In order to ensure food safety, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare revised 7 articles under the Food Hygiene Law in June 2018. Among these, the systematic implementation of hygiene management in accordance to HACCP is an important pillar.
In Japan recently, due to the progression of woman's social advancement and an increase in the number of elderly and one-person households, the degree of dependence on eating out and ready-to-eat meals (HMR: Home Meal Replacements) has increased and in accordance the food market has expanded its restaurant services and home-delivery food services as well.
Looking at the number of food poisoning incidents occurring over the past 10 years, there have been approximately 1,000 and the number of patients has remained at approximately 20,000, with more than half of these incidents having occurred at restaurants.
According to statistics on food poisoning from 2017, the number of incidents was 1,014 with the number of patients being 16,464. Food poisoning incidents caused by bacteria were 449 cases (44.3%), food poisoning incidents caused by parasites were 242 cases (23.9%) and food poisoning incidents caused by viruses were 221 cases (21.8%). The majority of cases were caused by microorganisms.
In terms of the number of incidents broken down by etiological agents, Campylobacter jejuni/coli was the most frequent cause (320 cases), followed by the parasites Anisakis (230 cases) and Norovirus (214 cases). The number of patients was observed to be in the occurrence frequency order of Norovirus (8,496), Campylobacter jejuni/coli (2,315), and Clostridium perfringens (1,220).
The three principles of food poisoning prevention are known to be: "do not attach”, "do not multiply”, and "eradicate”. However, attention must not be paid only to the hygiene management of employees, cookware and facilities but also to the handling of food. Additionally, since viruses do not grow in food products, these need to be further managed so as not to be introduced (health management) or spread (HACCP, clean, wash, disinfect).
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Moderate alcohol consumption can reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, whereas the association between alcohol consumption and diabetes has remained unclear in Japanese young women. The prevalence of higher hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and the age adjusted mortality rates of diabetes are high in women in Choshi City in Chiba prefecture. Our previous findings suggested an association between HbA1c levels and dietary habits in young women in the city. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the association between HbA1c with ingested nutrients/foods.
The study enrolled 372 women (age, 20-39 y) who attended a medical examination conducted by the city during 2015 and provided written, informed consent to participate. Their dietary habits were assessed using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Exclusion criteria comprised weight changes of over ± 3 kg during the previous 12 months and unnatural energy intake determined from the BDHQ (< 600 or ≥ 4000 kcal/d). After excluding 73 women, associations between HbA1c and the consumption (density per 1,000 kcal) of 51 nutrients/substances and 70 foods were analyzed in 299 participants.
HbA1c was significantly and negatively associated only with total alcohol (R=-0.263, P < 0.001) and beer (R=-0.211, P < 0.001) consumption and became elevated as BMI increased from < 22 to ≥ 25 (P < 0.005, Shirley-Williams test). Nevertheless, alcohol consumption was distinctly negatively associated with HbA1c at BMI of < 22 (R=-0.257, P < 0.001) and ≥ 25 (R=-0.238, P < 0.05).
Therefore, habitual alcohol consumption could lower HbA1c levels in Japanese young women.
This study was made to clarify how the program, in which elderly women donated the local event foods to high school students, affected the psychosocial functions of elderly women.
The participants were 58 elderly women who lived in Hyogo Prefecture. They were divided into the experimental group of 19 people who took part in the cooking program and the control group of 39 people who did not take part in the cooking program. The experimental group of the elderly women took part in the cooking program twice and they worked with the high school students in each program. Questionnaire surveys were conducted with the experimental group and the control group before and after the cooking programs.
The questionnaire included the following items: Instrumental ADL; IADL, self-assessment for their health, short version of Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Type A behavior, participation in social activities, the frequency of meeting their friends, grandchildren or great-grandchildren, awareness of coexistence with local communities, frequency of going out, short version of Generativity scale, and their interest in local event foods and their spread.
Variations in each item of the questionnaire surveys before and after the cooking programs were compared between the experimental group and the control group using a two-way repeated measures analysis of variance.
The results showed that the score of the experimental group of their desire to take care of elderly persons who live alone on the item of awareness of coexistence with, local communities and the score of their desire to serve as a role model for a young person on the short version of the generativity scale significantly increased.
After the elderly women participated in the cooking programs, their awareness of coexistence with the local communities and consciousness of generativity increased. It suggests that the cooking programs to donate the local event foods is expected to raise the consciousness of the elderly women on generativity and awareness of the coexistence with local communities even if the program is over a short period of time.
This study was carried out (i) to reveal problems in the awareness of eating habits among college students majoring in education, using the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top; and (ii) to assess the changes in awareness among the students after undertaking a proposed dietary education program. A survey incorporating the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top revealed that the daily dietary intake of the students was inadequate with the exception of their intake from the fish and meat group, which includes meat, fish, egg, and soybean dishes. Given the intake of between-meal snacks, the number of servings was calculated. We found that in terms of energy intake, snacking influenced intake of staple foods i.e., the grain group, which includes rice, bread, noodles, and pasta. Then, we offered the students a dietary education program on the staple diet. After participating in the program, the students scored higher in all areas of knowledge of the staple diet. They retained this knowledge 6months later. Therefore, we suggested that the dietary education program is effective in increasing knowledge and awareness of the staple diet and between-meal snacks.
In this study, we conducted a questionnaire survey on 108 mothers of 6-8-year-old children that focused on full-chewing from a dental and oral health perspective. The chewing habits of children, the degree of recognition of chewing effect, and levels of practice or motivation to practice cooking activities and education that promotes good chewing habits were investigated. Overall, 17.6% of mothers reported that their children had good chewing habits. In terms of degree of recognition of 8 chewing effects, "brain development” and "prevention of obesity” were recognized by more than 60% of respondents, and "prevention of dental diseases” was recognized by approximately 50% of respondents; however, the recognition rate for other effects was relatively low. Although the rates for practicing cooking and education to promote good chewing habits were 30.6% at the beginning of the survey, the rate increased to 62% after answering questionnaires and recognizing the effects of chewing. The mean number of chewing effects recognized by mothers who practiced both cooking and education to promote good chewing habits was significantly higher than those who practiced neither activity. In total, 62.9% of mothers would like their child’s school to educate them in full-chewing techniques. On the other hand, 36.1% of mothers did not know whether their child’s school was actually conducting full-chewing education. These results indicate that if schools can provide desirable levels of chewing education and information as part of food education for children and their parents, parents will show an increased interest in educating their children about good chewing habit. Thus, children can be effectively educated about chewing at school and from their parents. Through this process, parents can also give their children taste education by preparing home-made dishes for chewing education.
As a result, children who receive effective chewing education can pass on desirable chewing habits to the next generation.