This study was undertaken to analyze the factors influencing on the pollution loading in the cooking waste water.The influence of wiping the tableware appliances, the difference in menu style (Japanese, Western and Chinese style dishes), the energy ratio and the effect of soap use on the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) loadings in terms of g/1, 000kcal of the dish were determined. Tow-way ANOVA and the multiple regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. The major results obtained were as follows: 1) 44% of the COD and 54% of the BOD loadings in the cooking waste water were significantly reduced by wiping the tableware appliances. 2) The difference in menu style (Japanese, Western and Chinese style dishes) had no effect on the COD and BOD loadings. 3) The composition of energy intake (the percentage of energy obtained from protein, fat and carbohydrate) had no effect on the COD and BOD loadings. 4) The ues of soap was tended to reduce by wiping the tableware appliances however the soap use had no effect on the COD and BOD loadings.
An investigation was made on the relationship between chidlren's dietary behaviors and parent's consciousness, which might be lying behind the status of their betweenmeals eating reported in our previous paper. This study was made to improve the present status of children's dietary habits as a whole. 1. The parent's problems regarding their children's dietary habits included 17 items, which were assigned into four groups;(1) manner of eating (80%), 02 overeating (27%) and leaving a dish unfinished (15%)(3) finicky in food (68%) and (4) small appetite (20%). The details of these were as follows;eating while playing (23%), leaving the foods scattered (6%), long eating time (31%), unbalanced eating (30%), uneven-tempered eating (24%) too much eating between meals (16%), overeating of sweets (8%), dislike of hard foods (10%) and preference of sweets (4%). 2. The present results were well coincident with the relation between parents and children's between-meals eating found in our previous study. 3. This was closely related to the mistakes in the parent's ideas that between-meals snacks are given for the purpose of children's pleasure and that they choose the snacks mainly based on their preference. Therefore, it seems necessary to break out such misunderstandings in parents. The parents are bothering with their children's eating behaviors derived from their own catering attitudes to the children, resulting to inhibit the growth of healthy mind and body and the formation of satisfactory dietary habits of their children. Thus, these results suggest that the effective measures should be taken to provide appropriate information for child care.
Most of domestic wastes are rubbish released from kitchen. When these wastes are burn, carbon dioxide, ash and dioxine etc. are produced. In order to prevent the pollution of stmosphere, the kitchen wastes must be dumped as little amounts as possible. most of these kitchen wastes are refuse portion of vegetables. Therefore, those utilization of wastes is very important for our life. In this report, various minerals contents in the non-utilized portion of vegetables were assayed. Cauliflower, Broccoli, Parsley, Cabbage and Jew's Marrou were ashed at 550°C by using electric furnace. These ash fractions were dissolved in hydrochloric acid and filtrated. Several kinds of minerals, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese and strontium, were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The amount of manganese in eatable portion on all samples was larger than that in non-utilized portion and the amount of potassium in non-utilized portion on all of samples, except Broccoli was larger than those in edible portion.
Chemical composition was identified in five species of amaranthus grains. They are Mexico, Nairobi, and Nouken c. 91-3 which belong to Amaranthus hypochondriacus and K 4 and Akou which belong to Amaranthus caudatus. The rind color was light yellow or light red, and the size was from 0.39g to 0.76g per 1, 000seeds. Analyses of 100g of amaranthus dry powder showed the following mean composition: 1) Crude protein 16.4g, crude fat 5.2g, ash 3.0g, and carbohydrate 75.3g. 2) Dietary fibers (DF): 2.8g soluble DF, 10.6g insoluble DF, and total fiber 13.5g. 3) Minerals: Ca 339mg, P 736mg, Fe 6.9mg, Na 2mg, K 303mg, Mg 240mg, Mn 3mg, Zn 3, 484μg, and Cu 225μg. 4) Vitamins: thiamin 0.06mg, riboflavin 0.18mg, and niacin 1.5mg. Amaranthus were compared with the chemical composition of eight other grain powders. 5) The mean fatty acids composition was: Linoleic a.43%, Oleic a.31%, and Palmitic a.21%. 6) The mean amino acid scores were 67 by the 1973 FAO/WHO standard pattern for adults and 73 by the 1985 FAO/WHO/UNU standard pattern for preschoolers, 2-5 years of age, and the first limiting amino acids were Valine and Leucine by the standard patterns of 1973 and 1985, respectively.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the method of quick chilling and production control for the Cook-Chill system.We got the following results by analysing the records on the temperature and the reguired time when making quick chilling of many kinds of dishes by using two kinds of Blast Chillers. 1) The more size and thickness of solid cooking increased, the longer the time required for quick chilling (chilling time) became.It was observed that the shape and quality of cooking had impact on the chilling time. 2) The more the amount of a shallow pan increased, the longer the chilling time (the time per unit weight) became.The more the number of shallow pans increased, the shorter the time per unit weight became and the more the production efficiency was improved. 3) We can estimate the chilling time by the weight of cooking and the number of a shallow pan. 4) There was the strong relationship between the each passing time of quick chilling and the passing time at another temperature.This means that it is possible to manage the temperature and time during the Cook-Chill production process.
To know the monthly variations of nutrient intake among Japanese men and women, we conducted a nutritional survey based on one-day record method for 40 subjects (18males and 22females) aged from 31-71 years old in a district of central Japan.We calculated mean nutrient intakes every month and obtained three- month moving average for each subject.The averages in the subjects for each month were assessed by the analysis of variance.The variances of intake of vitamins A, C, D and E, fish oil and monounsaturated fatty acid were large.These findings suggest that the monthly variations should be considered in assessing nutrient intakes in Japan.