In humans, feeding activities start with lactation, promoting infantile swallowing, which is replaced by weaning to solids at around 5 to 6 months after birth, when neonatal reflexes disappear. Subsequently, during the period of cerebral development when adult swallowing is achieved (the initial, middle, and late weaning periods), oral functions change along with changes in feeding styles. In short, the diversification of tongue motions and tooth eruption, leading to occlusal development, enable us to achieve mastication as a coordinated oral movement allowing food bolus formation. On the other hand, when food bolus formation becomes difficult due to an age-related decline in oral functions, the incidence of dysphagia, such as aspiration and suffocation, increases, forcing a large number of the elderly to shift their daily diet to special formulations, such as those for weaning. Such similarities of oral functions and feeding styles between the periods of development and decline have frequently been reported.
All living cells and organisms depend on monosaccharides such as glucose as a source of energy and carbon for metabolism. Glycation (Maillard reaction) is thus an unavoidable “background” reaction in all living systems. Advanced glycation end-products (AGE) and melanoidins are stable end products of the Maillard reaction. The non-enzymatic glycation reaction takes place both exogenously (in food) and endogenously (in human body) between reducing sugars like glucose and amino groups of proteins. AGE and melanoidins are responsible for the browning observed as a result of cooking, processing and storage of foods such as coffee, soy sauce, beer and miso. In this review, we discuss about effects of the food-derived AGE and melanoidins on lifestyle-related diseases and human health.
Objective: We investigated the relationship between subjective evaluation of acquiring information on own dietary habits and the food group intakes of elementary and junior high school students.Methods: The subjects were 3,855 elementary and junior high school students aged 10-14 years in Kamisu city (Ibaraki, Japan) . A self-administered questionnaire was used, with questions about subjective evaluation of acquiring information on own dietary habits and the frequency of 11 food group intakes. We examined the correlation by using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis.Results: In all, 1,724 elementary and 1,155 junior high school students completed the questionnaire (86.5% response rate) . In both elementary and junior high school, approximately 40% students answered that they acquired information on own dietary habits. Subjective evaluation of acquiring information on own dietary habits significantly correlated with the intake of vegetables, potatoes and fruits in elementary school students. The correlation between subjective evaluation of acquiring information on own dietary habits and the intake of vegetables, milk and dairy products, eggs and potatoes in junior high school students were significant.Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that elementary and junior high school students who answered they acquired information on own dietary habits by some kind of tools, compared with those who answered they had not acquire, have a higher frequency of vegetables and potatoes intake mainly from the side dish.
The utility of calcium phosphate citrate (CPCa), which is a new calcium (Ca) material, as a source of Ca was tested on growing rats. Four-week-old male rats (Fischer 344 strain) were divided into four groups and given experimental diets for 33 days. These diets contained one out of two kinds of Ca sources [calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or CPCa] and one out of two Ca levels (normal or high). Thus, there were four diets: CaCO3 and a normal Ca level diet (Ca-group), CaCO3 and a high Ca level diet (HCa-group), CPCa and a normal Ca level diet (CPCa-group), and CPCa and a high Ca level diet (HCPCa-group). There was no difference between the Ca-group and the CPCa-group on growth, Ca balance, serum Ca concentration, kidney Ca accumulation, and femur Ca content. In the HCa-group, food intake decreased and body weight gain was suppressed. Ca absorption in the HCa-group was higher than that in the HCPCa-group, but Ca retention was not different between these two groups. In other words, to adjust to the high-Ca diet, the HCa-group increased the level of Ca excretion in urine, and the HCPCa-group increased the level of Ca excretion in feces. Moreover, the amount of kidney Ca in the HCPCa-group was higher than that in the other groups. These results showed that during normal Ca intake, CPCa was absorbed and used in the body in the same way as CaCO3. When CaCO3 as a source of Ca was consumed in excess, adverse effects manifested as a food intake reduction and body weight gain suppression. In contrast, excessive ingestion of CPCa did not have the adverse effects of excess consumption of CaCO3, although kidney Ca accumulation tended to increase.
Eating habits were assessed over three days via meal weighing in fifty-eight 81-year-old men and women living independently. 1) Body mass index and blood test values were all within the normal range. 2) Intake of beverages was highest and cereals the second highest in both genders. The coefficient of variation was smallest for cereal intake among food groups. Sexual differences were noted in individual intake of algae and confectioneries, with intake of confectioneries higher in women and with less inter-individual variation than in men. 3) Energy intake was 2,077 kcal in men and 1,761 kcal in women, values which were appropriate for both sexes. The energy ratio of each nutrient was as follows: proteins, 15.4% in men and 15.2% in women; lipids, 23.9% in men and 24.1% in women; carbohydrates, 56.6% in men and 59.9% in women; alcohol, 4.1% in men and 0.7% in women. 4) Intakes of icosatrienoic acid and arachidonic acid were significantly higher in men than in women. Total intake of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid was 1.2 g in men, 1.0 g in women. 5) With regard to amino acids, intake of glutamic acid was highest and that of aspartic acid was second highest. 6) With regard to carbohydrates, intake of sucrose was highest, and that of glucose was the second highest. 7) On comparison of each subject’s personalized necessary energy value- which was calculated from the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese 2010 with the subject’s actual intake, differences were found to be within 1% in both sexes. Given these results, energy intake and energy intake ratio by nutrients among elderly individuals living independently were found to be within the appropriate range of Dietary Reference Intakes. However, sex-related differences in intake were noted in certain food groups.
The authors considered that the lifestyle of university students is a key factor that influences their healthy situation on school days and their later life. This study was conducted using an anonymous questionnaire to understand the lifestyle and self-esteem of university students. The questionnaire was translated into Chinese since we had a good opportunity for surveying Chinese students, and then made comparisons between Japanese and Chinese students. The study conducted a survey among 374 first-, second-, and third-grade Japanese students (310 males and 64 females) from the A private university in Fukuoka, Japan, and 257 first-, second-, and third-grade Chinese students (64 males and 193 females) from the B university in Dalian, China. It was done during late November, 2013, and early January, 2014. The second- and third- grade Chinese female students had higher breakfast intakes than the second- and third- grade Japanese students (p＜0.01). As for the intake of fast food and exercise habits, the Japanese students lived a more desirable lifestyle than the Chinese students. As for their daily bedtime and sleeping habits, the Chinese students lived a more desirable lifestyle than the Japanese students. Most Chinese students lived in the dormitory without part-time work, while nearly half of the Japanese students did part-time work. There was no significant difference between the Japanese and Chinese students in learning motivation, however, the attendance rate of classes was higher in the Chinese students than the Japanese students (p＜0.01). The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale scores of the Japanese students were about 25 points, while the Chinese students had scores of about 30 points (p＜0.01).
We examined ingredients used for 63 products as consuming instant bonito-kelp stock has been popular. Only the 5% of examined products consist of pure bonito stock or bonito-kelp stock while the majority of products contain 'Umami' and some seasonings in addition to bonito stock or bonito-kelp stock. We have made bonito-kelp soup and four kinds of dishes using both natural bonito-kelp stock and instant bonito-kelp stock. We evaluated the tastes of the soup and the dishes made with the instant stock in comparison with the ones made with the natural stock from the point of strength/ weakness, being good/ bad, and the level of similarity following sensory evaluation. In regard to the bonito-kelp soup, the one made with the instant stock was significantly sweeter, saltier and had more 'Umami' and less bitter than the one made with the natural stock. In regard to the soup bowl, which is one of the dishes cooked, the one made with the instant stock was regarded as that they were significantly stronger in the taste and more preferred. For all the dishes, the ones made with the instant stock received the higher evaluations though they tended to be less balanced in the way that they were sweeter and had more 'Umami' while they were less bitter and less sour compared to the ones made with the natural stock. We had interviews to explore what kind of soup stock people use. For miso-soup, the 70.9% of interviewees use instant soup stock and the 18.2% of interviewees even use the instant miso containing soup stock and it resulted in that almost the 90% of interviewees use some kind of instant products. For simmered sato-potates, the 50.0% of interviewees use instant soup stock and for Spinach-ohitashi, the 53.6% of interviewees actually do not use any soup stock, but the 12.7% of interviewees use instant soup stock and the 29.1% of interviewees use seasoning soy-sauce out of the interviewees who use some kind of instant products.