In the Japan fruit and vegetable distribution system, the wholesale markets play very important social roles, which have a share of more than 60% share in the fruit and vegetable market. However, many people do not understand the roles of the wholesale markets, but also have bad images on the contrary.
For example, many people believe that a wholesale market between producers and consumers increases the cost of distribution. However, the idea is not correct. The distribution cost often shrinks by the intermediary of a wholesale market.
In this paper, the social roles of a Japanese wholesale market will be explained, and the direction of the change in the wholesale market distribution system in the future will be indicated.
The term 'sarcopenia’ was coined by Irwin Rosenberg as age-related 'loss of skeletal muscle mass in Greek’. Although several diagnostic criteria of sarcopenia have been proposed by several academic societies in Europe, Asia, and the United States of America, most of them have been found to show similar prognostic ability for incident disability and mortality. The diagnostic criteria of sarcopenia include muscle weakness and / or muscle function in addition to low skeletal muscle mass because longitudinal studies indicated that skeletal muscle mass was correlated with muscle strength less than expected, and that muscle weakness affected more on disability than loss of skeletal muscle mass. It is important how we implement the diagnosis of sarcopenia into daily practice and how we manage sarcopenia based on the diagnosis. Research updates on sarcopenia are described in this article.
For all of peoples, "nutrients”, ”exercise”, and ”rest” are extremely important for health, off coerce for growing stage as children and aderecent. Body mass is controlled for relation of height and weight. As you know, especially for female, there are many problems for low body mass index （BMI） in growing stage. Even those for growing stage nutritional problems are low energy intakes, inadequate calcium, iron and dietary fiber and so on. Addition to this, recently physical activity level is decreased in growing stage. Skipping meal is also problem. On the other hand there are some students who have habit a high levels of physical activity like athlete. In this case, there nutritional condition often is not adequate. They do not eat enough for their level of physical activity. Appropriate and adequate nutritional intake and doing exercise are important for appropriate body mass and good health for also growing stage.
Frailty and sarcopenia are a term commonly used to describe the condition of an older people who has chronic health problems, has lost functional abilities and are likely to deteriorate further. Exercise and nutritional supplementation has been a focus in the treatment of frailty and sarcopenia, as research has shown that it is beneficial for the enhancement of skeletal muscle mass and strength, and can improve muscle function, physical activity participants and functional ability in frail and sarcopenia older adults.
The results of frailty study showed that physical frailty reversal rate was significantly higher in the exercise＋nutrition （57.6％） than in the nutrition （28.1％） or placebo （30.3％） groups at post-intervention （χ2＝8.827, p＝0.032）, and at the follow-up was also significantly greater in the exercise＋nutriton （45.5％） and exercise＋placebo （39.4％） groups compared with the placebo （15.2％） group （χ2＝8.607, p＝0.035）. In sarcopenic obesity trial confirmed that the exercise＋nutrition intervention significantly decreased total body fat mass （p＝0.036）, and increased stride （p＝0.038） and vitamin D （p<0.001） compared to the control group. And, significant odds of the exercise＋nutrition intervention improving walking speed （OR 3.05, 95％ CI 1.01-9.19）, vitamin D （OR 14.22, 95％ CI 1.64-123.02） and leptin （OR 3.86, 95％ CI 1.19-12.47） were also observed.
While exercise alone or nutritional supplementation alone effects on individual variables of frailty status, physical function, and body composition in community-dwelling elderly women, the combination of exercise and nutrition may be more effective in reversing frailty, improving physical function, and decreasing body fat mass.
A questionnaire was completed by 9,099 men and women aged ≥40 years living in Tokorozawa, Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The subjects were recruited via random sampling. We analyzed the data of a subset of 3,143 elderly subjects aged 65 and over. The questionnaire included gender, age, body mass index （BMI）, school education, household income, marital status, residence status, and dietary style. QOL was examined across five domains: physical, psychological, social, environmental, and total. To ascertain the relationships between the abovementioned items, we used IBM SPSS Statistics version 23.0 and HALBAU7.
We ascertained the demographic information of participants and classified them in the following groups based on dietary style: solitude-solitary eating （n＝78）, cohabitation-solitary eating （n＝72）, solitude-meal sharing （n＝109）, and cohabitation-meal sharing （n＝1,297）. Results of a two-way analysis of variance showed that the effect of dietary style was observed in the physical domain of QOL. There was no significant interaction between the two. Mean QOL scores across the five domains were lowest in the cohabitation-solitary eating group. Results suggested that elderly people with solitary eating who live together were more strongly influenced by eating habits than those who live alone.
Eucommia ulmoides is a medicinal tree native to China, and its leaves are brewed into a healthy tea. In this study examined how harvesting E.ulmoides in the summer or fall affected the functional components, antioxidant activity, and anti-glycation activity of a hot water extract of E.ulmoides leaves. E.ulmoides leaves harvested in July 2012 served as summer leaves and leaves harvested in, November 2012 served as fall leaves.
Results revealed that the total polyphenol content, the total flavonoid content, and the content of functional components （geniposidic acid, chlorogenic acid, and rutin） in E.ulmoides leaves decreased from summer to fall. Results revealed that the antioxidant activity of an extract of E.ulmoides leaves decreased substantially from summer to fall. This suggests that chlorogenic acid and rutin in E.ulmoides leaves are involved in the antioxidant activity of the extract. Results revealed that the anti-glycation activity of an extract of E.ulmoides leaves decreased somewhat from summer to fall. Harvesting season had less of an effect on the anti-glycation activity of the extract than it had on the antioxidant activity of that extract. Results suggested that chlorogenic acid and rutin in E.ulmoides leaves inhibited the generation of fluorescent advanced glycation end products. Results suggested that the chlorogenic acid in E.ulmoides leaves cleaved α-dicarbonyl cross-links.
When people share big plates of food, from which everyone takes as much as he/she wants to eat, the last portion on the plate is often left untouched due to everyone’s hesitation. This study observed eating behavior in 21 groups; each group had three people sharing five big plates of food. In total, 11 groups, with all members familiar with each other （friend condition）, and 10 groups, with all members unfamiliar with each other （stranger condition）, participated in the study. In each group, the members were all of the same gender and, with the exception of one group, all were of the same age. By comparing these two conditions, this study aimed to examine whether people change their serving behavior depending on their relationship with the people they are sharing the food with. It was shown that in both the conditions, people stopped helping themselves to certain foods, that is, fried chicken and fried rice, at the final stage of the meal. The total amount of food eaten by each individual was less equal in the friend condition than in the stranger one. Deciding who would eat the remaining food by "janken” was only observed in the friend condition. These results suggested that when people share food with strangers, food is more equally distributed amongst the members compared to when people share it with friends.
We conducted a study on aroma transfer from orange juice packed in paper container to the different lipid quantity of milk packed in another paper container. Limonene was considered an index compound. After three types of milk was stored for 7days with orange juice, we detected limonene in three types of milk by GC-MS analysis respectively. Limonene was detected higher in milk, low fat milk, no fat milk order respectively. According to the above results, this study suggests aroma transfer from orange juice to beverage is involved with lipid quantity of beverage that was aroma transfer destination.