals, quinoa is richer in proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibers. Quinoa has also been investigated as a food that prevents lifestyle diseases, and is emerging as a promising new food material with health-promoting functions. In the present study, quinoa starch was prepared from quinoa flour, and the basic characteristics of quinoa starch were compared to those of both rice and corn starches. Quinoa starch was found to be smaller than both rice and corn starch. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that quinoa starch was much finer, and, in terms of particle-size distribution, the average particle-size for quinoa, rice and corn starches was 2. 5, 4. 3 and 9. 8μm, respectively. X-ray diffraction showed that, like rice and corn starches, quinoa starch exhibited a typical type A pattern for cereal starches. The amylose content, as assessed by amperometric titration, for quinoa, rice and corn starches was 18. 7, 12. 7 and 27. 2%, respectively. Photopastegraphy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) measurements showed that the gelatinization onset temperature was slightly higher than the RVA value for all three starches. When compared to rice and corn starches, the breakdown and set-back values for quinoa starch were particularly lower and did not change much after cooling. Its specific curve indicates that quinoa starch is more resistant to senescence.
Mulberries were obtained from five cultivars, i. e., three cultivars for fruit (Ficus, Kataneo, Raraberi) and two cultivars for sericulture (Ichinose, Tagowase). The anthocyanins, protein, liquid, sugar and minerals in these mulberries were then analyzed. In addition, mulberries of the five cultivars were processed into jam to determine and compare the residual quantities of the total anthocyanins and the main anthocyanins. 1) The moisture content of the five mulberry cultivars did not significantly differ. However, the carbohydrate contents of the mulberries cultivars for sericulture were higher than those of the cultivars fruit. 2) The main anthocyanins were determined to be cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside in all from five cultivars. The cyanidin 3-rutinoside content ranged from 68-78%. 3) The fruit and jam of the three cultivars for fruit contained larger quantities of the total anthocyanins than those of the cultivars for sericulture. 4) The mulberry jam made from the cultivars for fruit retained higher ratios of the total anthocyanins and the main anthocyanins than the mulberry jam made from the cultivars for sericulture. The anthocyanins in the jam made from the cultivars for fruit were more stable than those in the jam made from the cultivars for sericulture.
We have determined 6 caffeic acid derivatives in order to study the seasonal differences of Ilex latifolia Thunb. leaves which are used to make Ku-ding cha in China. The current-year leaves (new ones) and old ones are obtained from male or female plants in the spring or autumn. Freeze-dried samples were extracted with 80% methanol and analyzed by HPLC. The leaves contain have no caffeine, but have some caffeic acid and 6 derivatives, including chlorogenic acid. The current-year spring leaves have high amounts of caffeic acid derivatives that range from 147—235 mg/g(dry weight), but the current-year autumn ones, old spring ones and old autumn ones have low amounts of are 36 mg/g (dw), 24—44 mg/g (dw) and 31 mg/g (dw) respectively. 4-O-caffeoyl quinic acid in the current-year leaves increased 3 to 6 times from spring to autumn. No new leaves were collected from the female plant because they did not germinate. Therefore, the contents of the caffeic acid derivatives in the female plant were similar to those in the old leaves in the male plant. These results of the caffeic acid derivatives suggest that the new spring leaves of Ilex latifolia Thunb. are a good source for antioxidants.
This study clarifies the applicability of a sensory evaluation to easily determine the life span of frying oil on the fried food cooking in the kitchen. Two types of foods, i. e. , a chicken fillet and potato, were deep-fried coated with two types of flour, i. e. , potato starch and wheat flour. Frying was continued until the flavor score of the oil had dropped to 3. A sensory evaluation of the frying oil and each fried food was then carried out. The life span of the frying oil to reach the flavor score of 3 was slightly longer for the potato compared to the chicken fillet. It was suggested that the scores for the viscosity and rancid flavor of the frying oil corresponded to the flavor score result of the frying oil. The flavor and taste of the potato fried in the oil with a flavor score of 3 were not good. However, it was difficult to judge the degradation by the appearance of the fried chicken fillet coated with potato starch. The flavor score of the frying oil corresponded to the rancid flavor of the frying food in any case. The color of the frying oil and the taste of the fried materials varied case by case. These results suggest that the flavor score of the frying oil is a useful and easy method to determine the life span of frying oil in the domestic kitchen when a potato starch or wheat flour coating is used.
The effects of an unpolished rice diet on clinical laboratory data in young volunteers (N=14, 10 men and 4 women) were studied. All of the volunteers usually ingested a polished rice diet. They instead ingested an unpolished rice diet twice of 3 diets (breakfast, lunch and dinner) for 1 month. Blood samples were drawn at 09 : 00 hours (fasting condition) from an arm vein before and after the clinical study, and centrifuged at 3, 000 rpm for 10 min at room temperature to obtain serum. Many clinical laboratory examinations were then completed. The mean levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and the total iron binding capacity after the study had significantly decreased when compared to those before the study. The mean ferritin level after the study showed a tendency to increase. In conclusion, the ingestion of an unpolished rice diet supports better health care regarding lipidosis and anemia.
The survey of eating habits was conducted in Ho Chi Minh City in order to understand the changes of eating environments and habits accompanying with the economic growth after the War in Vietnam. The surveys were made in 2002 and 2006. In the survey in 2002, they surely took three meals a day without taking any intermediate meal. They mainly took staple food like rice, breads, noodles and some vegetables. But the intake of oils and fats and milk products was rare. It is like that of Japan in several decades ago. In the survey in 2006, the changes in eating habits were observed due to the rising of their concern on eating. The variety and frequency of food was increased. As the reason of food selection, “ready to eat” was increased and as their concern about eating, “not to take food late at night” was increased. The intake of intermediate meal was also increased. These changes are considered to have been caused by the change in their attitude to eating due to the change in lifestyle and those changes had been observed in Japan. More rapidly, however, they were in Vietnam.