String cheese has a characteristic structure that allows the cheese to be torn in one direction much like boiled crab or scallop meat. The manufacture of string cheese is similar to that of Mozzarella, except that the cheese is stretched (elongated) in hot water to form a rope. Effect of stretching process on rheological properties and stringiness of String cheese was studied. Mozzarella cheese curd was kneaded in hot water at 55°C and stretched range from two to 25 times of its original length, then immersing the stretched curd in water at 5°C to harden. Shear strength of parallel sample, Young's modulus and breaking strength were varied markedly with stretching operation, and tear strength was varied at low stretching times, while breaking strain was changed little. With an increase in stretching times, shear strength of parallel sample, Young's modulus, breaking strength and stringiness of String cheese rose. But too much stretching operation (such as 25 times) made the stringiness lower after two weeks keeping within a refrigerator. It was suggested there is a suitable condition in stretching times for keeping high stringiness.
Nobu Shirase (born in Konoura in Akita Prefecture) was a pioneer of polar expedition. He reached 80° 5' south latitude in 1912 after Amundsen and Scott reached the South Pole. White bear (polar bear) is a unique animal in the Arctic, and stores a large amount of vitamin A in the liver. Hepatic stellate cells (vitamin A-storing cells, lipocytes, interstitial cells, fat-storing cells, Ito cells) exist in the space between parenchymal cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells of the hepatic lobule, and store 80 % of vitamin A in the whole body as retinyl palmitate in lipid droplets in the cytoplasm in mammals such as human or rats. In physiological conditions, these cells play pivotal roles in the regulation of vitamin A homeostasis; they express specific receptors for retinolbinding protein (RBP), a binding protein specific for retinol, on their cell surface, and take up the complex of retinol and RBP by receptormediated endocytosis. Hepatic stellate cells in top predators in arctic animals such as polar bears and arctic foxes store 20-100 times the levels of vitamin A found in human or rat. Nuclear deviation in hepatic parenchymal cells, degeneration of Glisson's sheath, inflammation of the intestine, and a shift of vitamin A-storing site from the liver to the kidney were found in the arctic top predators. These findings were not reported in the wild animals and alarming to the human beings.
First in this short paper, neural control mechanisms of feeding are reviewed, referring to the classical concept of hypothalamic feeding and satiety centers, and to recently identified hormones such as leptin and ghrelin. Then environmental influences on our eating are discussed, since eating, the most fundamental behavior for life, is under strong influence of cultures of the present society. In the developed countries, people under stress tend to eat too much since foods are so delicious and sweet that eating is a pleasure; they often suffer from life-style-related diseases. Also in the developed countries, many young people suffer from eating disorders, that is, anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Their behavior (refusing to eat, or eating-vomiting) is on one hand to appeal their anxiety accumulated in their childhood, and to survive extremely stressful days on the other.
The effect of ingestion of a jelly containing 10g of polydextrose as dietary fiber (DF jelly) on defecation was investigated in 27 elderly people (7 who could walk, 14 in wheelchairs and 6 bedridden) who had been consuming a general diet in long-term care institutions. The experiment was carried out over a 26-day period that included a general diet for 19 days and DF jelly ingestion for 7 days. The jelly was consumed at 3 p.m. during the DF jelly trial period. During the general diet period, 92.6% of the subjects took laxatives every day. The results showed that the ingestion of the DF jelly resulted in significant (p <0.05) increases in their fecal frequency from 6.4±2.7 to 9.6±5.0 times per week in the wheelchair group and from 6.4±3.4 to 12.5±5.3 times per week in the bedridden group. There were also significant (p <0.05) increases in the fecal weight from 32.5±4.6 g to 46.6±4.9 g per day in the wheelchair group and from 29.3±9.7 g to 59.0±27.5 g per day in the bedridden group. It was concluded that the intake of polydextrose as a dietary fiber was effective for stimulating defecation. In addition, the frequency of laxative use and enemas significantly decreased (p <0.05) in the bedridden group. In a taste survey, 92.6% of the subjects responded that the DF jelly was delicious or acceptable and the DF jelly was evaluated more highly by the female subjects than by the male subjects. These results showed that the DF jelly has a good taste and is suitable for consumption by the elderly and that it improves defecation by the elderly who have reduced daily living activities.
In this study, we investigated the effects of vegetables on the antioxidant activity of miso both in vitro and ex vivo as a means to maintain and prolong the health benefits of miso intake in daily life using vegetables such as garlic, edible burdock, daikon, onion, welsh onion (stem), welsh onion (leaf-blade green), chingentsuai, broccoli, eggplant and sweet pepper. The effect on superoxide scavenger activity (SOSA) in vitro was investigated when using miso soup with vegetables. The effects on superoxide dismutase (SOD) -like activity and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) -like activity of rat lung extract ex vivo were investigated when using miso soup with vegetables. As other confirmation of reducing capacity of miso soup ex vivo, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) formation in lung homogenate was measured when using miso soup with vegetables. SOSA was increased when using miso soup with garlic, welsh onion (leaf-blade green), chingentsuai or broccoli. This effect on SOSA in vitro did not necessarily correspond to the effect on SOD-like activity ex vivo when using miso soup with vegetables. If data at ex vivo was made much of than the data at in vitro, the suggestions based on experiment results were that miso soup with garlic, welsh onion (stem) or welsh onion (leaf-blade green), chingentsuai or sweet pepper will accelerate both scavenging for superoxygen radicals and reduction of hydroperoxide : miso soup with onion will accelerate scavenging for superoxygen radicals : miso soup with daikon, edible burdock or eggplant will accelerate reduction of hydroperoxide. We expect the increase of antioxidant activity of miso in vivo by daily use and ingestion of the above-mentioned vegetables in miso soup.
The purpose of this study was to examine factors that lead to obesity, such as body weight change, nutrient intake, eating habits and physical activity. Thirtyfour older adults aged 60 years or over living in Nagoya city were divided into two groups: Obese Group (BMI ≥ 25.0kg/m2) and Nonobese Group (BMI< 25.0kg/m2). Their threeday nutrient and food intake, eating habits, and body weight at the age of 20 and 40 years were investigated. Their physical activity was monitored with a pedometer equipped with an accelerometer for 14 days. As a result, 13 Obese Group adults (64.9 ± 4.6 years old) and 21 Nonobese Group adults (66.8 ± 6.9 years old) had no significant difference in their body weight at the age of 20, while their body weight at the age of 40 and at the time of this investigation showed significant differences. The Obese Group significantly increased their body weight from 20 years old to 40 years old by 10.9kg, and additional 2.3kg at this investigation. On the other hand, the Nonobese group increased only 2.4kg from 20 years old to this investigation. The Obese Group had a higher rate of life-style related diseases, and showed higher health risks. The Obese Group consumed significantly more carbohydrates, and significantly less protein, calcium, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, fish and seafood than the Nonobese Group. The Obese Group demonstrated eating habits that may lead to obesity, such as spending little time for breakfast and lunch, eating between meals, and not paying attention to the quantity served. There was no significant difference in the physical activity with regard to frequency, duration and experience of exercise, number of steps, energy expenditure and intensity of physical activity. Effective physical activity programs or dietary instructions need to be provided to the obese adults for their weight control.
The hilltribes living in northern Thailand, 159 Lahu Nyi (Lahu), 152 Lo Mi Akha (Akha) and 42 Mlabri tribes, were asked to answer questions about their frequency of food intake and consciousness of daily life and their health from December 2006 to January 2007 in order to examine the differences in their eating habits among the tribes. The frequency which subjects answered “everyday” to the intake of rice, vegetables, red pepper, herbs, salt or “umami” seasoning was high among the food groups for all the tribes. The frequencies of the intake of pork/chicken and eggs in the case of males and those for eggs and milk in the case of females significantly differed among the tribes. The frequencies of drinking milk by teenagers and eating confectionery by teenage girls were higher than those of the other generations. Wild animals were eaten by all the tribes, but the frequency of their intake was low. Most of the subjects who drink little milk recognized that they had not only unsuitable eating habits regarding their health, but also felt tired. The relationship between the frequency of the intake of eggs or milk and “consciousness of living healthy” was observed by the Akha tribe. The physical condition was related to the frequency of the intake of potatoes in the Lahu tribe. There was the same tendency about the frequency of the intake of rice by the Akha tribe. This study showed that the frequencies of food intake differed between the tribes, generations and sex. Milk and confectionery were food items that the tribes had changed their eating habits. It also suggested that the intake of milk affects the consciousness of health and physical condition of the subjects.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate nutritional status following intake of food for individuals with mastication or swallowing difficulty (soft food) that was introduced to nursing homes, and to assess the effects of the introduced diet. Subjects were residents at nursing home R, which introduced soft food, and at geriatric health services facility S, which provided minced food. The following results were obtained. 1) In comparison to subjects eating normal food, subjects eating soft food had a higher care requirement level, degree of being bedridden, and awareness level in addition to a lower BMI. 2) Serum albumin levels of subjects eating soft food were the similar to those of subjects eating normal food at facilities R and S. 3) Subjects eating soft food had a high eating rate, and maintained the target nutritional intake. 4) No annual changes were observed for the nutritional status (physical condition, blood characteristics) of subjects eating soft food. The above findings suggest that diets based on soft food are suitable for maintaining and improving nutritional status in addition to life functions.
In order to know how and what female students eat in supper that frequency to consist of staple food, main dish, side dish was the highest of three meals in a day, the investigations were performed among female students. In this issue, the results of female students who cook from a day were showed. The students who regularly cooked meals ate in 4.8 times in a week including the purchasing prepared meals, and 1∼2 times in a week ate out or ate instant foods. As for the staple food of supper, plain white rice was 5.1 times in a week, but who had plain white rice almost every day remained in about half of female students. There was a tendency to one piece of article intake in a case except plain white rice as for the staple food, and meal contents were not equipped. Fresh vegetables / vegetable salad and a fry-up of vegetables were the most popular side dishes among them, but lower intake frequencies of fishes and deep-fried food were seen. They felt troublesome or did not know the method of cooking them. They cooked many dishes with the frequent use of meat and vegetable, whereas the use of soy bean was a little. Teaching an effective cooking practice with the viewpoint of “having the consciousness about the staple food at meals”, “knowing the method of cooking with the use of vegetables, potatoes, soy bean and fish at first by an easy method”, “decreasing a feeling of troublesome by usual cooking” was examined.
From the view point of food chemistry, and microbial and food cultures, we analyzed the sodium, potassium and salt contents, the free amino acid composition, fatty acid composition and microorganisms of Hatahatazushi produced in Akita. The results were as follows: 1. The average contents of sodium, potassium, salt and water activity of Hatahatazushi were 633.2mg/100g, 45.9mg/100g, 1.6% and 0.968, respectively. 2. The total free amino acid content of Hatahatazushi was 530.9mg/100g. The major free amino acids were glutamic acid, glycine, lysine, leucine and alanine. 3. The major fatty acid compositions were C18: 1 and C16: 0. The total ratio of EPA and DHA was 18.5%. 4. The average bacteria number, lactic acid bacteria number, anaerobic bacteria number and psychrophilic bacteria numbers were 5.74/g (log), 5.66/g (log), 5.46/g (log) and 4.34/g (log), respectively.
We prepared kombu soup stock using some types of mineral waters that differ in hardness, and evaluated their pH, mineral contents, and contents of umami ingredients. The following results were obtained: 1) Water absorption by kombu during extraction for the preparation of soup-stock was lower using hard compared to soft water. The mineral waters were weakly alkali and neutral, but the kombu soup stock was weakly acid. 2) The Na content of the kombu soup stock reached a peak 1-6 hours after the initiation of extraction, reaching equilibrium thereafter using mineral water with each hardness. The K content rapidly increased 1 hour after the initiation of extraction, slightly increased or reached a peak thereafter, and then slightly decreased. These results showed the extraction of Na and K from kombu to soup stock. Using soft water, Ca extraction into kombu soup stock was low, and its amount negligibly changed even with an increase in the extraction time. However, using hard water, the Ca content in kombu soup stock decreased 1 hour after the initiation of extraction, and adsorption of Ca originally contained in mineral water to kombu occurred. Mg extraction from kombu was observed immediately after the initiation of extraction, and thereafter adsorption of Mg to kombu occurred. 3) The glutaminic acid content in kombu soup stock increased with the extraction time, but the increase did not differ between hard and soft water. When mineral water is used for cooking, water appropriate for each type of cooking should be used.