Barley have a component of soluble fiber called β-glucan which have β-(1→3) and β-(1→4)-linkages. Studies on the physiological functions of barley have been rapidly increasing in terms of the cholesterol-lowering effect, serum glucose and insulin normalization including the second meal effects, decreased body fat accumulation, and appetite control. It has been scientifically proven that the soluble dietary fiber in barley, β-glucan, might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has stated that daily intakes of 3 g or more of soluble fiber (β-glucan) in barley may reduce the risk of heart disease by its ability to lower total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) supported the following health claim for barley β-glucan: 1) maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations, 2) reduction of post-prandial glycemic responses, and 3) digestive function (normal stool frequency). Recent clinical studies have suggested that the consumption of barley and its products might reduce many risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome, namely diabetes and dyslipidemia. In our inter vention study in Japanese men and women, the consumption of high β-glucan barley reduced waist circumstaznce and visceral fat area. This review presents recent information about the health function of barley β-glucan.
The Maillard reaction is a chemical reaction between amino compounds (such as amino acids) and carbonyl compounds (such as reducing sugars). Many compounds are produced in this reaction. This article introduces some knowledge about the Maillard reaction. Various aroma and colored compounds (yellow, brown, and so on) are generated by the Maillard reaction in foods. As the aroma, 2-acetylfran is formed from glucose with amino acids. Methional is formed from methionine and alphadicarbonyl compounds. These compounds cause Koku-taste. Melanoidins are the brown polymer, formed in the Maillard reaction. Melanoidins are the antioxidant, protect for oxidative cell injury. Various compounds are generated in the Maillard reaction. The Maillard reaction is closely related to a food function.
5´-Nucleotides, especially 5´-GMP, and free amino acids are major umami components in mushrooms. While raw mushrooms contain little 5´-GMP, the results of our study revealed that the content was significantly increased by heating, and further increased by freezing and heating. In this study, three commercial mushroom varieties: nameko (Pholiota nameko), bunashimegi (Hypsizigus marmoreus), enokitake (Flammulina velutipes) were evaluated. The mushrooms were divided into four treatment groups: raw, heated, frozen, and frozen/heated, and 5´-GMP and free amino acid contents were determined. Additionally, sensory evaluation was performed on the cooked mushrooms subjected to heating alone or heating after freezing. The following results were obtained.
(1) All mushrooms contained high 5´-GMP when subjected to freezing/heating. Under this treatment, 5´-GMP content was the highest in P.nameko and lowest in H.marmoreus.
(2) Free amino acid content exhibited only small changes under the treatments.
(3) Sensory evaluation of P.nameko heated after freezing indicated high palatability. Thus, it was concluded that P.nameko is suitable for freezing. The frozen/heated H.marmoreus sample showed decreased chewiness and palatability, and was therefore determined to be unsuitable for freezing. Additionally, F.velutipes did not exhibit differences between heated and frozen/heated samples, and was thus found to be suitable for freezing.
The purpose of this study of the institutionalized elderly was to examine two relationships using the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI); one between the zinc nutritional status and the Activities of Daily Living (ADL), and the other between the protein nutritional status and ADL. The estimations of the hematological constituents, body index, and dietary survey were made based on the two examinations carried out on a group of 21 elderly patients (3 male, 18 female, mean age 83 ± 7 years; survey 1) and another group of 26 elderly patients (6 male, 26 female, mean age 90 ± 6years : survey 2).
The results from this study are summarized as follows :
1) Compared to the no risk and low risk, the moderate risk and major risk groups of GNRI showed significantly lower levels of body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR), serum Alb, TP, and zinc values.
2) Compared to the no risk and low risk, the moderate risk and major risk groups of GNRI showed significantly higher levels of the level of care, the grade of bedriddenness, and grade of cognitive function.
3) Significant positive correlations were found between the GNRI value and 8 other values; body weight, BMI, BMR, serum Alb, TP, A/G ratio, iron, and zinc. On the other hand, significant inverse correlations were found between the GNRI value and 3 other values; the level of care, the grade of bedriddenness, and grade of cognitive function.
4) The values calculated from the regression equation indicated that the low risk of GNRI exceeded the reference value of the BMI, serum TP, Alb, A/G ratio and zinc values.
These results indicate that the GNRI is a reliable tool for the evaluation of the zinc nutritional status. In addition, the GNRI is also reliable for the evaluation of seven factors which are subject to change according to the zinc nutritional status; the level of care, the grade of bedriddenness, the grade of cognitive function, BMI, serum TP, Alb values, and A/G ratio.
In order to clarify the issues of Basic Home Economics curriculum when teaching food education, 638 high school students' actions and awareness concerning foods were surveyed by using a questionnaire in Tokyo on 23rd January of 2012. There were both a general course of 431 students and a specialized course of 207 students in this school. The dietary experience of eating of McDonalds, Yoshinoya, and Gusto; of eating tazukuri, oyako-domburi, or "fair trade" chocolate; of eating with family and skipping meals; of interest in dietary life; and of personal and academic data were collected, cross tabulated and analyzed by multiple regression with interest in dietary life as the dependent variable. Among the general course of students, interest in dietary life was significant increased by their experiences of eating "fair trade" chocolate, eating tazukuri, and eating an evening meal before nine o'clock, among the specialized course of students, it was only by eating an evening meal before nine o'clock.
It was important for high school students to have the scientific evidence of eating breakfast, try traditional dishes and enhance citizenship.
The result showed that there were issues of Basic Home Economics curriculum related to teaching food education:
1) The investigation of processes which to solve problems related to food and nutrition
2) The restructuring of the practices in cooking involves both domestic and international viewpoints