Diacylglycerols (DG) are naturally structural lipids, existing as the form of 70% 1, 3-DG and 30% 1, 2-DG in nature respectively, which suppressed the reconstruction of triacylglycerols (TG) in blood compared with the ingestion of a similar fatty acid composition of dietary TG. This effect is owing to that the 1-monoacylglycerole of a digest from 1, 3-DG by lipase has less substrate specificity against reconstitution enzyme of TG and subsequently is digested to glycerol and fatty acid in intestine epithelial cell, and then the fatty acid which pours into liver via portal vein is finallyd ecomposed by b-oxidation. The interesting nutritional aspect of DG is the residual serum TG after lipid ingestion could be decreased by ingestion of DG in the subjects especially with a higher serum TG concentration in fasting. When lipoproteins were fractionated from blood after DG ingestion, the chylomicron production significantly decreased less than 50% of that by TG ingestion due to the suppression of reconstructing TG and utilizing cholesterol in intestine epithelial cell. Long-term for 12 weeks, the effects of DG ingestion on lipid metabolism of human was examined at the dose of lOg when total amount of dietary lipids was strictly restricted at 50g a day. The fat in liver and the visceral fat significantly decreased in the DG diet group compared to that of TG diet group. Thus, DG would appear to be an ideal source of energy, assuring less fat accumulation by decreasing in serum insulin and fatty acids compared to TG.
Pleurotus ostreatus was cultivated on a rice bran-saw dust medium with added iron salts or calcium salts. The Fe concentration in the fruit-body from 5% FeSO4 medium increased 1.36 times, compared with that in an untreated medium. The concentration factor in the fruitbody from 5% FeSO4 medium was 0.007. In comparing media with 5% added CaC12, CaCO3 and CaHPO4, the 5% CaCl2 medium showed the best Ca concentration in the fruit-body, 46.3 times that in an untreated medium. The concentration factor in the fruit-body from the 5% CaC12 medium was 0.065. However, with the 5% CaCl2 medium, harvest time was increased and the yield was decreased.
An investigation was made on the utilization and preference for camellia oil in a solitary island aiming to clarify the significance of the oil in the dietary culture of the island and enhance the utilization The results were as follows: 1. A long historical background lies in the values of camellia oil and there was considerable utilization of the oil already in the Edo period. 2. The inhabitants of the island had a strong attachment for camellia oil and were expecting further development of its use. 3. When compared with salad oil and rapeseed oil much frequently utilized in daily life, camellia oil is more difficult to be oxidized. 4. Since the preference to camellia oil is comparatively high in heat cooking, it seems possible to expand the utilization and also increase the preference with various ideas for cooking use without heating.
It was revealed recently that a change in living environment causes allergic disease. The inbalance of nutrition caused by an increase in the intake of anmal protein and fat as well as a decrease in the intake of carbohydrate raises the morbidity rate of allergy. This investigation was aimed at examining the diet without allergenic food. First of all, we conducted a questionnaire survey for 186 female college students regarding allergy to food, then selected some subjects to measure the total amount of IgE in their serum and searched for a variety of allergens. The following are the results: 1. 20% of the subjects were conscious of their allergic disease. 2. 57% of the subjects developed allergy in their junior high or high school days. 3. 80% of the subjects had one or more family members who also developed allergic disease. 4. 50% of the subjects who already had been cured of allergic disease healed spontaneously as they grew. 5. Among the subjects who had developed allergy before, some were still suffering from allergic disease at the time of this test. Twice as many of the subjects were still using the diet without allergenic foods even though they did not show any symptoms of allergic disease any more. 6. Egg and fish caused the most allergy among the allergenic foods. 7. The serum IgE levels proved that ticks, house dust and pollen were strong reactants as allergens. Allergens in food were estimated to be 30%.
Proximate composition, the content of minerals, free amino acids, 5'-nucleotides, free sugar and sugaralcohols were measured using 13 specimens of Matsutake from Japan, 13 specimens from Korea, 10 specimens from china and 5 specimens from Canada and a comparison was made between the countries of origin. 1. In the proximate composition, there were no differences among the protein contents of the Japanese, Korean and Chinese specimens, but the Canadian specimens had a low protrin content. Ash content was low in the Japanese specimens and high in the Chinese specimens. The amount of carbohydrates was high in the Canadian and Japanese specimens. 2. In regard to mineral, calcium content was low in the Japanese specimens and high in the Chinese specimens. Iron content of the Korean and Chinese specimens was higher than those of the Japanese and Canadian specimens. Potassium content of the Canadian specimens was higher than those of the Japanese and Korean specimens. 3. No differences were noted among the total free amino acid contents in the Japanese, Korean and Chinese specimens, except the Canadian specimens.The major component of amino acids were glutamic acid, glutamine, arginine, alanine, asparatic acid and ornithine. The specimens from Japan, Korea and China all exhibited a similar overall amino acid composition pattern, but the Canadian specimens had a slightly different pattern. 4. Of the 5'-nucleotides, 5'-AMP, 5'-UMP and 5'-GMP were detected. The content of 5'-GMP, which it thought to contribute to taste, was low. The Chinese specimens, however, showed significantly higher than the Korean specimens. 5. In regard to free sugars and sugaralcohols, fructose, glucose, mannitol, trehalose were detected.The contents of mannitol and trehalose were particularly high. There was a significantly higher quantity of trehalose content in the Japanese specimens than those in the Chinese and Korean specimens.
In order to determine the properties among the cultivated mushrooms of Tricholomataceae, Enokitake (Flammulina velutipes), Hatakeshimeji (Lyophyllumdecastes) and Nioushimeji (Tricholoma giganteum) compounds affecting the taste and flavor were analyzed. The results were as follows. The average RNA contents of these mushrooms were 1.5% in dry matter, and the contents decreased to about half after boiling. 5'-Guanylic acids in all the fresh mushrooms were at low levels but increased with boiling. The free sugars and sugar alcohols in Enokitake were mainly arabitol, glycerol and trehalose. In Hatakeshimeji and Nioushimeji, trehalose was present at especially high levels. The main organic acids in Enokitake were the malic, succinic and fumaric acids, while Hatakeshimeji and Nioushimeji cinsisted of malic and citric acids. The major free amino acids in Enokitake were γ-Aba, Glu, Ala, Phe, Saccharopine and Gln, in Hatakeshimeji, they were Arg, Glu, Gln, Asp, Ser, Lys and Ala, and in Nioushimeji, they were Glu, Asp, Arg, Ala, Lys, Phe, Ser and Leu. These accounted for roughly 60% of the total. In fresh Enokitake, large amounts of low molecular weight, volatile compounds such as alcohols, esters, ketones, aromatic compounds and nitrogen-containing compounds were observed. The volatiles in Hatakeshimeji were alcohols, esters, and ketones such as 3-octanone, and in Nioushimeji, these were esters, ketones, alicyclic hydrocarbons such as limonene and heterocyclic hydrocarbons such as 2-pentyl-1, 3-dioxolane. The volatiles in boiled Enokitake increased in the proportion of alcohols. In boiled Hatakeshimeji and Nioushimeji, the proportion of alcohols, esters such as 1-octen-3-ol, ketones such as 3-octanine, aldehydes and heterocyclic hydrocarbins were increased.
Among the cultivated mushrooms of Tricholomataceae, Enokitake (Flammulinavelutipes), Hatakeshimeji (Lyophyllum decastes) and Nioushimeji (Tricholoma giganteurn), the proximate compositions, minerals, vitamins, dietary fiber, polysaccharides, fatty acids, and ergosterol contents were analyzed.Mushrooms are considered to be a good source of vitamin D2; therefore the determinations of vitamin D2 and studies of the effects of solar irradiation on the amounts of vitamin D2 and the quality of the mushrooms were conducted. The results were as follows. The proximate compositions, minerals and dietary fiber of these mushrooms closely agreed with previous reports. However, the vitamin B1 and B2 contents were slightly lower. The result of the vitamin D2 analysis showed that fresh mushrooms were found not to contain vitamin D2that differed from the Standard Table of Food Composition in Japan-VITAMIND-and the Standard Table of Food Composition in Japan, Fifth Revised Edition-shinkishokuhinhen-. However a remarkable production of vitamin D2 was observed due to solar radiation. The maximum values of vitamin D2 were observed in mushrooms irradiated for 1hour. This amount of solar radiation had no bad effects on the mushroom's quality. These mushrooms contained high levels of alkali acid-soluble polysaccharides, followed by formic acid-soluble polysaccharides and then hot alkali-soluble polysaccharides. The alkali-soluble acid-insoluble polysaccharides and acetic acid-solublepolysaccharides were found at low levels. Prosky modification I showed the lowest value followed by the chitin corrected method. Prosky modification II resulted in the highest values. These three methods gave significantly different values. In Enokitake, the contents of the linolenic and linoleic acids were specifically high. Hatakeshimeji and Nioushimeji contained high levels of linoleic and palmitic acids. The ergosterol contents were 216, 124 and 258mg/100g dry matter in Enokitake, Hatakeshimeji and Nioushimeji respectively.
We analyzed the various component and bacteria of Home-made Izushi in Hokkaido Area. The results were as follows: 1. The averages of contents of salt and potassium, and water activity of Home-made Izushi were 2.3%, 121mg/100g and 0.941, respectively. 2. The total amounts of free amino acids of Izushi were 540mg/100g-2522mg/100g. The major free amino acids of Izushi were glutamic acid, alanine, leucine, anseline and lysine. 3. Major fatty acids composition of Izushi were C18:1, C16:0 and C18:3. 4. Mean bacterial counts and lactic acid bacteria of Izushi were 6.168/log/g and 6. 598/log/g, respectively.Coliform organisms, E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella were not detected from Izushi.
I examined the food of Folk Festivals in Suzuka Prefecture the results are as follows. 1) There are 69 Shinto shrine in Suzuka Prefecture. But the greater part of their sever ther's connection with Festivals and Food. 6 Shinto shrine are connected with its. 2) Basic action day is 14 in July. But the day change to holiday several area. 3) Festivals Food has rice and rice manufactured (powdered rice), though it vary from area to area. 4) Area differs frorn Area in many ways. Suzuka area which people ate “DouKan-Danga” . Paeo Ple tinished “Taue” early in July, taking a holiday. And peopie ate its. This area has this custom in Festivals, it is the food of Folk Festivals in Suzuka Prefecture now.
The aim of this study is to analyze the “Zuoni” in Mie Prefecture. 1) “Zouni” in Mie, according to seven books of local history, has existed as round glutinous cake, a square glutinous cake, a clear soup, miso soup and adzuki beans. 2) Most families prepared it as an Osachi dish (83.7%). but the age family doesn't prepare for the one acodding to const ruction family the ratio shew 19.1%. 3) Most families celebrated with “Zouni”, the high scoer was 95.6% for New Year Day's breakfast. 4) The “Zouni” form of glutinous cake has been fried for example the Hokusei, Chiusei and Nansei areas have a square glutinous cake, The Iga, Isesima and a part of the Nansei area have a round glutinous cake. 5) The “Zouni” Soup has been referred to, for example, the Hokusei and Nansei areas have a “Clear Soup”, the Chiusei and Iga areas have a “Miso Soup”, and the Toba area has “Anpin”.