The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare had started the “National Health Promotion Movement in the 21st Century 2nd edition” from April, 2013. In the “Physical activity and exercise” section in the Health Japan 21 (2nd edition), there are 3 targets such as increase daily steps, increase the number of people who have an exercise habit, and increase municipalities which engage in community development and environmental improvement to make it easy to do physical activity. Moreover, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare had presented the “Physical Activity Reference 2013 for health promotion” and the “Physical Activity Guideline (Active Guide) ” in order to assist Health 21 (2nd edition) in March, 2013. The Active Guide based on “physical activity reference 2013” introduced “Plus Ten” as a tagline for encouraging daily physical activity. Plus Ten involves 10 minutes of increasing daily physical activity, especially walking. Moreover, the Active Guide recommended over 60 minutes of moderate physical activity, such as walking every day and vigorous exercise 60 minutes per week for people aged 18 to 64. Furthermore, it recommended 40 minutes of light physical activity, such as standing, walking, or housework every day for people over 65 years of age. We hope these guidelines will contribute to increasing healthy life expectancy.
NARO (National Agriculture and Food Research Organization) has developed functional agricultural products, such as ‘Benifuuki’ green tea rich in anti-allergic O-methylated catechin, purple sweet potato rich in acylated anthocyanin, and Satsuma mandarin rich in β-cryptoxanthin. It was found that purple sweet potato had the hepatic function normalizing effect, the hypotensive effect and antioxidative action, and serum β-cryptoxanthin concentration strongly correlated with the low risk of hepatic dysfunction, the low risk of arterial sclerosis, the low risk of insulin resistance, high bone density in postmenopausal women, and low risk of metabolic syndrome in smoker. NARO research project on the development of functional agricultural products (from 2013 to 2015, total 2 billion yen) including some adopted research subjects is working towards the establishment of the development of health promoting agricultural products by cooperation with incorporated administrative agency, university, and private company. About the agricultural products (e.g. high amylose rice, flaked brown rice, β-conglycinin rich soybean, rutin rich tartary buckwheat, β-glucan rich barley, quercetin rich onion, and catechin rich green tea) and their processed products, we will estimate the reduction of disease risk in collaboration with medical institution, create the agricultural products database of nutrient components, functional components, safety and characteristics, and develop a nutritional instruction system depending on a personal health.
This study examined the influence of lemon drink intake during exercise on the autonomic nervous system activity. Four test drinks (500g each) of lemon water, lemon fruit water, honey lemon water, and honey lemon fruit water were prepared. The lemon water and lemon fruit water were prepared by the addition of lemon juice (40g) and lemon fruit powder (1g) to water, respectively. The honey lemon water and honey lemon fruit water were prepared by the addition of honey (4g) to the above lemon drinks. Six healthy male subjects (average age, 21.3 years) exercised using an exercise bike for 20 min at the heart rate from 110 to 120 bpm. They freely ingested all the test drink during the exercise. The autonomic nervous system activity was examined by measuring the variation in the fingertip heart rate before exercise, after exercise, and after a 30-min. rest. For the intake of the honey lemon water, the LF/HF level (sympathetic nerve activity) after exercise was shown to significantly increase in comparison to that before exercise (p<0.05). For the intake of the lemon fruit water, the HF level (parasympathetic nerve activity) after rest was shown to have a tendency to significantly increase in comparison to that before and after exercise (p<0.1). Based on these results, it was suggested that the intake of the honey lemon water during exercise increased the sympathetic nerve activity after exercise and that of the lemon fruit water has a tendency to increase the parasympathetic nerve activity after exercise rest.
Okara, a significant byproduct of soy milk and tofu manufacturing, is so rich in dietary fiber that the increase of its intake is strongly recommended to prevent lifestylerelated diseases. However, the utilization of okara as a food ingredient is practically limited and a large amount of okara is treated as industrial waste that can cause environmental pollution. In the present study, the inclusion of okara into staple food, such as boiled rice, bread and udon, was tried in order to attain a daily intake of okara, and then the acceptability and the physical properties of the products ; the surface structure, the color and the texture were also evaluated. Two types of freeze-dried okara powders were used ; one (FD okara) was prepared by direct freeze-drying and another (HFD okara) was freeze-dried after homogenization of okara slurry in order to decrease the size of okara fibers. Boiled rice containing up to 1% okara powders was acceptable. The products containing more than 2% okara powders were not accepted due to the coarse surface texture caused by adhering okara powders. Bread with the replacement of flour with 5% and 10% okara powders was acceptable. The products with 5% replacement were as soft in texture as controls without replacement but the 10% replacement gave a little harder texture. In the case of udon, 10% replacement was acceptable. HFD okara gave a little better evaluation than FD okara. Okara was thus applicable to staple food to some extent and therefore the utilization of okara in daily meals should be expected.
We tried to make a teaching aid to enable effective use of a Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top. We added milk, dairy products and fruit to an illustration of serving meals of the “one soup with three side dishes” and called the placemat which was printed with the food items which was used a visual aid as “My Placemat for Nutritional Balance”. Both BM and BG groups need defining and differentiating. Possibly as ‘We intended the use of the placemat for adults and divided volunteers (n=18) into the balance mat (BM) group (n=9). The placemat was also used with a teaching aid of a Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top as the teaching materials for the balance guide (BG) group (n=9) and conducted nutrition education to consider the influence of the different teaching materials′. As a result of the nutrition study after the education, in the BG group, total amount of food eaten showed a tendency to increase, and consumption of grains and milk increased, but the intake of seafood decreased, and the tendency to consume meat became remarkable. Total amount of food intake decreased in BM group so that the ratio of lean body mass tended to increase. VitaminB1 and iron, that are also less in Japanese meals, decreased due to the reduction of the total intake of meat. By a question to ask the utility of the questionnaire about the teaching materials, evaluation of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top of the BG group was low, but the My Placemat for Nutritional Balance of the BM group was favorably appraised. That is, by use of My Placemat for Nutritional Balance together as a supplementary textbook of the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top, the possibility of their use as means to improve dietary habits was shown.
Cedar pollen allergies are one of the severe health problems in Japan. Recently, it was reported that symptoms of pollen allergies are attenuated by the intake of functional foods. Euglena is a unicellular organism classified as algae, which is taking notice as a functional food. In this study, the effect of euglena on experimental pollen allergies in mice was investigated. 5 week-old BALB/c male mice were sensitized using Cry j1 by intraperitoneal injection and intranasal instillation. AIN-93M was fed to the negative control and positive control group, whereas euglena, paramylon, and amorphous paramylon were fed (2% in AIN-93M) to each diet group. We determined the incidence of nasal rubbing, liver weight, spleen weight, white blood cell counts, serum IgE and IFN-γ. In the euglena diet group, the percentage of positive incidences of nasal rubbing mice decreased. It is suggested that euglena may attenuate symptoms of cedar pollen allergies.
To identify the characteristics of the commercial meat from Aizu Jidori, quantitative analyses were performed on the general biochemical components; general contents, free amino acids and fatty acids in the breast meat of Aizu Jidori for comparison with the broiler and Nagoya Cochin meat. In the general components, the protein contents in Aizu Jidori and Nagoya Cochin were significantly higher than in the broiler (p<0.05), the lipid content in Aizu Jidori was significantly lower than in the broiler and Nagoya Cochin (p<0.05), and the ash content in Aizu Jidori was significantly lower than in Nagoya Cochin (p<0.05). The total free amino acid content was significantly higher in order of broiler, Aizu Jidori, and Nagoya Cochin (p<0.05). Though the average contents of anserine and carnosine (it has various physiological activities) in Aizu Jidori were lower than in Nagoya Cochin, but was higher than in the broiler, especially for anserine, there was a significant difference between each chicken meat (p<0.05). For the fatty acid compositions, there was a significant difference in C14 : 0 between Aizu Jidori and the broiler, for C18 : 0, C18 : 2, saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acid between Aizu Jidori and Nagoya Cochin, for C14 : 1, C18 : 1, C18 : 3 and C20 : 4 between Aizu Jidori, broiler, and Nagoya Cochin (p<0.05). Especially, the composition of the C20 : 4 (it has the ef fect of raising the delicacy of food) in Aizu Jidori was 2.5 and 1.7 times higher than in the broiler and Nagoya Cochin, respectively.
We have considered the serving volume of pre-school children (3-6years old, boys : 20, girls : 20) who are healthy and free living. The energy intake was 1583.9 ± 279.1 kcal/day and the basal metabolism volume based on the Dietary Reference Index (2005) for Japanese was 944.1 ± 110.5 kcal/day. For the occasion of basal metabolism × 1.7 (activity factor) or 1.5, each energy requirement was 1615 kcal/day and 1430 kcal/day. Therefore, we determined the meal planning as well as energy requirement for preschool children to be 1500 kcal/day. Therefore, we showed the ser ving volume for Japanese pre-school children to be tentative not sure what you mean by this word.
In order to focus on the food ser vice management of field practice, and obtained the basic data for future teaching, a survey on the training content. (1) For the number of provided meals, less than 1000 meals and more than 1000 meals was 56.6% and 43.4%, respectively. (2) Over 50% of the persons who practiced items was in preprocessing, cooking, meal-setting, providing, oral-communication, dishwashing and cleaning up the cafeteria. The work with emphasis on meal service management has been enforced. For the ranking of each practiced item, preprocessing was washing vegetables and cutting vegetables, cooking was fry, boil, deep-frying, and mix, while meal setting was the side dish, soup, and main dish. (3) The ranking of the work of the S group, which is school lunches was preprocessing, cooking, nutrition education, dishwashing, and seasoning measuring. In the meal service facilities, the A group experienced about 80% more which was meal setting, oral communication, providing, service, and cleaning. The B group experienced 100% which was preprocessing, cooking, meal setting, menu planning, oral communication, and order training. The B group was a standardized system of work in a place. The practice of B group was a standardized system. (4) A comparison between the self-evaluation of campus and off-campus training was done. Compared to the campus practice, a significantly higher rating point for any item is clinical practice, thus the effect of the off-campus training practice is shown. All of the self-evaluation points of field practice were significantly higher than the campus training evaluation. The effect of the off-campus training practice is shown. (5) About the dietitians business, 91.2% of the total persons answered to “fully understand or almost understand”. The order of the higher degree of understanding was the B group, S group, A group. About food service management, 92.2% of the total persons answered “understanding very well and well”. Based on the evaluation points of each facility, the S group was high and the A group was lower. The difference can be confirmed by the training contents of the each facility, thus the training of future leadership challenges became apparent. The difference between the training content can be confirmed by each facility, and the education problem in the future were revealed.