In this paper, three topics on the nutrition strategies for lifestyle related diseases are discussed. Firstly, we show which indicator of obesity is most useful for assessing the severity of metabolic syndrome. Secondly, we show the effectiveness of the Nutrition Clinic healthy diet course, with regards to metabolic syndrome gene polymorphism. Finally, we discuss whether lipoproteins metabolized from chylomicrons, which are synthesized from dietary fat in the small intestine, are atherogenic or not.
Background to the aging of Japanese society, cancer patients is steadily increasing. In order to reduce both sides and increased medical costs also distress, family and patients suffering from cancer, it must have an increasingly force to cancer prevention. It is necessary to utilize what is revealed in vegetables, fruits related is announced by multipurpose cohort study ever help prevention. When you view the related gastric cancer, colon cancer, and esophageal cancer, the effect of fruit and vegetables is high has been shown. For cancer prevention, in addition to the Review nutrient basis, we view as a cooking and food, to understand the meaning of the 12 articles of cancer prevention, to run is important.
Japan used to be an agricultural country, which traditional agricultural method has been organic farming. Health of farmers, environmental preservation and fertility existed at that time. The fact that the introduction of agrichemicals and fertilizers has rapidly expanded production output must be appreciated. On the other hand, environmental pollutions, occurrence of health hazards and food pollution became aggravated. Consumers of organically-grown vegetables often believe that these products are healthful and taste better than conventionally-grown vegetables. However, the vegetable quality like the nutrient content and the organoleptic characteristics are unproven. The purpose of this study is to examine the vegetables quality that farmers cultivated. We obtained lettuces, komatsunas ( Japanese mustard spinaches ) and spinaches from farmers in a few prefectures, and then performed nutritional values and the sensory assessment tests on each vegetable. 1 ) In samples cultivated in multiple prefectures for this study, the difference caused by various cultural conditions showed no significant differences in terms of moisture, ash content, minerals, vitamins and free amino acids contents. The data did not show any nutritional superiority of organically grown agricultural product. 2 ) “The overall evaluation” in lettuces, komatsunas and spinaches was the most strongly associated with the “taste” among “appearance”, “aroma”, “texture” and “taste”. “Aftertaste” was closely related to “The overall evaluation of taste”. These results suggest that cultivation technique is an important factor to grow vegetables of good quality. 3 ) The quality in komatsunas shows that the difference of the variety had stronger effect than the difference between the cultivation techniques did. 4 ) For each of the 3 years, the spinach that the same producer organically grew scored highly in almost every parameter of the sensory test. The results suggest that cultivation technique is likely to contribute vegetable quality.
This study investigated the energy ratio and nutrient intake of 188 high school students in Kyoto, based on food group intake and frequency of intake of food prepared in various ways from total energy intake. Each value was calculated from the students′ answers to a food frequency questionnaire ( FFQ ) . We compared group A, comprising subjects whose energy intake was under the median total energy intake for both sexes, with group B, comprising subjects whose energy intake was above the median total energy intake. Among male students, subjects in group B consumed particularly more meat, desserts, and milk than subjects in group A. Because these are foods high in fat, group B subjects had a significantly higher fat energy ratio regardless of sex. All subjects in group B used mayonnaise and dressings, including oils, more often than those in group A, and male students in group B also ate fried foods more often. Significantly more subjects in group B consumed protein, 4 minerals, and 2 vitamins in amounts greater than the Japanese estimated average requirement (EAR) for each sex. However, even in group B, few female students ( only about 20-30% of subjects ) consumed calcium, magnesium, iron, and vitamin C in amounts greater than the EAR. The reason for this is likely because all female students consumed only a small amount of green and yellow vegetables, fruits, potatoes, and milk. Therefore, regarding energy intake, the male students with smaller energy intake and all the female students need to increase their intake of vitamins and minerals by eating low-fat foods like green and yellow vegetables, fruits, and potatoes prepared in healthy ways, limiting the use of fat in cooking.
It has already been reported that baker′ s yeast-derived beta-glucan (BBG) prevented and reduced the incidence of allergic reactions. This study evaluated the effects of BBG on defecation frequency and fecal properties in female students. METHODS : Sixty healthy female students (age : 19.4+/-1.0) were divided into two groups for a single crossover study, and were given BBG (500m/day) or alpha cornstarch as a placebo. The study duration was 7 weeks with 5 periods consisting of 3 no-administration ones (Period 1, 3 and 5 : 1 week each one) and 2 administration ones (Period 2 and 4 : 2 weeks each one). The subjects answered the questionnaire about their defecation throughout the study. They were divided into 3 groups in accordance with the frequency of defecation in Period 1. Group 1 is one or more times a day, Group 2 is one time in two days, and Group 3 is one time in more than three days. RESULTS : 1 ) There was no effect of BBG on frequency or amount of stool in any group. 2) The form of stool significantly improved by BBG in group 3.3) BBG ingestion caused stool color to change from bright to dark in group 3 (p<0.12). CONCLUSIONS : This study suggests that BBG improves the defecation of subjects who tend to be constipated.
In order to improve self-managing the dietary habits, an education method based on “one soup with three side dishes” was applied to high school girls with an athletic club activity. At first students learned meaning of meals and nutrition also the concept of “one soup with three side dishes”, and then made meal plan mimic menu ( three meals a day ) by using photo-cards of dishes. However, meaningful alteration was not observable on their menu dishes. They were influenced much by their parents who make daily dishes for family. Contrary to their menu making, nutritional value of their breakfast and dinner tended to rise up and drop down respectively after having this education. Also nutritional value of their lunch choice at the stores tended to rise up. So, to educate students using effective tools such as the concept of “one soup with three side dishes” and photo-cards of dishes may be useful for habitation of ideal diet.
Background and objectives : To elucidate modulators of rapid eating behaviors, behaviors in elderly residents in a nursing home were observed using a video recording methods. Methods : Participants of 17 elderly residents were employed. Durations and numbers of chewing of diets with and without soup were measured. Subjects were divided into the fast-eating group and slow-eating group based on duration of chewing. Relationship between duration of chewing of diets with soup and duration of chewing of diets without soup was analyzed by linear regression. Results : Proportion of duration and numbers of chewing in diets with soup to those of diets without soup in the fast-eating group was lower than those of the slow-eating group. Both of duration and numbers of chewing of diets without soup depended on those of diets with soup (p=0.001) . Conclusions : Modulators of rapid eating behaviors in elderly residents might be lower duration and numbers of chewing of diets with soup.
Bifidobacterium bacteria, called probiotics, have been reported to exhibit various physiological functions such as positive effects on the human digestion system. A number of products containing the bacteria have been put on the market in the form of fermented milk products. In order to get sufficient effects in the large intestine, Bifidobacterium bacteria must be the viable form. But the consumer cannot find products that listed the number of viable cells on the label, except for foods for specified health uses “tokuho”. Therefore, we carried out the viable count of bacteria in yogurt and drink yogurt (12 items from 8 companies in Japan ) to find a fermented milk product having a high bacterial viable count and high viability during storage after production. As a result, the fermented milk food and drink contained 3×106 to 4×108 cfu/g or ml, and their viabilities during chilled storage were different. Of these products, the drastic reduction in the viable cells was started in a yogurt after two weeks from the manufacture. The improvement for maintaining a high viable cells during shelf life was completed, and in some yogurts, no decrease in the viable cells was observed for 1 month when the storage temperature was maintained at 4°C. Also, regarding the tolerance of Bifidobacterium bacteria against artificial digestive fluids in vitro, a difference existed between the manufacturers.
The Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on March 11, 2011, released radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. Food safety and people′ s health in the Fukushima prefecture became a major concern as radiation levels in the area increased. Since 2009, we have been investigating the food and nutritional intake of students from Ohu University (Koriyama, Fukushima) using brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaires. Upon analysis of the data before and after the disaster, we found that male students′ eating habits did not significantly change. However female students′ eating habits did. Female students significantly decreased their ingestion of milk, green vegetables, citrus fruits, and mushrooms; and their weekly intake from all the major nutritional food groups (carbohydrate, protein, fat, electrolytes, minerals, vitamins, fibers) decreased generally. For both male and female students, nutrition and food intakes were below the recommended daily values. Our results show that after the nuclear disaster, female students avoid certain foods and decrease their nutritional intake to a greater extent than male students.