Flour can be used to form dough with very high viscoelasticity by kneading well and adding water. The higher protein content in wheat flour helps form good dough that is suitable for making bread. However, there is the wheat which bread characteristics have bad though a protein content is high. In addition to the amount of gluten, the quality of the gluten has also been determined to be important. An increased interest in gluten quality has led to elucidation of the relationship between the sub-unit structures of gliadin and glutenin, and the baking quality. These studies have clearly shown that wheat containing “5+10” high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMWG) exhibits excellent bread-making properties. Much of the wheat grown in North America and Europe contained “5+10”, but in Japan this was only true for a few varieties. In recent years, varieties with “5+10” have started to be made in Japan, introduced by breeding. The details of the mechanism of disulfide-binding (S-S bond) formation have not yet been determined. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is the enzyme that catalyzes S-S bond formation in proteins. We think that PDI involved in wheat seed storage protein synthesis remains present in the flour, becoming involved in S-S bond formation in the bread-making process. We consider this hypothesis. As a result of PDI activity comparison of in flour, they tends to exhibit high PDI activity in bread making highly wheat was observed. As a result of the production of bread is added to the medium flour and PDI obtained by the E. coli expression system, it was found that improves the specific volume. In the future, by advancing the research on the relationship with the flour subunit structures and S-S bond formation by PDI, it is considered that meaningful information is obtained.
The world's three major grains were maize, rice and wheat. The yields of these grains increased by agriculutural revolution. But the self-sufficiency rate for grains ( SSRG ) differed in countries. North American Free Trade Agreement was concluded in 1994. The growth of imports has hada significant impacts on Mexico's SSRG. The negotiation of trade liberalization will have enormous implications for SSRG of Japan. We needs more effort to the increase of SSRG in Japan.
Japanese people are very fond of noodles. They are generally very much interested in quality of food materials and processed foods. This habit leads to improvement of the quality of noodles. "Aging" and "boiling" processes particularly affect the quality of cooked noodles. "Aging" is a process to improve the quality by just leaving dough or raw noodles. The effects of aging include hydration, relaxation, degassing or shrinkage of the dough. The timing and duration of the aging is changed according to the purpose of aging related to the kind of the noodles. White salted noodles are often made smooth and viscous by hydration and relaxation during aging of the dough. Yellow alkaline noodles are often made hard and translucent by degassing and shrinkage during aging of the noodles after cutting into the strands. Moisture gradient inside of the noodles, high at the surface and low at the core, is formed by boiling in the water, and closely related to the texture of cooked noodles. The texture of the noodles is firm when the moisture gradient between the outer layer and the center of the noodles is large. However, this gradient diminishes with standing time after boiling, and the texture of the noodles becomes softer. We found possibility to make noodles which do not soften during standing by controlling the water distribution in the noodle strands. We believe the possibility of further improvement of the quality of noodles and expand of variety of noodles in Japan by the constant efforts and challenges of the industries and consumers from now on.
An 22.5% SPI gel, a 22.5% starch gel, and SPI-starch complexes, that is, 15% SPI-7.5% starch gel and 7.5% SPI-15% starch gel, fabricated by partial substitution of SPI with starch were prepared for use as new ingredients in cooking. The SPI gels were hard and elastic and the SPI-starch mixture gels became softer and more fragile on decreasing the amount of SPI and increasing the amount of starch. When these gels were cooked with water and 10% sucrose solution, their hardness and cohesiveness decreased. In contrast, the SPI gels and the mixture gels prepared by heating in 1% NaCl showed no appreciable physical changes. Furthermore, the weight and physical properties of the mixture gels heated in an "umami" stock (glutamate solution), with higher NaCl concentration and lower pH value, remained constant. The 15% SPI-7.5% starch gels heated in the umami stock were found to be positive for taste. Thus, our results suggest the 15% SPI-7.5% starch gels cooked in the umami stock will have practical use in food processing and cooking in homes.
[Objective] The aim of this study is to provide an accurate method for assessing nutrient contents to aid nutritional surveillance and menu preparation. [Methods] Vegetable products and animal products in the "Standard Tables of Food Composition Japan -2010-" were categorized by food group, method of cooking, and other factors. The rate of change of each vitamin in each food group due to cooking by various methods was examined. [Results] The rates of element change by cooking in vegetable products could be divided into 32 kinds. The rates of element change by cooking in animal products could be divided into 17 levels. Twenty-five kinds of the rates of vitamin change were found to be useful for therapeutic diets. Differences in the rates of vitamin change by cooking were apparent between the groups, even within the same food group. [Conclusions] The evaluated rates of component change by cooking can be used for estimating the amount of vitamin that remain after cooking. It is therefore possible to compute the amount of vitamin for cooked food with no vitamin component value. This improves the accuracy for calculating the vitamin in nutritional assessment and menu preparation.
The purpose of this research study is to examine the functionality of dried shredded Azaki daikon. To achieve this, we compared the free amino acid content of the boiled, raw-dried and boiled-dried forms between the Aokubi daikon and Azaki daikon. The boiling procedure decreased the glutamine, γ-aminobutyric acid and proline in both the Aokubi daikon and Azaki daikon; decreases in the γ-aminobutyric acid were especially notable. When comparing the raw-dried daikon to the boiled daikon, the total free amino acids of glutamine, γ-aminobutyric acid and proline, the levels in the boiled daikon were lower in both the Aokubi dried shredded daikon and the Azaki dried shredded daikon. The glutamine, γ-aminobutyric acid, arginine and glutamic acid contents were higher in the dried shredded Azaki daikon, and arginine content, in particular, was significantly higher. Our results indicated that the dried shredded daikon showed changes in glutamine, γ-aminobutyric acid, proline, and glutamic acid contents when processed by boiling. In addition, the dried shredded daikon using Azaki daikon, one of the traditional vegetables in the Aizu region, has a higher amount of amino acids, and is more responsible for its taste than the Aokubi daikon, and is anticipated to have amino acid-related functional effects.
A questionnaire survey targeting forties, fifties and sixties about the present and the past status of the use of frozen foods was conducted. According to the result, intergenerational gap and changes of use ware analyzed. In fifties, the highest utilization of frozen foods and the use of the widest ranges of products were found. On the other hand, in sixties, both utilization and ranges were lower than fifties. Forties and fifties tended to shorten cooking time by using frozen side dishes for box lunches and evening meals. On the contrary, sixties tended to use frozen side dishes and frozen vegetables for midday and evening meals and to make much account of preservation of frozen foods. In addition, fifties evaluated taste of them rather than another generation. The changes of utilization from the past to the present indicated that forties have used them for box lunches in every generation, and that this tend hasn't changed since thirty years ago. Comparison of the utilization of frozen foods of the past thirty years of each generations showed that the forties and fifties used more frozen foods than the sixties. From the result, we can think that these generations had been using frozen foods frequently throughout their lifetime when they were in their twenties to forties. Although they no longer have the need to use frozen foods for lunch boxes, their preference of taste still remains, and are still consumed as useful long storage foods for midday and evening meals.