"Washoku" (Washoku culture) was inscribed to UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage List on December 4, 2013. The list defines "Washoku, traditional dietary cultures of the Japanese, notably for the celebration of New Year." "Washoku" encompasses culture as well as cuisine of the Japanese.
The proposal document describes "Washoku is practice based on a comprehensive set of skills, knowledge, practice and traditions related to the production, processing, preparation and consumption of food. It is associated with an essential spirit of respect for nature closely related to the sustainable use of natural resources."
Washoku has developed as part of daily life, with a connection to annual events. For the Japanese, it means sharing traditional and well-balanced meals to fulfill such important social functions as reaffirming identity, fostering familial and community cohesion, and contributing to a healthy life.
Japan is blessed with a warm climate and good quality water, as well as the availability of a large variety of fish and seaweed from the surrounding sea. Fortunate in its natural environment, Japan has developed an attractive food culture, Washoku, the safeguarding of which we Japanese should promote.
The characteristics of flavonoids in sanboukan, a citrus fruit, produced mainly in the Wakayama region were examined in this study. Flavonoids (eriocitrin, neoeriocitrin, narirutin, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, didymin, poncirin, 6, 8-C-diglucosylapigenin, diosmin, sinensetin, nobiletin, 6-dimethoxynobiletin, tangeretin, and 6-dimethoxytangeretin) in the peel and juice of sanboukan, related varieties (yutaka-no-takarakan, amanatsu), and others (houraikan, dekopon, unsyu-mikan) were determined using HPLC and examined by analysis of principal component. Eriocitrin, narirutin, hesperidin, and 6, 8-C-diglucosylapigenin were shown to be characteristic substances in the peel of sanboukan, and eriocitrin was a characteristic substance in the juice. 6, 8-C-Diglucosylapigenin was newly shown to be abundant in the peel and juice of sanboukan in this study. Eriocitrin exhibited the highest antioxidative activity of the flavonoids of sanboukan fruit by measurement of the scavenging activity of the DPPH radical. The peel of sanboukan exhibited significantly high antioxidative activity in comparison with other citrus peels. This high activity was suggested to be related to the high total content of flavonoids and to the eriocitrin. The albedo, mesocarp of the fruit, was shown to contain abundant characteristic flavonoids of sanboukan peel. The flavedo, epicarp of the fruit, exhibited the highest levels of antioxidative activity in the structural portions of the fruit (flavedo, albedo, segment epidermis tissue, juice vesicle tissue, and seed).
［Aim］ We investigated the physical properties, palatability, and chewiness of fish meat after treatment with a texturizer and/or different heating conditions (normal pan or pressure cooker).
［Methods］ Fish meat samples were immersed in distilled water or 3％ texturizer solution and then heated in either a normal pan or pressure cooker. We measured the compressive stress, hardness, cohesiveness, and adhesiveness of the samples, and employed young and elderly testers for sensory evaluation. The young testers also underwent electromyography (EMG) .
［Results］ Samples treated with texturizer had smaller weight reduction rates and lower values of compressive stress and hardness than did samples that were not. The samples treated with texturizer were evaluated favorably in sensory evaluations by both the young and elderly testers, who described the fish meat as soft, cohesive, easy to chew, easy to swallow, palatable, and tasty. For the fish meat treated with texturizer, EMG showed a reduced number of chews from the start of the oral preparatory phase until the oral transit phase of swallowing. Treatment with texturizer shortened the active mastication period and oral preparatory time, and also decreased mastication effort. No difference in softening was observed between the different heating methods.
［Conclusion］ We confirmed that the use of a texturizer improved softening due to enzymatic protein degradation and moisture retention by sodium bicarbonate.
Folate is important for prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs). We studied the associations of knowledge of folate and NTDs with the intake of folate, and food consumption structure in female university students, including newcomers and senior students (juniors plus seniors). Of these, newcomers had insufficient knowledge of folate and NTDs. No associations were observed between their acquaintance with folate and folate consumption for all students. Food consumption structure analyses revealed that students consuming folate of more than the Recommended Dietary Allowance were consuming not only folate-contributing food but also a variety of food items. Thus, it was suggested that not only providing more intensive education concerning folate and NTDs but also keeping quality of food consumption as a whole (amount of meal and food balance) are warranted for prevention of NTDs.
Sufficient energy and low protein intake are essential for dietetic treatment of patients with renal disease. Low-protein rice used for such dietetic treatment has issues in terms of taste and smell unlike general non-glutinous rice. However, there are only few research reports regarding the smell of low-protein rice.
In the present study, we conducted physicochemical analysis and sensory evaluation of several types of rice when boiled with adjusted protein contents by using a gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GC/MS) and a smell identification device, determined characteristics of smells, and examined the correlation between smells and deliciousness of these types of rice.
Concentration of hexanal, which is an odorous component of boiled rice with adjusted protein contents, was unrelated to the protein contents in the rice. Boiled rice with adjusted protein contents had a strong odor from a sensory viewpoint and was judged as inadequate in terms of deliciousness. The survey results indicated that the contents of hexanal or aldehyde series had negative effects on both smell and taste of the boiled rice with adjusted protein contents and, consequently, had a negative effect on deliciousness as well.
Naringin and limonin are some of major bitter principles in grapefruit (Citrus paradisi). In order to clarify the distribution of naringin and limonin in grapefruit, their concentrations in each part of the grapefruit were measured. Fruits imported from the USA and South Africa were used. Domestic fruits were also used for comparison. The fruits were separated into four parts and each part was analyzed by HPLC. The distribution of naringin and limonin in the four grapefruit was not very different among all the fruits. Naringin was significantly contained in the albedo, and limonin was significantly contained in the segment membrane. The juice vesicles contained both naringin and limonin, at an average of 178mg/100g and 9.05mg/1,000g, respectively. This showed that naringin and limonin were the primary cause of the bitterness in grapefruit and its juice. Also, in the juice vesicles, the naringin concentration in the solution was very low. This suggested that naringin was significantly present in the membranes of the juice vesicles. Furthermore, it was determined that the limonin concentration of the fresh grapefruit juice using a household mixer was significantly increased within a few hours after juicing.