We were going to verify our hypothesis through the questionnaire studies that a mealtime is the most important chance for children to establish the sense of basic trust with their parents, and the sense of basic trust cultivate the sense ofself-independency of university students, who are in the late adolescence and in psychological weaning stage. And four causal models were established in the case of men and women who lived with or without their parents.Each causal model showed that the sense of self-independency was directly affected by the sense of self-esteem and the sense of resistance and internal confusion.The sense of self-independency and self-esteem were affected directly and/or indirectly by the degree of satisfaction with the parents-child interactions and various pleasant experiences concerning to the diet life in the past, the pleasant memories at mealtime, the sense of eating with family members, the memorial taste at home and the less times of eating alone.The importance of diet life in early childhood was suggested and our hypothesis was proved.
A relationship between eating behavior and the information concerning eating of female college students was statistically studied by method of questionnaire.Following results were obtained; 1) The fundamental factors of eating consiousness were “eating information”, “consiousness of eating what has a good taste and the delicious” and “restricted meal” . 2) 111 subjects were selected by using their principal component scores. 3) They who showed high scores reacted to the information concerning eating. 4) 57 subjects who showed over plus 1.0 score took strongly an interest in eating and were liable to actively conduct themselves in eating behavior.On the other hand, 54 subjects who showed over minus 1.0 score were not. From above results, it speculated eating behavior of female college students closely related their reaction to the information concerning eating.
1. The mean height, body weight and BMI for the female university students acting as subjects of the present study were159.2cm, 51.1kg and20.1, respectively.The subjects were thus taller and thinner than average individuals. 2. The average Af (Activity factor) was1.50, which is a slightly reduced Af based on nutritional intake.The ratio of students with reduced Af (I) or slightly reduced Af (II) was52.8%, while that of students with a desirable Af was38.9%. 3. Subjects with lower Af tended to show a lower basal metabolism. 4. Average energy intake was 1, 696kcal, and 64% of the students did not consume the recommended energy intake. 5. As to the nutritional intake for breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks, the PFC ratio for breakfast was not favorable. 6. About46%of the subjects regularly consumed a very light breakfast. 7. In subjects with a reduced Af, the nutritional intake for breakfast tended to be low. 8. The results of the present study demonstrate that individuals who consume more nutritious breakfasts tend to be more active.Further investigation into the current state of practical dietary education including diet is required in order to determine whether such education enables female university students to reexamine and manage their lifestyles by taking steps such as increasing the intensity of Af.
The cooking characteristics of a diacylglycerol-rich oil (DAG) were examined by comparing the confectioneries using DAG or a triacylglycerol-rich oil (TAG) as the control, which was prepared from by making the fatty acid composition and tocopherol content as similar as possible to each other. The items made were a chiffon cake, financiere, chou and donuts. According to the sensory tests, the confectionary sweets containing DAG were evaluated as being equal to those with TAG for all the variables except for the specific gravity of the chiffon cake, batter and the texture of the baked chiffon cake. The sensory tests resulted in a lower evaluation for the chiffon cakes prepared with DAG because of their rough and uneven texture. The specific gravity of the chiffon cake prepared with DAG was greater than that prepared with TAG. The results of the textural analysis using a creep-meter also showed that the DAG samples were harder than the TAG sample. These data support the results from the sensory test. In conclusion, DAG's great wettability, water holding ability, and emulsifiability, attributable to its structure, seemed to be somehow reflected in its cooking characteristics. However, DAG and TAG seemed to be basically comparable in terms of both ease of use and organoleptic properties.
The effects of the eating habits and physical properties of female students, and the effects of the eating habits of their mothers, on their bone mass were studied.The bone mass of 50 female students aged 18-21 yrs.was measured by ultrasound methods.Current dietary intake was measured based on a quantitative dietary record for 3 days.The present and past eating habits of the students (primary school-high school) and of their mothers at present were assessed by a questionnaire regarding their food preferences and intake frequency.The subjects were divided into three groups based on their bone mass, which is significantly different from each other.The three groups separated by bone mass were significantly different from each other with respect to the preference and intake frequency of milk and milk products in past and present, and the intake frequency of small fish in the past.The difference between the three groups based on the current intake of energy and nutrients, physical characteristics including their body weight and body mass index (BMI), exercise habits, age of menarche and duration from menarche was not significant. These results suggested that the preference and intake frequency of milk and milk products and the intake frequency of small fish in the past are important for obtaining a higher bone mass by female students.
In July-August in 2000 or 2001, using females living in Shiga Prefecture, investigations were conducted on the actual conditions of beverage-drinking habits by drinking occasions. Investigations were also conducted on images toward beverages drunk in chatting time and served to visitors. The results of the investigation are as follows. 1) The drinking green tea increased with age, and there was the significant difference between students and females over 40-years old. Barley tea and oolong tea were consumed frequently among females under 39-years old.For breakfast, coffee and milk were consumed among all age groups. In females over 60-years-old, before sleeping, many females drink water or milk. 2) Students like black tea than coffee. The preference for black tea decreased with age and the preference for coffee increased with age. In females over 40-years old, both the drinking rate of green tea and the preference for green tea were high and those of black tea were low. 3) Regarding beverages in chatting time, no difference in image for green tea among all females was observed. The image for black tea decreased and for green tea increased with a rise in age. 4) Regarding beverages for visitors, the image for black tea was strong in young females and green tea was strong in older females.
It is reported that the islanders of Hachijo have had a longevity of life that dates back to ancient times. As a matter of fact, according to an ancient document from the modern ages, the people of Hachijo island tended to live on a kind of dumplings refrerred as Hengo.These dumplings were made a mixture of refined grains and Hengo. They were also known to collect and eat Ashitaba leaves which were found in the mountains and also in the fields. From the sea, they were able to catch fish and shellfish and they also collected seaweed. We have studied in great detail the different kinds of food types consumed by these people. This included extensive research into the various kinds of animal food they were known to eat. The following is a short summary of the findings of our research: It was noted that the animal foods they tended to eat were fish, shellfish, sea turtles and seals as well as various kinds of birds and so on. During times of great famine however, it was reported that they were known to also consume beef.