[Purpose]There is little known about mobilization with movement (MWM) which is used to treat lateral epicondylitis of the elbow and its effects on functional activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the mobilization-with-movement technique on elbow pain and functional activities of subjects with lateral epicondylitis. [Methods] Ten subjects with lateral epicondylitis of the elbow were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=5) and a placebo control group (n=5). Therapeutic intervention for both groups included general therapy such as hot packs, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, ultrasound therapy, and deep friction massage. The experimental group received MWM, whereas the placebo control group received sham MWM after general therapy. All subjects received therapeutic intervention every other day for 10 days. Pain and functional activities were assessed before and after the interventions using the patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation scale (PRTEE). [Results] Significant and clinically meaningful improvements in pain, special activity, and usual activity sub-domains were found post-intervention in the experimental group. [Conclusion] The results indicate that mobilization-with-movement has a positive effect on both pain and functional activities of patients with lateral epicondyltis.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships among the results of hydrostatic weighing, BMI, and skinfold measurements. [Subject] The participants of this study were eighteen male and female students. [Methods] Hydrostatic weighing, BMI, and skinfold body composition tests were conducted. The participants were divided into two groups based on gender, and a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine the differences between the groups. [Results] The female group had significantly higher values in the three body composition tests than the male group. [Conclusion] The results show that the females had higher values for each of the three different body composition tests. However, it is not clear why the females had higher values. Therefore, it will be necessary to find more accurate methods of measuring body composition.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to assist the design of future experiments on pain therapeutics and to establish the reliability and understanding of animal models of neurotransmitters of sympathetic nerves. [Subjects] The subjects were fifty-five male rats and ten female volunteers. [Methods] In vitro testing of experimental animals, measuring blood pressure, muscle tension, histological changes, intracellular Ca2+, and enzymatic activity. We also induced hypertension-related sympathetic effects by physical therapy with high intensity electrical stimulation as evidenced by 24-hour urine analysis of norepinephrine. [Results] In isometric tension and histological analyse, norepinephrine-induced tension and collagen fibers were significantly increased in muscle strips from hypertensive rat aorta. In [Ca2+]i analysis, norepinephrine-induced change of [Ca2+]i in muscle strips from normotensive and hypertensive rat aorta was observed. Analysis by western blotting with anti-phosphorylated antibodies showed that the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 and 2) and p38 MAPK (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase) were significantly increased in the norepinephrine-induced state in the rats. Furthermore, high intensity electrical stimulation significantly increased pain-related concentration of norepinephrine in the healthy volunteers. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the application of norepinephrine to aorta muscle strips is associated with changed muscle tension, [Ca2+]i, and phosphorylation of MAPK, and that the increased responsiveness of norepinephrine to high intensity electrical stimulation may be, in part, related to the increase of sympathetic effects.
[Purpose] This study examined the difference in nerve conduction velocity (NCV) between two groups: in one group, a physical therapist performed median nerve mobilization (MNM) for the subjects of one group, and in the other group, the subjects received training and practice MNM for themselves. Based on the results, the therapeutic basis of MNM was examined, and the usefulness of self-MNM education was tested. [Subjects] Twenty healthy female college students without symptoms or signs of peripheral neuropathy were the subjects. [Method] The subjects of both groups received a median motor nerve conduction study before and after MNM. While keeping the elbow joint and wrist joint extended, MNM was maintained for 15 seconds, followed by a 10 second break. This was repeated three times. [Results] In the wrist-elbow section, NCV increased in the MNM group but did not significantly change in the self-MNM group. NCV rose in the MNM group but fell in the self-MNM group. For the elbow-axilla section, NCV increased in the MNM group but did not significantly change in the self-MNM group. NCV rose in the MNM group but fell in the self-MNM group. [Conclusion] The analysis of the results showed that a physical therapist’s application of MNM was more effective than self-MNM at increasing nerve conduction velocity.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the standard alterations in normal adult physiological states and gait parameters resulting from changes in treadmill slope during the use of the treadmill as a medical reference. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 12 normal, healthy volunteers without any orthopedic, respiratory or cardiovascular system problems. [Methods] The gait of subjects was measured using Optogait on an inclined treadmill for 3 minutes. Gait was measured at slopes of 0%, 9% and 18%. The subjects wore a Pansystolic murmur (PSM) training device over their xiphoid process in order to measure physiological changes. The speed of the treadmill was fixed at 5.0 km/h in order to maintain a constant walking speed. [Results] The subjects’ gait parameters were observed to change significantly between slopes of 0% and 18% and the physiological states which showed significant changes were average heart rate, recovery heart rate, average respiratory rate, and angular displacement of the trunk. [Conclusion] The results of this study may be used as a medical reference for gait training on a treadmill, especially for treadmills with adjustable gradients.
[Purpose] This study investigated brain wave and cognitive function changes in children with cerebral palsy (CP) using neurofeedback (NFB). [Subjects] Twenty-eight children with CP were randomly allocated to the NFB (n = 14) and control (CON) (n = 14) groups. [Methods] Two expert therapists provided the NFB and CON groups with traditional rehabilitation therapy in 30-minute sessions, semi-weekly, for 6 weeks. NFB training was provided only to the NFB group. The CON group received traditional rehabilitation therapy only. Before and after 6 weeks of intervention, electroencephalography and Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) were performed, and the results were analyzed. [Results] Between before and after the intervention, both the NFB and CON groups showed significant differences in spectral edge frequency of 50%. Moreover, the NFB group showed a statistically significant difference in all LOTCA subtests, while the CON group showed a significant difference only in the LOTCA total score. [Conclusion] Detailed and diverse investigations should be performed considering the number and characteristics of subjects and the limitations influencing the NFB training period.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of preoperative evaluation results of rotator cuff injuries. [Subjects and Methods] On the day of surgery, data were collected from 19 patients (12 males and 7 females; mean age 62.7 ± 6.6 years) diagnosed with rotator cuff injuries. The evaluation included assessment of range of motion, muscle strength, and rotator cuff function with regard to the postoperative period until active elevation of the shoulder joint, and the pain threshold. [Results] In patients who had a longer postoperative period until active elevation and in those complaining of severe pain, the preoperative evaluation results for muscle strength were more useful than the results for range of motion and examination tests of rotator cuff function. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the preoperative evaluation of patients with rotator cuff injuries should include muscle strength measurements in order to predict postoperative function. To understand functional restoration of the shoulder joint after rotator cuff repair, we suggest preoperative evaluation of muscular function and kinematic assessments.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine histopathological changes in tissue surrounding the sciatic nerve after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adult, nine-week-old, female Wistar rats were used in this study. Fifteen experimental rats underwent spinal cord transection at the level of Th8-9 and the other fifteen control rats were raised normally. Animals were assessed at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks following surgery. After the experimental period, we obtained tissue surrounding the sciatic nerve of the thigh after hematoxylin and eosin staining under a microscope. [Results] Adherence between the nerve bundle and perineural innermost layer was observed in tissue surrounding the sciatic nerve in the SCI group. Adherence among the inter-perineurium was evident at 2 weeks after SCI. It had declined at 4 weeks after SCI, but was still evident at 8 and 12 weeks after SCI. [Conclusion] Histopathological findings in the SCI model may be related to compression of the nerve bundle and neurogenic contracture of tissue surrounding the nerve bundle.
[Purpose] Fast bowlers are very prone to low back pain. Due to persistence of chronic low back pain (cLBP) fast bowlers suffer disturbances in their daily living and sports specific activities that lead to functional disability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of spinal core stabilization exercises on the pain intensity and the functional activity of fast bowlers. [Subjects] Thirty male fast bowlers with cLBP with a mean age of 20.79 ± 2.08 years [Methods] Subjects were screened for this study by using inclusion and exclusion criteria. Experimental and control groups (n=15 in each group) received core stabilization exercises and conventional lumbar flexion-extension exercises respectively. The total study duration of the interventions was 8 weeks. The outcome variables used were the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) to measure pain and the Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire (OLBPDQ) to measure functional disability. [Results] The results showed significant functional improvement (post OLBPDQ score) and decreased pain intensity (VAS score) in both the groups but the experimental group which received spinal core stabilization exercises showed more significant improvements than the control group. [Conclusion] We conclude that the incorporation of spinal core stabilization exercises in the management of chronic low back pain would have better results than conventional exercises for cases of cLBP in fast bowlers.
[Purpose] We examined the relationship between waist circumference (WC) and accumulated abdominal fat measured by ultrasonography in healthy adult men. [Subjects] The study subjects were 20 healthy men. [Methods] The measured items were maximum preperitoneal fat thickness (PFT), minimum subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), and WC. PFT and SFT were measured by ultrasonography. Associations between PFT, SFT, and WC were evaluated using Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Study subjects were divided into two groups: those with WC < 85 cm and those with WC ≥ 85 cm. This cut-off was based on Japanese reference values. These groups were then compared for differences in PFT using the independent-sample t test. [Results] There was a moderately significant correlation between PFT and WC (r = 0.56, p < 0.05). In contrast, there was no significant correlation between SFT and WC (r = 0.15; p = 0.52). Furthermore, the group with WC ≥ 85 cm had higher PFT values than the group with WC< 85 cm. [Conclusion] Our findings support the hypothesis that WC is a simple anthropometric index of intra-abdominal fat accumulation in healthy adult men.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of decompression therapy combined with joint mobilization on the pain and range of motion of patients with lumbar herniated nucleus pulposus. [Subjects] A total of 31 subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental group of 17 subjects and a control group of 14 subjects. [Methods] The experimental group received joint mobilization and decompression therapy, while the control group received thermotherapy, electrotherapy, and decompression therapy. Pain on visual analog scale (VAS) and the ranges of motion of flexion, extension, and lateroflexion were measured in both groups before the treatment and after the four weeks of treatment. [Results] Comparison of visual analog scale scores and the ranges of motion before and after treatment showed greater statistically significant differences in the experimental group than in the control group. [Conclusion] Decompression therapy combined with joint mobilization was effective as an intervention method for relieving pain and increasing the range of motion of the lumbar spine in patients with lumbar herniated nucleus pulposus.
[Purpose] This study aimed to verify the effect of hippotherapy on the sitting balance of children with severe cerebral palsy (CP) by comparing hippotherapy, physical therapy, and a control. [Subjects] In this study, 45 children with CP were randomly divided into the hippotherapy group (HTG, n = 15), physical therapy group (PTG, n = 15), and control group (CON, n = 15). [Methods] Two expert physical therapists provided the HTG and PTG with traditional physical therapy comprising strengthening and stretching exercises in 30-minute sessions, semi-weekly, for 8 weeks . Hippotherapy was provided semi-weekly only to the HTG for 8 weeks at 30 minutes per session. The CON group received no treatment. Before and after the 8 weeks of intervention, a sitting balance test was performed, and the results were analyzed. [Results] Sway pathway and velocity significantly decreased in HTG compared to PTG and CON. Left/right pathway, total pathway, left/right velocity, and total velocity were significantly reduced in PTG compared to that in the CON. [Conclusion] Hippotherapy withtraditional physical therapy improved the sitting balance ofchildren with severe CP, who could not walk independently more than traditional physical therapy alone.
[Purpose] There is an established theory that slightly flexed neck positions are ideal for all patients with swallowing disorders. However, we noted that this theory needs further study of the effects of the mid-neck positions on the extended line from the trunk on swallowing function. [Subjects and Methods] Examinations were made using video fluorography (VF) recording of 10 swallowing disorder patients without aspiration in the upright seated position, and another 10 in the reclining position. We edited the recordings to obtain frame-by-frame static images, and examined time and extents of oral and the pharyngeal transits, and laryngeal elevation, using two-dimensional image analysis software. [Results] The results show there was a significantly longer oral transit time and a shorter pharyngeal transit time in the reclining position group compared to the upright seated group. However, there was no significant difference in either laryngeal transit time or the extent of laryngeal elevation. [Conclusions] The results suggest that apart from the uniform application of a slightly flexed neck position for all patients, the mid-neck angle adjustment is useful for making fine adjustment of oral and pharyngeal transit times in order to secure safe bolus transit in rehabilitation strategies.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare blood levels of antioxidants, malonaldehyde, and lactate between patients with low back pain and healthy controls. [Subjects] Ten patients with at least 6 months of low back pain and 10 healthy adult controls were recruited for this study. [Methods] To measure superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, malonaldehyde, and lactate levels on the basis of exercise intensity, we conducted a graded exercise test. Blood (20 mL) was collected 3 times (at rest and peak exercise, and in the recovery period), and analyzed. [Results] During peak exercise, levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, malonaldehyde, and lactate in patients with low back pain were significantly different from those of controls. There were no significant differences between the low back pain and control subjects during the resting and recovery periods. [Conclusion] Reduced physical activity in patients with low back pain increases free radical capacity, resulting in increased antioxidant capacity and higher lactate levels. Therefore, physical therapists treating patients with low back pain must consider these characteristics and educate patients about them.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of motor dual task training on gait ability of post-stroke patients. [Subjects] Participants were randomly allocated to 2 groups: a motor dual task training group (n=17) and a control group (n=16). [Methods] Both groups received physical therapy for 30 minutes, 5 days per week for 6 weeks. The motor dual task training group received additional motor dual task training for 30 minutes, 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Gait ability was evaluated using the GAITRite system. [Results] Temporal parameters and spatial parameters were significantly improved by motor dual task training. Changes in gait speed, cadence, paretic step length, non-paretic step length, paretic stride length, non-paretic stride length, and paretic single limb support period were significantly different between the motor dual task training group and the control group. [Conclusion] Motor dual task training improved gait ability. These results suggest that motor dual task training is feasible and suitable for individuals with stroke.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show the effect of an inclining seat support on gluteal pressure reduction. [Subjects] Ten males were recruited. [Methods] The inclining seat support was developed for repositioning. The Body Pressure Measurement Mat of the TekScan system was used to measure the location and magnitude of the peak pressures on the gluteal seat interface of the chair. The paired t-test of the SPSS statistical package was used to analyze the significance of differences between the general chair and the inclining seat support. [Results] The results show that the gluteal pressure was more significantly reduced in the inclining seat support than in the general chair. [Conclusion] We suggest that the inclining seat support contributes to repositioning and gluteal pressure reduction.
[Purpose] We hypothesized that rotator cuff patients would see dramatic pain reduction after linear polarized near infrared irradiation of the rotator cuff muscles. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 30 rotator cuff injury patients who visited a hospital’s rehabilitation treatment room from September to December 2011. Irradiation was administered three times per week by a single operator in order to minimize variables affecting this study. [Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (range of motion exercise and then irradiation) and a control group (range of motion exercise only). [Results] The numbers of males and females were 19 and 21, respectively. The average age of the experimental group was 46±4.34 years old and that of the control group was 46.93±6.17. There were no statistical differences in the demographic characteristics of the two groups. The experimental group’s pain was found to be significantly less severe than that of the control group after the intervention. The experimental group’s blood flow velocity was faster than that of the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant. [Conclusion] This study showed that Super Lizer irradiation was effective at reducing rotator cuff pain. The irradiation also increased blood flow volume. However, a blood flow volume increase was also observed when joint exercise was performed, which suggests that blood flow volume increase was not a treatment effect of the irradiation. Super Lizer appears to be effective at reducing the pain of rotator cuff patients.
[Purpose] The objective of the study was to examine maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the vastus medialis at different knee angles in a knee joint isometric extension exercise for the knee joint osteoarthritis patients, and to identify the most effective extension angle for strengthening the vastus medialis. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 17 knee joint osteoarthritis patients. [Methods] In order for the knee joint to be fixed at a certain angle, SYSTEM 3Pro isokinetic exercise equipment was used, and comparisons of MVIC forces of the vastus medialis at different angles were made using surface electromyography (sEMG) measurements. [Results] MVIC forces of the rectus femoris, the vastus medialis, and the vastus lateralis were greatest at 15°, followed by 30° and 45°; MVIC force of the vastus medialis significantly increased at 15°. [Conclusion] We consider isometric exercise with the knee joint angle at 15° is conducive to strengthening the vastus medialis of knee joint osteoarthritis patients during their early exercise periods.
[Purpose] Fear of falling is thought to lead to restricted activities. Although fear of falling may reduce physical activity, the association between fear of falling and physical activity measured objectively has yet to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between fear of falling and objective physical activity among older women. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 262 older women (aged 65–95 years) who were classified into fear of falling and no fear of falling groups. Demographic data and physical performance were measured. Physical activity was evaluated using a pedometer. [Results] Prevalence of fear of falling was 62.2% (n=163) and that of no fear of falling was 37.8% (n=99). The fear of falling group had a higher prevalence of fall history, higher medication use, lower physical performance and lower physical activity. In regression analysis, fear of falling was found to be independently correlated with physical activity. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that fear of falling is significantly associated with physical activity when measured objectively among older women. To enhance physical activity, a program focused on not only physical function but also psychological factors such as fear of falling should be developed.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate isometric internal and external rotation torques of the hip at three different flexed positions of the hip. [Subjects] Twenty healthy university students. [Methods] Isometric internal and external maximum rotation torques of the hip on both sides were measured using a torque machine in the recumbent, semi-recumbent and sitting positions. Dependent variables were the isometric internal and external rotation peak torques of the hip. Independent variables were the three testing positions and each side. Measured data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance with a post-hoc test. [Results] Mean isometric internal rotation torque was significantly higher in the sitting position than in the recumbent or semi-recumbent positions. Torque was also significantly higher in the semi-recumbent position than in the recumbent position. No interaction between testing position and leg side was found. Regarding isometric external rotation, no interaction or main effects were found among the three positions. [Conclusion] Isometric hip internal rotation torque significantly increased as the hip flexed; however, external rotation did not change significantly.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate arm selection behavior of stroke patients in a wide range workspace when they reached for an object. [Subjects] Twenty-three patients with stroke were recruited. The participants consisted of 10 right hemiplegic patients and 13 left hemiplegic patients. All participants were self-reported right-handed persons who were able to understand and respond to directions given by the experimenter. [Methods] Participants were instructed to reach to a target with the preferred hand at comfortable reaching speeds when nine targets randomly appeared on a table. The nine targets were located at the body midline (labeled 0°), –10°, –20°, –30° and –40° to the left of midline, and 10°, 20°, 30°, 40° to the right of the body midline. Each participant’s upper-extremity sensorimotor, somatosensory, cognitive, and ADL functions were also attained. [Result] We found three distinct arm selection patterns. Sixteen patients who had relative good muscular strength and sensorimotor functions were characterized by a “normal-like” arm selection pattern. Five participants mostly used their non-paretic arm to reach to all targets, and three participants were characterized as having no pattern in arm selection behavior. [Conclusion] The most important factor that determines normal-like arm selection behavior of stroke patients in reaching is the integration of cortical sensory function and muscular strength. Purposeful use of the affected limb through with sufficient muscular strength will play a crucial role in achieving normal-like arm selection behavior.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine between an hospital environment and a outdoor environment of differences the gait velocity and balance ability of hemiplegia patients, who had received an eight-week rehabilitation treatment for gait and balance [Subjects] A total of 27 hemiplegia patients participated. [Methods] Before and a the rehabilitation treatment, 30 m gait tests and six-minute gait tests were carried out in a hospital environment and a outdoor environment to measure the subjects’ gait velocities. To measure their balance, the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) test were conducted. The paired t-test was performed to verify the statistical differences between the before and after measurements in the two environments. [Results] The results showed an improvement in the 30 m and six-minute gait tests after the treatment in the hospital environment, but not in the outdoor environment, while the BBS and TUG scores improved after the treatment in both environments. These results suggest the necessity of studies on rehabilitation treatment methods, which can help hemiplegia patients to adapt gait velocity and balance ability to outdoor environments. [Conclusion] In conclusion the results highlight that the measurement environment can affect the outcome of the test and researchers should take this into consideration when testing.
[Purpose] Many children with cerebral palsy have diminished bone mineral density and a propensity to fracture with minimal trauma. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed evaluation of bone mineral density(BMD) and to assess the relationship of BMD with mobility. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 children with cerebral palsy and 16 healthy children we measured the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine, and three femur parts, the femoral neck, the greater trochanter, and Ward’s triangle of the two groups. In addition, we categorized the 16 children with cerebral palsy into three sub-groups - wheelchair group, walker group, and independent gait group - in order to measure the bone mineral density variation based on the degree of mobility. [Results] It was found that healthy children’s bone mineral density of the femoral neck was significantly higher than that of children with cerebral palsy. [Conclusion] The results suggest it is necessary to stimulate muscle bone with proper weight bearing, a physical exercise program and the intake of calcium and vitamin D so as to prevent bone mineral density decrease in children with cerebral palsy.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of integrated visual and auditory stimulus on the spatiotemporal gait parameters of individuals with hemiparetic stroke. Twelve patients with post-stroke hemiparesis from the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of B Hospital in Seoul, Korea were enrolled in this study. [Methods] We carried out gait analysis of the participants under 3 different conditions of visual and auditory stimulus speed. Gait velocity, cadence, stride length, and step length were measured while the patients walked on the GaitRite system. [Results] Slow integrated auditory and visual stimulus (50%) significantly decreased gait velocity, cadence, stride length, and step length of both the paretic and non-paretic lower limbs as compared to the other conditions. Fast integrated visual and auditory stimulus (150%) significantly increased gait velocity, cadence, stride length, step length, and single support time of both lower limbs as compared to the other conditions. [Conclusion] Our results show that the speed of integrated visual and auditory stimulus modulates the spatiotemporal parameters of gait of chronic stroke patients. The information presented here is important for investigators who use integrated visual and auditory stimulus for the rehabilitation of individuals with hemiparetic stroke.
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of computer-aided cognitive rehabilitation (CACR) training and balance exercise on elderly individuals’ cognitive and visual perception. [Subjects] Thirty healthy subjects aged between 65 and 80 participated in this study. They were randomly and equally assigned to either a CACR training group (TG) or a balance exercise group (BEG). [Methods] Subjects’ cognitive functions and visual perception were measured using the Korean mini-mental state examination (MMSE-K) and the motor-free visual perception test (MVPT-3), respectively. For intervention methods, the TG received interval vision training using the RehaCom program, a Cognitive Rehabilitation Computer Program derived the Vienna Test System, and vision composition training with attention training programs for 30 minutes, 3 times per week, for 6 weeks. The BEG training consisting of warm-up exercises, main exercises, and cool-down exercises, for 50 minutes, 3 times per week, for 6 weeks. [Results] Both the TG and the BEG saw their MMSE-K and MVPT-3 scores significantly increase after the interventions, but the two groups showed no significant differences. [Conclusion] Given that the effects of CACR training were similar to those of the balance exercise training, we consider CACR training is a viable treatment method for preventing the decrease of cognitive function among the elderly.
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the differences in activities and ratios of the muscles internal oblique (IO), rectus abdominis (RA), multifidus (MF), and the thoracic part of the iliocostalis lumborum (ICLT) muscle between unstable supine and prone bridging exercises in individuals with low back pain (LBP). [Methods] A convenience sample of 14 individuals with LBP (7 men and 7 women) performed supine and prone bridging exercises. Surface electromyography signal amplitudes of the dominant trunk muscles during the 2 types of exercises were measured of all subjects. [Results] During the supine bridging exercise, the activity of the MF and ICLT and the IO/RA ratio were significantly higher than those during the prone bridging exercise. In contrast, the activities of IO and RA were significantly higher during the prone bridging exercise than that during the supine bridging exercise. [Conclusion] This study showed the differences in trunk muscle activities and ratios between unstable supine and prone bridging exercises in individuals with LBP. The information presented here is important for investigators who use lumbar stabilization exercises as an evaluation tool or a rehabilitation exercise for individuals with LBP.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) for hemiplegic patients. [Subjects] For the reliability and validity study, 50 patients with stroke (26 males, 24 females) were recruited. For the responsiveness study, 16 hemiplegic patients (8 males, 8 females) participated. [Methods] Two physical therapists and one occupational therapist rated 50 video recordings of hemiplegic patients using the FMA to test the inter-rater reliability, and one physical therapist (rater A) rated each of the 50 video clips on two occasions, two weeks apart, to evaluate the test-retest reliability. Responsiveness was calculated three months after the baseline assessment. Reliability was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and smallest real difference (SRD). Concurrent validity was examined using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and responsiveness was calculated using the effect size (ES) and standardized response mean (SRM). [Results] Assessment using the FMA showed high relative reliability, and the absolute reliability was satisfactory for the inter-rater and test-retest reliabilities. The correlations between motor function of the FMA and the Jebsen-Taylor hand function, grip power, motor assessment scale (MAS), and the Berg balance scale (BBS) were moderate to good, and were highly significant (p<0.05), while responsiveness was moderate to large. [Conclusion] The results indicate that the FMA is a reasonable assessment of the function of the upper and lower extremities of patient with stroke.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of interactive games played on a Nintendo Wii on postural control, motor function and functional independence of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty chronic stroke patients were recruited for this study. The subjects were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group played interactive games using the Nintendo Wii for 30 minutes a day, 3 times a week, for 3 weeks, whereas the control group did not play interactive games. Result measures included the postural assessment scale, the modified motor assessment scale and the functional independence measure. [Results] There were significant differences in the postural assessment scale and modified motor assessment scale scores of both groups after the intervention, and between the control group and the experimental group after the intervention. However, there were no significant differences in functional independence measure scores. [Conclusion] An interactive game played on a Nintendo Wii appears to be an effective intervention for improvement of chronic stroke patients’ functional results. Therefore, research into the most effective type of Wii game and the clinical significance should continue.
[Purpose] This study researched the effect of different types of shoe on the muscles surrounding the cervical spine, the thoracic spine and the lumbar spine by analyzing muscle activation of the paravertabral muscle during walking on flat ground. [Subjects] The 28 subjects of this experiment were females in their 20s, with a foot size of 235–240 mm and a normal gait pattern, who had no foot deformities or muscle problems. [Methods] We selected three kinds of shoes sized 240 mm, and measured the muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles around C4, T12 and L3, and the trapezius and multifidus muscle. [Results] The muscle activations of all muscles differed significantly among the shoes. Especially, at the C4 paraspinal muscle and trapezius, the value of muscle activation induced by the flat shoes was the lower than those induced by the other shoes. The muscle activation induced by the functional walking shoes was significantly higher than that induced by the flat shoes at the C4 paraspinal muscle, and the muscle activations induced by the high-heel shoes were significantly higher than those induced by the other shoes in all of the muscles except for the L3 paraspinal muscle. [Conclusion] In view of these results, wearing high-heel shoes is not recommended for those who have spinal problems, and those who have cervical troubles should be advised to wear only flat shoes.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the manual facilitation technique (MFT) on swallowing and prevention of aspiration pneumonia in patients with severe dysphagia following stroke, who receive tube feeding because of their inability to respond to verbal commands. [Subjects] The subjects were three patients diagnosed with quadriplegia and severe dysphagia as well as a history of aspiration pneumonia. [Methods] MFT to the larynx after oral sensory treatment was performed for 20 minutes, daily, for the two weeks. For MFT to the larynx, the Mendelsohn maneuver after deep sense stimulation of the larynx was performed. To find out the effect of the MFT, saliva swallowing frequency and the development of aspiration pneumonia were recorded. [Results] None of the subjects were able to perform saliva swallowing before the treatment, but all were able to during the treatment. Also, saliva swallowing frequency was increased in the treatment period (Subject 1: 3.79 times on average, Subject 2: 4.93 on average, Subject 3: 5.71 times on average). [Conclusion] Our results show that MFT to the larynx after oral sensory treatment improved the function of saliva swallowing and had a positive effect on preventing aspiration pneumonia relapse in severe dysphagia patients with inability to respond to verbal commands.
[Purpose] This study compared the cerebral blood flow velocity and pulsatility index different exercise intensities before and after resistive exercises to evaluate the benefits of regular resistive exercise for the prevention of brain injuries such as stroke. [Subjects] Twelve healthy male adults were recruited for this study. [Methods] Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography was used to measure the cerebral blood flow velocity and pulsatility index. The test was conducted in 4 stages: at rest, moderate exercise, peak exercise, and recovery. After the pretest, each subject was given a 1-hour resistive exercise to be performed three times a week for 12 weeks, following which, a posttest was performed, and the resulting data were analyzed. [Results] Cerebral blood flow velocity at all stages, except systolic recovery, showed significant reductions after the intervention. The pulsatility index did not differ significantly at any stage. [Conclusion] Resistive exercise reduced cerebral blood flow velocity; therefore changes in cerebral blood flow should be monitored for the prevention of cerebrovascular diseases.
[Purpose] This study examined the effect of taping the quadriceps femoris muscles of healthy college students on anaerobic muscle power (AMP) and the anaerobic threshold (AT) to analyze the functional value of taping on athletic performance capacity. [Subjects] Thirty male healthy college students were enrolled in this study. [Methods] The study was performed from April to May 2010 (for a month). Kinesio tapes, 5 cm in width, were applied to quardriceps femoris muscles of participants. AMP and AT tests were conducted a sports science research laboratory. The paired t-test was conducted to examine the significance of differences between before and after taping. [Results] Mean power, peak power, mean power/kg, peak power/kg showed significant increases after taping. The induction time of AT, and, VE, VO2, HR, VO2max at AT showed no significant improvements after taping, but RPE showed a significant improvement. [Conclusion] Taping of the quadriceps femoris muscles of healthy college students affected AMP but not AT suggesting that taping influences athletic performance capacity.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of forward head posture on ankle joint range of motion and static balance. [Subjects] The study subjects were on 51 healthy undergraduates (22 males and 29 females) who had not experienced cervical or shoulder pains, or hospital diagnosis of musculoskeletal dysfunction in the previous four weeks. [Methods] The cranial vertical angle (CVA) was measured to investigate forward head posture, and the Tetrax Portable Multiple System (Tetrax Ltd, 56 Miryam Ramat Gan, Sunlight, Israil) was used to measure static balance using the stability test index (STI). Distal dualer-IQ (JTECH Medical, USA) was used to measure ankle joint range of motion. [Results] Cranial vertical angle had an influence on ankle joint plantarflexion, but no influence on static balance. [Conclusion] Forward head posture was shown to transmit tension to the ankle joint through the superficial back-line, one of the myofascial meridians connected to the fascia, which suggests that tension in the neck muscles influence the ankle joints.
[Purpose] This study compared and analyzed the ultrasonograms of deep abdominal muscles (transverse abdominis muscle, internus oblique abdominal muscle, external oblique abdominal muscle) in the Active Straight Leg Raise (ASLR) and Abdominal Drawing-In Maneuver (ADIM) to identify more effective clinical diagnosis methods. [Subjects and Methods] The study was conducted by performing ASLR and ADIM movement in sequence. The subjects were 37 healthy subjects and we measured the thicknesses of deep abdominal muscles (transverse abdominis muscle, internus oblique abdominal muscle, external oblique abdominal muscle) on ultrasonograms taken during ASLR and ADIM for comparison and analysis. In order to assess the relations among the deep abdominal muscles on the same side as measured during ASLR and ADIM, a correlation analysis was carried out. The independent t-test was conducted to identify the differences in thicknesses of same side muscles as measured during ASLR and ADIM. [Results] The results show that each muscle on the same side during ASLR and ADIM had high level of correlations except during ASLR and ADIM the right EO. Also, for the muscle thickness of the same side muscles, only the right EO showed a significant differences. [Conclusion] ADIM is a complicated and difficult movement to measure. ASLR also enables the measurement of deep abdominal muscles; therefore, it could be used to elevate the efficiency of clinical diagnosis. We anticipate that ASLR will be used more for the measurement of deep abdominal muscles.
[Purpose] Although there has been an improvement in survival rates for extremely low weight infants over the last two decades, premature neonates have a greater risk of developing motor disorders than those born full-term. Our purpose here is to review the efficacy of early physiotherapy intervention in the normalization or improvement of motor development in preterm infants. [Subjects] We reviewed sixteen articles meeting the inclusion criteria which covered 1075 patients. [Methods] Randomized clinical trials, controlled or quasi-randomized clinical trials and cohort studies or control cases of preterm developmental early intervention programs were used if intervention began in the first 18 months of life. A systematic review of studies grouped by methodological characteristics of physical therapy intervention: type and characteristics and an assessment of intervention effects was undertaken. [Results] Studies included in this review were of a very heterogeneous nature which precludes meta-analysis and limits generalization of the conclusions arrived at in this review. The review results indicate that physical therapy interventions carried out on preterm infants must be adapted to an infant’s age and individual characteristics.