Recently, there has been a significant increase in the number of obese people due to their lifestyle. They suffer from hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus or hypertension. In order to reduce obesity, a new dietary supplement, #001, was administered twice a day for 2 months to 20 volunteers whose BMI was quarter than 22. As a result, the new dietary supplement, #001, reduced their obesity. Decreases in the mean body weight, BMI and mean body fat ratio were observed. No adverse effect was observed during this trial, even in the hematology examination. The new dietary supplement, #001, which contains food fiber compounds derived from Flammulina velutipes has been indicated to be a very effective and safe dietary supplement.
In order to seize the distinctive features of the mastication muscle activity magnitude at the market confectioneries, I examined electromyogram of mastication muscle by giving 2.3 grams each of thirty kinds of confectionaries sold on the market. Subjects were 16 college girl students of nineteen years old. 1) The mastication muscle activity magnitude of thirty kinds of confectioneries sold on the market was as fol1ows: cookies and biscuits are 2.0lmV, chocolates 2.29mV, nutrition balanced stuffs 2.39mV, fried dough cookies 2.44mV, wafers 2,50mV, boro 2.60mV, millet-and-rice cakes 2.70mV, rice crackers 2.86mV. potato chips 3.14mV, gumi 3.44mV, processed beans 3.74mV, crackers 3.83mV, marshmallow 3.87mV, sea tangles 4.69mV, dried small fish 4.75mV and dried cuttlefish 15.01mV. 2) Regarding thirty kinds of confectionaries sold on the market, I measured that there is positive correlation between the average value of the subjects' mastication muscle activity magnitude and their coefficient of variation at significant level. In case of confectionaries which need more mastication muscle activity magnitude (sea tangles, dried small fish, dried cuttlefish and so forth), the differences between individuals are larger. 3) The mastication muscle activity magnitude, its time, its frequency and its cycle of twenty-one kinds of cookies and biscuits, and potato chips show the positive correlation with their energy and fat contents at significant level. There is a tendency that as the more energy and fat content the confectionaries have, the less are the mastication time and frequency.
Reductive metabolic conversion to retinol of Carophyll-red and Carophyll-pink (water soluble beadlet of non-provitamin A carotenoids, Canthaxanthin and Astaxantin) feeding in vitamin A deficient rats was investigated. Male Std Wistar rats, 3-weeks old, were fed a vitamin A deficient diet for 35days prior to the experiment. Carophyll-red or Caropphll-pink was given for 8 days, and the change in the body weight of each group was measured. The serum and liver levels of retinol, retinyl ester, and the retinol binding protein (RBP) were determined. The reduced body weight of the rats fed the vitamin A-deficient diet significantly increased by the administration of Carophyll-red and Carophyll-pink. The change in the body weight ratio compared to the control group was 1.9 times higher in the Carophyll-red group and 1.3 times higher in the Carophyll-pink group. The serum retinol levels of the Carophyll-red group and Carophyll-pink group were 2.0 and 1.2 times higher than that of the control group. The serum RBP levels of the Carophyll-red group and Carophyll-pink group were 1.6 and 1.3 times higher than that of the control group. These results may suggest that both Canthaxanthin in Carophyll-red and Astaxanthin in Carophyll-pink were converted into retinol by the oxidative reaction of each carotenoid due to reductive reagents, such as sugars, in the water soluble beadlet, because the conversions from Canthaxanthin and Astaxanthin to retinol are difficult in mammals unless some reductive reagents are included in the diets. Other anti-oxidative reagents in the beadlet and/or diet, such as Ethoxyquin, may also play a synergistic-reductive action. Further study is needed to confirm this hypothesis.
Recently, based on the decreasing food safety and security, along with a reduction in the food self-sufficiency ratio, concepts such as local production for local consumption and slow foods have focused attention on traditional vegetables locally grown all across Japan. In this study, the general composition, minerals, free amino acid composition, and other characteristics of Azaki daikon and Akasuji daikon, the traditional Aizu vegetables, were clarified by making comparisons with Aokubi daikons. Compared to the Aokubi and Akasuji daikons, Azaki daikon had a lower moisture content, and higher levels of proteins, lipids, ash, potassium, zinc, iron, and other nutrients. The total amount of free amino acids was greater in the Azaki daikon than in the Aokubi and Akasuji daikons. While the main free amino acids in the Aokubi and Akasuji daikons were glutamine and γ-aminobutyric acid, those in the Azaki daikon were glutamine, arginine, and γ-aminobutyric acid, with a significantly high level of arginine. The results of this study suggest that Azaki daikon, which contains particularly high levels of total free amino acids, glutamine, arginine, and γ-aminobutyric acid, may be an important food item with utility for flavor and added health benefits.
The influence of trait anxiety on food taste preferences was investigated in 73 healthy university students (age 21.3±0.5 years). Participants were divided into two groups (A-Trait group and Normal group) based on their State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores and both groups were tested for sensitivity to sweet, sour and salty tastes. Participant's emotions were assessed using the Affect-grid, and chronic stress was assessed using the Cumulative Fatigue Symptoms Index. The results of comparing test scores between the two groups indicated that the A-Trait group, in comparison to the Normal group, had a significantly higher sensitivity to sweet taste (t(61)=2.72, p<0.01). Also, the A-Trait group, compared to the Normal group, had a significantly higher arousal level (t(66)=2.04, p<0.05) and a significantly higher chronic stress level (t(71)=3.02, p<0.05). Moreover, arousal level (r=0.30, p<0.05) and chronic stress level (r=0.56, p<0.01) were correlated with trait anxiety. It is concluded that people with trait anxiety feel more stress and preferred sweet tasting food, suggesting that trait anxiety causes changes in eating habits.
In order to utilize the seed-coat powder of adzuki beans as a food material, three materials were examined by adding them to steamed sponge cake. Powder A: untreated seed-coat powder from adzuki beans. Powder B: Powder A was soaked in distilled water and then ultrasonicated for 15 minutes. Powder C: Powder A soaked in distilled water for 15 hours. The effects of the addition of konnyaku gel to the steamed sponge cake mixture on the physical properties, sensory characteristics, and preservation of the cooked sponge cake were also examined. The soft wheat flour in steamed sponge cake was substituted by Powders A, B and C up to 20%. Compared with the control without the seed-coat powder, the steamed sponge cake, in which up to 20% of the wheat flour was replaced by the seed-coat powder, resulted in a hue of adzuki beans, a high specific volume and higher moisture content, harder and more brittle texture, and more preferable flavor, taste and overall rating. The addition of Powder B and konnyaku gel (2.2%) significantly suppressed the aging of starch and the number of bacteria in the steamed sponge cakes during storage. In conclusion, the addition of the seed-coat powder from adzuki beans and konnyaku gel to the steamed sponge cake improved its quality.
Recent years, the young often eat meals outside their home. When “Shoku-no-Gaibuka” increases, it seems that the young's awareness on eating changes. This study was undertaken to investigate the “Shoku-no-Gaibuka” aspect on the part of young people. An interview survey was conducted with special focus being placed on each interviewee's personality and life-style. The interview sample included 52 young peoples 20-25 years old living in the Metropolitan area. Twenty six of the subjects were men and 26 were women. The result of the interview showed that about 30% at the young usually eat meals away from home. Many of them work until very late at night, moreover they do not eat breakfast. The amount of “Shoku-no-Gaibuka” is not related to the awareness of eating, but the young who usually eat these meals have less interest in their dietary culture and spiritual aspect. The young who usually eat “Shoku-no-Gaibuka” in addition to being unsatisfied with the meal, desire an improvement in their dietary conditions.
Recently, the demand for Japanese eggs and meat with higher moisture contents for better eating habits has increased. Their protein values are excellent. An egg is a nourishing food, and when dry, becomes available for every food material. It is said that dried meat is a good nourishment tonic. This investigation will clarity the transition concerning age, and develop a patent. We then examined the relations of these dehydrated foods and associated eating habits. As a result of the investigation, it was shown that their quality changes with age as well as the ways to use dehydrated eggs and dried meat.