Liking for 4 levels of sucrose solution (2.5%, 5.0%, 10.0%, 20.0%) and 3 kinds of sugar solution having different taste qualities of sweetness were investigated using sensory evaluation in junior high school students and adults (290 subjects).The questionnaire survey including affection, cognition, liking and consumption of sweets was conducted in the same subjects and the relation between response and liking for sugar solutions was examined. Analysis of variance showed that age was the important factor influencing the liking for sucrose concentration.Junior high school students and elderly adults (60+years) were inclined to like higher sucrose concentrations and not to like lower sucrose concentration. The young middle-aged subjects (30-39years) liked low sucrose concentration and did not like high sucrose concentration compared to the distribution of liking in other age groups.It was considered that there was a turning point in sweetness preference in this middle age-group.Females liked 2.5% sucrose solution better than males.Affection for sweets influenced the choice of sucrose concentration, while cognition of sweets had no effect on the liking for sucrose concentration.The degree of liking or eating sweets and the preference of intensity in seasoning also related to the choice of sucrose concentration. Liking for sugar solutions with different taste qualities did not relate to age or sex.
Hyaluronic acid extracted from the crest of chicken was used in the experiment. The quantity of hyaluronic acid was measured by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate. In vitro digestion of hyaluronic acid were measured by artical gastric juice, porcine pancreatin, rats intestinal mucosa and hyaluroniase ovine testes.Enzyme of arttical gastric juice, porcine pancreatin and rats intestinal mucosa digestion of hyaluronic acid were not observed. However, almost complete in vivo digestion and absorption of hyaluronic acid in rats were demonstrated. Microfloral examination revealed an increase in the counts of cecal Lactobacillus and Bzfidobacterirn during the administration of hyaluronic acid.
In order to assess the fondness for and consumption pattern of pickles, the consumption status of pickles on the market and fondness for seasoning, a questionnaire survey was performed in 544 students at this college, and the results obtained were as follows: 1. The students could be divided into two groups;those with a negative image of pickles, such as “too salty and bad for health”, “raw vegetables are far better for health than pickles” and “preserved food”, and those with a positive image of pickles, such as “food of choice”, “a cooking method for vegetables” and “a treasure trove of vegetable fibers, vitamins and minerals” .Especially, in students from prefectures other than Miyagi(predominantly from the northeastern section of Japan), those with the image “preserved food” were greater in number than those with other images(p<0.05). Further, comparing students with different courses, more students in the food and nutrition course had the image “food of choice” (p<0.05)than those in the domestic science course. 2. The frequency of pickles to be put on the dining table was “occasionally” in 49.4% and “always” in 40.3%, and in both cases, it was markedly higher in extended families than in nuclear families(p<0.01).The frequency of taking pickles was “once a day, ” “once a week” and “once every 3 days”, with significant differences among geographic areas and familiy types. 3. The fondness for pickles was remarkably high, and only 5.0% of the students gave the replied “dislike” . Besides, the fondness varied depending on the presence or absence of a person who made pickles;i.e.it is likely that a family with a person making pickles had a significant liking for pickles(p<0.05), and a family without such person a significant dislike(p<0.01). 4. The rates of families using homemade pickles, or pickles on the market or a combination of them were 15.9%, 25.0% and 59.1%, respectively.Users of pickles on the market were dominant in nuclear families(p<0.01), and users of homemade pickles were dominant in extended families(p<0.01). 5. The commonest homemade pickles included “lightly pickled cucumber” and “li ghtly pickled Chinese cabbage” . Consumption of “pickled radish” and “pickled Japanese apricot” was significantly more common in the homemade pickle-liking group, and among the extended family groups. The pickles bought more frequently and preferred among 63 kinds of pickles on the market included “Chinese cabbage kimchi”, “pickled Japanese apricot”, “lightly pickled cucumber”, “karikari-ume” (crispy pickled Japanese apricot), “pickled radish seasoned with dried bonito”, “lightly pickled Chinese cabbage” and “lightly pickled eggplant”, with significant differences among geographic areas and family types was found. and disliked pickles included “European-type pickles”, “pickled scallions”, “lightly pickled celery”, “cucumber pickled in sake-lees”, “wasabi pickles” (wasabi pickled in sake-lees), “vegetables pickled in sake-lees”, “bettare pickles” (horseradish pickled in malted rice), and “ginger pickled in sweet vinegar” . 6. Concerning the question on the future use of pickles on the market, 32.3% of students replied “I will use them” in the homemade-pickle liking group, versus 68.5% in the market product-liking group and 81.9% in the group liking both types of product.
A study was made on how much the use of personal tableware prevails in present-day Japan.Data was gathered from responses to a questionnaire mailed to 2, 500 persons mainly residing in Saitama prefecture just outside Tokyo.A 41.4% responese was achieved. Among the tableware in daily use, the highest level of personal use in the 80-90% range was for chopsticks, with rice bowls and teacups following.In contrast, the use of personal soup bowls was low at 46%, and that of subdivided plates was extremely low at 8%. The highest resistance to common use was expressed for chopsticks, this being followed by teacups, rice bowls, soup bowls, and subdivided plates in that order.Female resistance was higher than male resistance to the shared use of tableware. The strongest resistance to common use was by family-in-law members, this being followed by parents, brothers, partners, and children in that order. The factors affecting shared use of tableware were thus related to gender, generation difference within a family, and eating together as a family.
This is a summary of the responses to the questionnaire on “Garagaraoroshi”, the traditional local cuisine of Suzuka. Garagaraoroshi contains grated daikon radish, yaki-chikuwa (steamed fish cake), abura-age (thin, deep-fried tofu), and Welsh onion, all of which are mixed with miso. 1) Garagaraoroshi is more popular among large families then nuclear families. The same can be said about the frequency of cooking. 2) Garagaraoroshi was mainly cooked at gatherings during memorial services or New Year holidays. 3) The way the main ingredients and seasonings are used has changed into a form in which each family taste is added compared with the traditional way of cooking Garagaraoroshi. 4) Dishes similar to Garagaraoroshi can be found in other areas, but these dishes have different names and are cooked on different occasions.