In order to compare the food intake and views on health of elementary school students and adults living in northern Thailand, a questionnaire survey was conducted that included 72 male and 73 female students and 65 males and 45 females aged 15 to 59 years. With respect to their food intake frequencies, 91% and 99% responded “every day” for rice and 72% and 79% for vegetables among the male and female students, respectively, and 97% and 95% for rice and 63% and 88% for vegetables among the male and female adults, respectively. Three regular meals were taken by 74% and 80% of the male and female students, respectively, and 91% and 91% of the male and female adults, respectively (p<0.05 for males between students and adults). When asked about the pleasure of having meals with their family while chatting, 47% and 69% of the male and female students, respectively, and 91% and 91% of the male and female adults, respectively, responded positively (p<0.05 between genderin students and p<0.001 for males and p<0.05 for females between students andadults). Reports of sleeping well came from 36% and 54% of the male and female students, and 47% and 66% of the male and female adults (p<0.05 between gender instudents). A significant correlation was found between the food intake frequencies of vegetables and the degree of sleeping (p<0.05 for students and adults, respectively). The greater intake frequencies of vegetables showed a correlation with more human com-munication (p<0.05and p<0.01 for students and adults, respectively). The present results indicated that lower food intake levels lead to a lower nutritional status, and the lower intake frequencies of vegetables can affect the degree of sleep and of human communication.
With the arrival of the aged society, osteoporosis has become a large public health issue in developed nations.Because the time of university student life is the most crucial period for the substantiality of the bone density, the relationship between bone density and dietary habits in this age should be examined. In this study, the bone densities of the examinees were measured longitudinally by ultra sound bone densitometer, and then, the relationship between these measured values and nutritional values calculated based on the contents of their meals were investigated. We also researched theire ating habits and body conditions using a questionnaire. As a result, it was concluded that maintaining an exercise habit and appropriate dietary habits were very important. On average, the bone density of the examinee on entrance into university surpassed the normal range.However, most examinees should markedly lowered bone density after 4 years of university life. Examinees with high BMI value tended to show high bone density, while low BMI examinees showed low bone density. Examinees who maintained bone density for university life ate a high energy diet, while examinees, who consumed dairy products, also showed a high bone density.
Young women often diet not out of nutritional consideration but as a response to trends in beauty and fashion, seeking what is regarded as “the ideal body” . The study was undertaken to investigate the psychological aspect of dieting on the part of young women. An interview survey was conducted with special focus being placed on each interviewee's personality and life-style The interview sample included 26 young women, 20-24 years old living in the metropolitan area.T hirteen of the subjects were students and 13 were non students. The results of the interview showed that the subjects have a negative self-image. It seems that young women's diet was reflected by a discriminatory position. To prevent young women from unnecessarily dieting, an effective educational curriculum should be established. Young women can learn the importance of a diet from the curriculum
This study examined whether nucleic acid group flavor-enhancers that have been deemed to have problems when used for making lightly pickled vegetables can be used to make lightly pickled vegetables when the phosphatase activity is suppressed or inactivated by blanching raw vegetables in boiling water. Changes in 5'-nucleotide levels (5'-GMP and 5'-IMP), color and hardness were examined in five kinds of lightly pickled vegetables (cucumber, mixture of cabbage and cucumber, turnip, celery and eggplant), and the organoleptic test was performed with the following results. 1. The degree of degradation of 5'-GMP and 5'-IMP by the enzyme differed among raw vegetables. In lightly pickled cucumber and a mixture of cabbage and cucumber, that of 5'-GMP was markedly higher than that of 5'-IMP. Furthermore, a similar tendency was found in lightly pickled eggplant. However, no difference was found in lightly pickled turnip and celery. 2. The levels of 5'-GMP and 5'-IMP increased with the length of time of blanching. 3. As to the color of lightly pickled cucumber, L*value and b*value were increased and a*value was decreased a little by blanching. In lightly pickled turnip, hardly any change was observed by blanching or with time. In lightly pickled celery, L*value and a*value were slightly decreased and b*value was increased by blanching. In lightly pickled eggplant, blanching caused almost no change, but there was a slight tendency for an increase in L * value and a decrease in b * value. 4. The hardness of lightly pickled cucumber changed only slightly after blanching, but decreased gradually with duration of pickling. In lightly pickled turnip, little change was found after blanching or with duration. Lightly pickled celery made of blanched celery softened with duration of pickling, the difference becoming marked on day 4. Lightly pickled eggplant was hardest when raw eggplant without blanching was used, and softest when raw eggplant blanched for 2 minutes was used. 5.In the organoleptic test, the pickle with favorable results in all of color, taste and texture was lightly pickled eggplant with blanching (2 minutes and 1 minute), and a lightly pickled mixture of cabbage and cucumber with a half-minute blanching was also highly evaluated, demonstrating the usefulness of a nucleic acid group flavor-enhancer for making these lightly pickled vegetables. The flavor-enhancer appeared to be usable also for lightly pickled turnip when raw turnip was blanched for more than 3 minutes. The flavor-enhancer, however, was not beneficial for making lightly pickled cucumber or celery.
Accommodation of the prevention of lifestyle related diseases is said to be important starting in childhood, and improvement of nutritional factors and eating habits in particular is extremely important as a primary prevention. Expectations are currently being placed on dietary education at schools, and school dietitians are attracting attention as nutrition and health specialists. With this in mind, a survey was conducted on the present state of dietary education provided by school dietitians at elementary and junior high schools for the purpose of identifying future problems and areas for improvement. National and public elementary and junior high schools contained in the 2004 National School Conspectus were classified according to size, and 650 elementary schools and 250 junior high schools were selected at random as subjects of this survey. Anonymous, original questionnaires that we prepared relating to such subjects as the presence and the contents of dietary education were mailed to the subject schools addressed to the school dietitians at those schools from July to September, 2001. Questionnaires were mailed after contacting school dietitians at each school by telephone in advance to request their cooperation and obtain their consent. Responses were obtained from 778 schools representing a response rate of 86.4%. Dietary education were offered at 80.4% of the elementary schools and 68.5% of the junior high schools.In addition, among those schools offering dietary education, school dietitian was involved in dietary education at more than 90% of elementary and junior high schools. However, the numbers of school dietitians who were satisfied with the dietary education offered at their school were low, with only 6.4% of school dietitians being satisfied at elementary schools and only 3.4% at junior high schools. The most frequently indicated area where improvements should be made was a “lack of time” . An important subject for the future is considered to be the providing of an environment that facilitates dietary education by school dietitians, including enhancing the working conditions of school dietitians and increasing the number of those teachers assigned by schools.
The general properties relating to the composition and hygienic properties of fourteen brands of bottled drinking deep sea water and one of deep sea water (source water) were investigated. (1) Most of the brands of bottled drinking deep sea water were produced by a reverse osmosis system. (2) Composition of bottled drinking deep sea water;Residues on evaporation 663±592.2ppm, hardness 344±360.3ppm, free carbon dioxide 3.7±1.89ppm, pH4.8 alkalinity 8.9±9.28ppm, pH 6.81±0.483, consumption of KMnO41.1±0.84ppm. Composition of source water;Residues on evaporation 42723ppm, free carbon dioxide 7.4ppm, pH4.8 alkalinity 61.1ppm, pH 7.4, consumption of KMnO4 199.6ppm. (3) Mineral contents of bottled drinking deep sea water;Na 43.7±29.21 ppm, Mg 83.3±87.42ppm, K 10.5±17.00ppm, Ca 14.7±17.88ppm, B 13.7±13.92ppm, Li6.1±7.77ppb, Al 1.3±1.30ppb, Si 1.67±2.666ppm, P 41.7±30.57ppb, V 12.5±7.36ppb, Cr 0.3±0.21ppb, Mn 1.0±2.12ppb, Fe 12.9±3.64ppb, Ni 0.4±0.35ppb, Cu 0.95±0.76ppb, Zn 1502.6±4311.9ppm, Ge 1.2±0.72ppb, Se 2.7±3.81ppb, Rb 3.6±4.82ppb, Mo 0.7±0.71ppb. (4) Inorganic anions in bottled drinking deep sea water;F 5.4±8.56ppm (n=9), Cl 252.2±207.55ppm (n=14), Br 3.7±1.19ppm (n=4), NO33.8±6.28ppm (n=7), SO494.3±116.39ppm (n=14), SiO212.9±16.39ppm (n=14). Inorganic anions in deep sea water;Cl 8396.7ppm, NO214.2ppm, S042277.7ppm, SiO26.4ppm. (5) K-Index and 0-Index by Hashimoto in bottled drinking deep sea water;KIndex-23.3±27.33, 0-Index 1.1±1.55. Although natural mineral water was classified as having a “good taste” by K-Index and 0-Index was 68-76%, that of bottled drinking deep sea water was 14%. (6) Volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in bottled drinking deep sea water; Total THM 2.7±4.93ppb (n=8), CF 0.7±0.47ppb (n=8), BDC 0.6±0.49ppb (n=3), DBC 1.6±1.47ppb (n=3), BF 5.4±4.99ppb (n=3). Volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in source water;Total THM0.8ppb, CF 0.7ppb. MCF, TCE and PCE were below the limit of detection. (7) Microorganism;Five brands of bottled drinking deep sea water and one of the source water showed detection of microorganisms in nutrient agar, but not in TCBS agar or GAM agar. It was found that bottled drinking deep sea water more contained Na, Mg, K, Cr, Zn, Cl ion and F ion as compared with natural mineral water.
In July-August in 2001 or 2002, using females ssubjects living in the Hansh in District, investigations were conducted on the actual conditions of beverage-drinking habits gtouped by drinking occasions. Investigations were also conducted on attitudes toward beverages consumed in chatting time and those served to visitors. The results of the investigation are as follows. 1) The behaviors on drinking--among-students and groups, except for students differed greatly. There was the significant difference between students and females over 25-years old in the drinking rate of no-beverage. The drinking green tea increased with age, but consumptio of oolong was the reverse. Barley tea was consumed frequently among females under 59-years old. In females of 25-59-years, coffee was consumed.In females over 60-years-old, before sleeping, many females drink water or green tea. 2) Students like black tea. The preference for black tea decreased with age and the preference for coffee increased with age. 3) The attitudes of regarding-beverages during chatting time and for visitors were greatly different among all age. The reasons were from peverence for black tea in students, for coffee in 25-59-years, and for green tea in females over 60-years-old.