[Purpose] This study examined the effects of scapular stabilization exercises immediately after surgery on pain and function in patients diagnosed with shoulder impingement syndrome. [Subjects] The subjects were assigned by random sampling to an experimental group (n=15) to which stabilization exercise was applied and a control group (n=15) to which ordinary physical treatment was applied. [Methods] To evaluate the degree of pain, a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) was used. The Constant-Murley Scale (CMS) was used to evaluate the functions of the shoulder joints. To determine the range of motion, a goniometer was used to measure range of shoulder motion. The simple shoulder test (SST) was used to determine the condition of the shoulder joints of the subjects. [Results] There were significant differences in all the items of the experimental group. The results of comparison of the therapeutic effect in the experimental and control groups revealed significant differences in active abduction, passive abduction, VAS, SST, and the CMS, except for pain. [Conclusion] The results suggest that shoulder stabilization exercise positively affects pain alleviation and functional recovery in shoulder impingement patients.
[Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the validity of pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics in assessment of the ability of skeletal muscles to utilize oxygen. [Subjects] We evaluated 12 young, healthy males. [Methods] The subjects completed a series of tests to determine their peak oxygen uptake, pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics at the onset of moderate-intensity treadmill exercise, and the rate of decline in electromyographic (EMG) mean power frequency (MPF) (EMG MPFrate) during one continuous, fatiguing, isometric muscle action of the plantar flexors until exhaustion at approximately 60% maximum voluntary contraction. We discussed the relationships between pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics and EMG MPFrate reflecting the ability of skeletal muscles to utilize oxygen and between pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics and peak oxygen uptake reflecting the ability to deliver oxygen to skeletal muscles. We hypothesized that pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics may be more highly correlated with EMG MPFrate than peak oxygen uptake. [Results] Pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics (33.9 ± 5.9 s) were more significantly correlated with peak oxygen uptake (50.6 ± 5.5 mL/kg/min) than EMG MPFrate (−14.7 ± 8.7%/s). [Conclusion] Pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics is a noninvasive index that is mainly usable for evaluation of the ability of cardiovascular system to deliver oxygen to skeletal muscles in healthy young adults with slower pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics (>20 s).
[Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of kinesio tape applied to chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients on anticipatory postural control and cerebral cortex potential. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients whose low back pain had continued for more than 12 weeks were selected and assigned to a control group (n=10) to which ordinary physical therapy was applied and an experimental group (n=10) to which kinesio tape was applied. Anticipatory postural control was evaluated using electromyography, and movement-related cortical potential (MRCP) was assessed using electroencephalography. Clinical evaluation was performed using a visual analogue scale and the Oswestry disability index. [Results] According to the analysis results for anticipatory postural control, there were significant decreases in the transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle and the external oblique muscle in both groups. Among them, the TrA of the experimental group exhibited the greatest differences. According to the results of a between-group comparison, there was significant difference in the TrA between the two groups. There was also a significant decrease in the MRCP of both groups. In particular, changes in the movement monitoring potential (MMP) of the experimental group were greatest at Fz, C3, Cz, and C4. According to the between-group comparison, there were significant differences in MMP at F3, C3, and Cz. Both groups saw VAS and ODI significantly decrease. Among them, the ODI of the experimental group underwent the greatest change. [Conclusion] Kinesio tape applied to CLBP patients reduced their pain and positively affected their anticipatory postural control and MRCP.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the amount of change in the thicknesses of the deep cervical flexor (DCF) and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles in subjects with neck pain and subjects without neck pain during craniocervical flexion exercise (CCFE). [Subjects] The total number of subjects was 40, comprising 20 in the no-pain group (males 11, females 9) and 20 in the pain group (males 8, females 12). [Methods] Muscle images were obtained using ultrasound, and the thicknesses of the individual muscles were measured using the NIH ImageJ software. [Results] During CCFE, as pressure increased, the no-pain group recruited the DCF more than the pain group, while the pain group recruited the SCM more. [Conclusion] Selective DCF contraction exercises are considered very useful in the treatment of patients with neck pain.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of directional change on postural adjustments during the sit-to-walk (STW) task. [Subjects] Fifteen healthy young men participated in this study. [Methods] Subjects were required to stand up from a chair and walk toward a target. The first step was limited to the right limb only. Three conditions of target direction (straight, ipsilateral and contralateral) were set. For the ipsilateral and contralateral conditions, the target was placed at an angle 45° clockwise and 45° counterclockwise from straight ahead, respectively. Trials were recorded by a motion capture system and force plates. The forward momentum of the body, time of events, center of pressure (COP) and center of gravity (COG) displacement were measured and compared between conditions. [Results] In the contralateral condition, the fluidity index was significantly lower than that in the straight condition. In the contralateral condition, COP displacement toward the swing limb was larger than in the other conditions. [Conclusion] The present results indicate that a directional change during the STW task affects fluidity and postural adjustments. When the STW direction was changed to diagonal, the lateral component of postural control became more important.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in muscle activation of the trunk and lower extremities and plantar foot pressure due to backpack loads of 0, 10, 15, and 20% of body weight during level walking in individuals with flatfoot. [Methods] Fourteen young flatfoot subjects and 12 normal foot subjects participated in this study. In each session, the subjects were assigned to carry a backpack load, and there were four level walking modes: (1) unloaded walking (0%), (2) 10% body weight (BW) load, (3) 15% BW load, and (4) 20% BW load. Trunk and lower extremity muscle activities were recorded by surface EMG, and contact area and plantar foot pressure were determined using a RS scan system. [Results] The erector spinae, vastus medialis, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscle activities, but not the rectus femoris and rectus abdominis muscle activities of flatfoot subjects significantly and progressively increased as load increased in flatfoot subjects. Contact area and pressure of the lateral and medial heel zones were significantly increased too. [Conclusion] Based on this data, the weight of a backpack could influence muscle activation and plantar foot pressure in flatfoot.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to measure the muscle activities of the trunk muscles and upper limb muscles during maximum isometric contraction when temporomandibular joint alignment was achieved with a mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance in order provide basic data on the effects of mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance on the entire body. [Subjects] The present study was conducted with healthy Korean adults in their 20s (males=10, females=10). [Methods] An 8 channel surface electromyography system was used to measure the muscle activities of the upper limb muscles and neck muscles of the subjects during maximum isometric contraction with and without use of a mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance. [Results] The maximum isometric contractions of the trunk and upper limb muscles when mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance were used were compared with those when no mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance was used. The results showed that the sternocleidomastoid muscle, cervical and lumbar erector spinae, upper trapezius, biceps, triceps, rectus abdominis and internal oblique and external oblique muscles all showed significant increases in maximum isometric contractions with a mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance. [Conclusion] The use of a mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance is considered to be a method for normal adults to improve the stability of the entire body with the improvement of the stability of the TMJ. The proximal improvement in stability improves of the proximal thereby improving not only muscle strength with increased muscle activation but also stability during exercises.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of different gait speeds on the muscle activities of the latissimus dorsi and gluteus maximus muscles in relation to the posterior oblique sling system. [Subjects] We recruited 14 young adult males. [Methods] We measured the left latissimus dorsi muscle activity and right gluteus maximus muscle activity of all subjects while they walked on a treadmill at speeds of 1.5 km/h, 3.5 km/h and 5.5 km/h. [Results] There was a significant increase in latissimus dorsi muscle activity with a treadmill speed of 5.5 km/h compared with 1.5 km/h and 3.5 km/h. The gluteus maximus muscle activity significantly increased in the order of 1.5 km/h < 3.5 km/h < 5.5 km/h. [Conclusion] The present results indicate that arm swing connected to increasing gait speed influences the muscle activity of the lower limbs through the posterior oblique sling system.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of six weeks of visual biofeedback training for prevention of falling in the elderly. The Tetrax system was used for visual biofeedback training. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty elderly persons (experimental group=15, control group=15) who were above 70 and under 80 years of age participated in biofeedback training. They were trained for 15 minutes a day, three times per week. We measured the weight distribution index, stability index, and fall index in the subjects using the Tetrax system, and paired t-tests were used to evaluate the changes before and after intervention. The difference between the groups was compared using an independent t-test. [Results] The experimental group showed significant differences in weight distribution index, stability index, and fall index. The control group showed no significant differences. According to the comparison of training effects between the two groups, the variables of stability index and fall index revealed a statistically significant difference. [Conclusion] The method of visual biofeedback training used in this study should be considered a therapeutic method for the elderly to improve weight distribution, stability, and effectiveness in preventing falls.
[Purpose] The present study examined the activity and the gait characteristics of the gluteus medius and the trunk stability muscles during the stance phase of gait on level ground when a vertical load corresponding to 0%, 1%, or 2% of body weight was placed on the lower extremities during the swing phase of the gait. [Methods] The subjects were 40 young males aged between 21 and 30 years. The vertical load, corresponding to 0%, 1%, 2% of weight, which was measured with an electronic scale, was placed bilaterally 3 cm above from the upper part of the lateral malleous. Electrodes were symmetrically attached to the gluteus medius, erector spinae, external oblique, and internal oblique muscles. [Results] There were significant differences in the activities of the left gluteus medius, bilateral external oblique, and right internal oblique muscles among the vertical loads of 0%, 1%, and 2% during gait. [Conclusion] Increases in vertical load were accompanied by changes in the activities of the internal and external oblique abdominal muscles to ensure the stability of the trunk under the different loads. Gait was only possible with the activity of the gluteus medius muscle and the trunk muscles resisting the different vertical loads rather than activating other muscles of the lower extremities in terms of energy efficiency.
[Purpose] To assess the effect of hamstring and quadriceps strengthening exercises on pain intensity, gait velocity, maximum isometric strength, and activities of daily living of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 20 patients with knee OA, 50 to 65 years of age (57.65 ± 4.78 years), received hot packs, strengthening exercises for the quadriceps and the hamstring muscles and stretching exercises for hamstring muscles. Outcome measures included: the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA index questionnaire (WOMAC) scores for assessing health status and health outcomes of knee OA; self-reported pain intensity scores, measured using a visual analogue scale; the 50 ft walk test (a measure of gait velocity and function); and handheld dynamometry (a tool used to measure maximum isometric strength of knee extension and flexion). [Results] There was a significant difference between pre- and post-intervention measures of pain intensity, 50 ft walk times, hamstring strength, and quadriceps strength. Significant differences in WOMAC measures were also observed in the subscales of pain, stiffness and physical function, as well as WOMAC total scores. [Conclusion] Strengthening the hamstring muscles in addition to strengthening the quadriceps muscles proved to be beneficial for perceived knee pain, range of motion, and decreasing the limitation of functional performance of patients with knee OA.
[Purpose] The present study compared the muscle activity of the upper trapezius with those of the serratus anterior and the lower trapezius when slings, unstable surfaces, were laterally vibrated, to examine the effects of vibration during sling exercises on shoulder stabilization muscles. [Methods] The subjects performed push-up exercises on a sling and maintained isometric contraction in the final stage, while vibration was manually administered to the rope of the sling during the isometric-contraction stage. Vibration within a range of 10 cm was delivered for five seconds at a frequency of 1 Hz in time with a metronome. Vibrations were applied for five seconds at 3 Hz and 3.5 Hz, respectively. [Results] The serratus anterior showed a significant differences between isometric contraction with vibration of 3 Hz and isometric contraction with vibration of 3.5 Hz. [Conclusion] The upper trapezius and the lower trapezius showed prominent changes in muscle activity at 3.5 Hz, and the serratus anterior showed prominent changes in muscle activity at 3 Hz and 3.5 Hz. Therefore, as vibration frequency increased, making the load-bearing surface more unstable, the recruitment of the upper trapezius, the lower trapezius, and the serratus anterior increased. To perform exercises that selectively strengthen the serratus anterior, the exercises should be performed at a vibration frequency of 3 Hz.
[Purpose] This study measured %isolation and investigated whether it shows a difference between the presence and absence of wrist joint restriction, as well as changes in muscle activity patterns. [Methods] Twenty subjects performed upper extremity functional movement in the Manual Function Test (MFT) with and without wrist restriction, and the muscle activities of the trapezius, middle deltoid, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, extensor carpi radialis, and flexor carpi radialis were recorded. When there were differences in muscle activation, %isolation was implemented and the changes in the muscle activity patterns were noted. [Results] In the grasping and pinching tasks, there was a significant increase in %isolation of the upper trapezius and a significant decrease in %isolation of the extensor carpi radialis. Carrying a cube task, %isolation of the upper trapezius and middle deltoid significantly increased, whereas %isolation of the triceps brachii and extensor carpi radialis significantly decreased. In the pegboard task, the %isolation values of the extensor carpi radialis and flexor carpi radialis significantly decreased. [Conclusion] The data of this study should be useful for therapists, who can employ the information as material for the education and treatment of patients with wrist joint restriction. Therapists may thus look for ways to improve the quality of mobility by predicting the complement mobility depending on the activity performed and then determine whether to facilitate or restrict mobility.
[Purpose] To investigate the effects of cardiac exercise therapy (CET) on exercise capacity and coronary risk factors (CRFs) of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). [Methods] Patients who participated in an 8-week supervised, hospital-based phase II and 6-month home-based phase III CET with monthly telephone and/or home visits were defined as the exercise group (EG) (n=20), while those who did not receive phase II or phase III CET were defined as the no-exercise group (NEG) (n=10). CRFs were evaluated pre- and post-phase II and eight months after discharge. One and two-way repeated measures ANOVA were used to perform intra- and inter-group comparisons. [Results] Thirty men with AMI aged 49.3 ± 8.3 years were studied. EG increased their exercise capacity (METs) (6.8 ± 1.6 vs.10.0 ± 1.9) after phase II CET and was able to maintain it at 8-month follow-up. Both groups had significantly fewer persons who kept on smoking compared to the first examination. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased from 38.1 ± 11.0 to 43.7 ± 8.7 mg/dl at follow-up in EG while no significant difference was noted in NEG. [Conclusion] After phase III CET subjects had maintained the therapeutic effects of smoking cessation, and increasing exercise capacity obtained in phase II CET. HDL-C in EG continued to improve during phase III CET.
[Purpose] It is well-known that the muscles of spinal stability also play roles in respiration. The spinal stability muscles are divided into two subgroups, the local muscle group and the global muscle group. Appropriately coordinated activation of muscle groups are recommended for more efficient spinal stability. The indirect method of measuring coordination of muscle groups is the synergist ratio of local muscles to global muscles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the synergist ratios of the spinal stability muscles of different breathing patterns. [Subjects and Methods] Forty healthy subjects performed 4 different breathing patterns and 3 synergist ratios calculated from % maximal voluntary isometric contraction of 2 local group muscles and 3 global group muscles were analyzed. [Results] The results of this study show synergist ratios were consistent among the breathing patterns and there was a consistent muscle reliance pattern of synergist ratios during each breathing pattern. The synergist ratio of extensors stayed around 1. The results were consistent with those of previous studies of spinal stability exercises. [Conclusion] We suggest that different breathing patterns could be used as a component of spinal stability exercises, secondary to the similarities of muscle coordination with spinal stability exercises, commonly used in clinics.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of horse riding exercise using a horse riding simulator (HRS) and a ball on static and dynamic balance of elderly people. [Methods] Thirty-two elderly people hospitalized in geriatric hospitals were randomly assigned to the HRS exercise group or the ball exercise groups, and they performed exercise for eight weeks. [Results] The length of postural sway during quite standing with and without eyes closed significantly decreased in both groups after the exercises and there was no significant difference between both groups in the Romberg test. In the functional reach test (FRT), there were significant increases in distance in both groups after the exercises, and the distance of the HRS exercise group was significantly greater than that of the ball exercise group. In the Timed Up & Go test (TUG) and Timed 10-meter walk test (10MWT), the time significantly decreased in both groups, and there was a more significant decrease in the HRS exercise group than in the ball exercise group. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that HRS and ball exercises may improve the balance and gait ability of elderly people hospitalized in nursing homes or geriatric hospitals.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in task performance, grip and pinch strength, and dexterity with and without cock-up splints, which are widely used in occupational therapy practice. [Methods] Twenty-three participants performed Jebsen-Taylor hand function test and grooved pegboard for task performance and dexterity. The power grip and pinch strength was measured using Jamar hydraulic hand dynamometer and pinch gauge. [Results] In the result of the Jebsen-Taylor hand function test, task performance with the cock-up splint was slower compared to without the splint for all items. Men’s grip power with the cock-up splint was found to be significantly decreased compared to without the splint. Women’s grip and palmar pinch strength with the splint decreased significantly compared to without the splint. In the grooved pegboard test, the dexterity of both men and women with the cock-up splint decreased significantly compared to without the splint. [Conclusion] To assist patients to make wise decisions regarding the use of splints, occupational therapists must have empirical knowledge of the topic as well as an understanding of the theoretical, technical, and related research evidence. The results of this study will be useful in the analysis and understanding of changes in hand function in splint applications for people with hand dysfunction.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of muscle vibration applied to the lower extremities on static postural balance of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). [Subjects] Seven subjects with Parkinson’s disease participated in this study. [Methods] The oscillators of vibration were attached to the muscle bellies of the tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, and rectus femoris on both sides of the lower extremities with adhesive tape. A vibration frequency of 60 Hz was used to induce static postural reactions. Subjects’ center of pressure (COP) sway and peak ground reaction force (GRF) were measured with their eyes open with and without vibration. COP sway and peak GRF (Fx, Fy, Fz) were measured using a force plate (AMTI, Newton, USA), which provides x, y and z coordinates of body movement. [Results] The area of COP sway with vibration was significantly smaller than that with no vibration, but the length of COP sway showed no difference between two conditions. Peak medial-lateral maximum force (Fy) with vibration was significantly higher than that with no vibration, but peak anterior-posterior force (Fx) and peak vertical force (Fz) showed no differences. [Conclusion] These results suggest that vibration applied to the lower extremities can help PD patients control postural balance during quiet standing.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in mechanical energy due to continuous use of a plantar flexion resistive ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) of subjects with chronic hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 5 hemiplegic patients using AFOs without a plantar flexion resistive function in their daily lives. We analyzed the gait of the subjects using a 3D motion capture system under three conditions: patients’ use of their own AFOs; after being fitted with a plantar flexion resistive AFO; and after continuous use of the device. The gait efficiency was determined by calculating the mutual exchange of kinetic and potential energy of the center of mass. [Results] An increased exchange rate of the kinetic and potential energy was found for all subjects. A larger increase of energy exchange was shown on the non-paralyzed side, and after continuous use of the plantar flexion resistive AFO. [Conclusion] We found that continuous use of a plantar flexion resistive AFO increased the rate of mutual exchange between kinetic energy and potential energy. The change in the rate was closely related to the role of the non-paretic side, showing that the subjects needed a certain amount of time to adapt to the plantar flexion resistive AFO.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression among elderly patients and identify the factors influencing depression in a geriatric hospital in Korea. [Subjects] A self-report questionnaire was administered to the patients in community geriatric hospitals. Participants were 195 elderly patients. [Methods] The instruments utilized in this study were the Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form Korea (GDSSF-K), an activity of daily living scale, a self-esteem scale, a social support scale, and a life satisfaction scale. Data were collected from April 20 to June 20, 2011. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations, and multiple logistic regression analysis using SPSS 15.0 and Stata 11.0. [Results] The average GDSSF-K score of the participants was 8.94, indicating a moderate level of depression. About 78.4% of the elderly patients in this study were classified as predisposed toward depression. Significant predictors for depression included the patients’ perceived health status and life satisfaction. [Conclusion] The results indicate that elderly patients face a high risk of developing depression and that efforts should be made to address it wherever possible. Regular depression screening will be beneficial for early detection of depression in patients at community geriatric hospitals.
[Purpose] This study examined the effect of the distance between the two electrodes on delayed onset muscle soreness during microcurrent therapy. [Methods] In this study 24 healthy women who hadn’t exercised regularly for six months were selected and randomly divided into two groups. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) was induced and experimental Group 1 were given microcurrent treatment with the electrodes attached at a close distance evaluated. Experimental Group 2 received the same treatment with the electrodes attached at a greater distance apart. Visual analogue scale pain and the RIII reflex were evaluated after inducing DOMS and after one day, two days, three days and four days of microcurrent treatment. [Results] The visual analogue scale and amplitude of RIII amplitude only showed significant differences with the length of time of the treatment. [Conclusion] This study found that difference of interelectrode distance has no influence on VAS pain and the RIII reflex of DOMS. Although there were no significant differences in RIII amplitude, we suspect that it may be influenced by current parameters such as frequency and intensity.
[Purpose] This study investigated the change in hip muscle strength of younger persons after neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 45 healthy young people, who were divided into two groups: a NJF group and a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) group. The NJF group consisted of 21 subjects (11 males, 10 females), and the PNF group consisted of 24 subjects (11 males, 13 females). [Methods] Participants in the NJF group received NJF treatment. We measured the maximal flexor strength and the maximal extensor strength during isokinetic movement of the hip joint before and after intervention in both groups. The angular velocities used were 60°/sec and 180°/sec. [Results] The NJF group showed significant increases in the maximal flexor strength and the maximal extensor strength after the intervention at each angular velocity. In the PNF group, the maximal flexor strength of 60°/sec and the maximal extensor strength of 180°/sec were significant increases. [Conclusion] These results suggest that there is an immediate effect of NJF intervention on hip muscle strength.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of baseball pitching velocity and electromechanical reaction times (EMG-RT) of the teres major of young amateur baseball players after neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 18 healthy males who were divided into two groups: a NJF group and a control group. The NJF group consisted of 10 subjects, and the control group consisted of 8 subjects. [Methods] Participants in the NJF group received NJF treatment. The baseball pitching velocity, the EMG-RT, the premotor time (PMT), and the motor time (MT) during shoulder internal rotation movement were measured before and after 8 weeks of exercise. [Results] There were no significant differences among the results of the control group. In the NJF group, there were significant differences in baseball pitching velocity, EMG-RT and MT after NJF treatment. [Conclusion] NJF intervention shortens not only EMG-RT but also MT, which implies that NJF is effective for motor processes. Since the baseball pitching velocity increased, NJF may be recommended for the improvement of the performance of baseball players.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the change in electromechanical reaction times (EMG-RT) of hip flexion of younger persons after neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 39 healthy young people, who were divided into two groups: a NJF group and a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) group. The NJF group consisted of 16 subjects (7 males, 9 females), and the PNF group consisted of 23 subjects (10 males, 13 females). [Methods] Participants in the NJF group received NJF treatment. We measured the EMG-RT, the premotor time (PMT) and the motor time (MT) during hip flexion movement before and after the intervention in both groups. [Results] There were no significant differences among the results of the PNF group. For the NJF group, there were significant differences in PMT and EMG-RT after NJF treatment. [Conclusion] These results suggest that there is an immediate effect of NJF intervention on electromechanical reaction times of hip flexion.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks aquatic exercise on the gait stability of the elderly using dynamic factors: center of mass (COM), velocity of center of mass (COMV), and center of pressure (COP). [Subjects] Eleven elderly participants (age: 77.18 ± 4.96 yrs, height: 149.48 ± 3.61 cm, body mass: 56.94 ± 6.62 kg, and leg length: 82.36 ± 2.98 cm), participated in this study. [Methods] To identify the 8-week aquatic training effect, 3-D motion analysis with 7 infrared cameras and one force plate, was performed. [Results] For the COM-COP inclination angles, significantly decreased medial inclination angles were shown in both the posterior and anterior swing phases. For the COMV-COP inclination angles, decreased medial inclination angles were shown in both the posterior and anterior swing phases, but significant difference was found only in the posterior phase. [Conclusion] The results suggest that 8 weeks aquatic exercise is effective at improving the gait stability of the elderly. Further studies should extend the training period to gain statistically significant results for the effect of aquatic exercise in the anterior-posterior direction.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of resistance exercise using Thera-band on balance of elderly adults. [Methods] Subjects (age range, 60–70 years) were randomly assigned to an experimental (n=12) or control group (n=12). The experimental group performed stretching and resistance exercises, and the control group performed stretching exercises only. Before and after the 5-week intervention, the participants’ static and dynamic balance were evaluated using the Berg Balance Scale, the Timed Up & Go Test, and the Tetrax Portable Multiple System (Tetrax Ltd., Ramat Gan, Israel) after 5 weeks. [Results] After the intervention, the values of the Tetrax in the weight distribution index with eyes open and that with eyes closed and the stability test index with eyes open were significantly lower in the resistance exercise group than in the control group, and the pre-test values were was significantly higher than the post-test values. However, there were no significant differences between groups in the values of the Berg Balance Scale, the Timed Up & Go Test, and the Tetrax stability test index with the eyes closed. [Conclusion] The findings of this study indicate that resistance exercise using the Thera-band is possible to improve the static and dynamic balance of elderly adults.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a six-week-long computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation training program on the improvement of cognition and balance abilities of the elderly. [Subjects] Thirty healthy elderly people, aged 65 to 80, were randomly assigned either to the training group (n=15) or the control group (n=15). [Methods] Cognitive functions were evaluated using MMSE-K, and the BioRescue AP 153 (RMINGENIERIE, France) was used to examine subjects’ changes in static balance. [Results] The MMSE-K score showed a significant change over the course of the treatment period in the training group, but not in the control group. The sway area and sway path length decreased significantly in the training group, but it did not show any changes in the control group. [Conclusion] Computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation training is an effective intervention method for the improvement of the cognition and balance abilities of the elderly.
[Purpose] Insomnia is quite common and it can affect the quality of life of an individual. Students undergo stress due to various academic demands leading to sleeplessness and daytime sleepiness. This study was conducted to investigate the association between physical activity and insomnia among female Saudi students. [Subjects] 62 female students with a mean age of 21 ± 1.5 years took part in a motivational program to increase the number of steps taken per day for three weeks. [Methods] After obtaining subject’s informed consent all the subjects were assessed for insomnia using the insomnia severity index (ISI), They were then given pedometers to calculate the number of steps they took per day. A physical activity log was kept for three weeks. Pre- and post -intervention ISI scores were calculated and correlated with the 3-week physical activity log. [Results] 50% of the subjects had no clinically significant insomnia (NCSI), 42% had sub threshold (STI), and 8% had moderate clinical (MCI) insomnia. There was a moderate negative correlation between physical activity and ISI scores after the 3-week motivation program. [Conclusion] Prevalence of insomnia was common among female Saudi students and increase in physical activity appears to improve the sleep pattern.
[Purpose] This study researched the effects of different gait speeds and lower arm weight on the activities of the latissimus dorsi, gluteus medius, and gluteus maximus muscles. [Subjects] Fourteen healthy adult men participated in this study. [Methods] All the participants carried out walking on a treadmill at speeds of 3.5 km/h and 5.5 km/h for half a minute. During treadmill gait, electromyographic activity muscle was measured of the latissimus dorsi, gluteus medius and gluteus maximus. [Result] There were significant differences in the muscle activities due to changes in gait speed and lower arm load in the latissimus dorsi and gluteus maximus, but there were no significant differences in the muscle activities of the gluteus medius. [Conclusion] According to our results, arm swing is related to increasing gait speed, and lower arm load is influences the muscle activity of the lower extremities through the posterior oblique sling system.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to identify the effects of obesity on falls as a practical verification of the importance of obesity-targeting interventions as part of future fall prevention programs. [Subjects and Methods] The study involved 351 elderly people (172 men, 179 women) living in rural areas. The dependent variable, fall efficacy, was measured using the Falls Efficacy Scale, while the independent variables, body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat, were measured using the InBody 720. The Faces Pain Scale was used to measure pain. Mobility was measured using the Timed Up and Go Test, and balance ability was measured according to the duration subjects could stand on one foot with their eyes closed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed for the final data analysis. [Results] Investigation of the correlations between the variables revealed a negative correlation between fall efficacy and the other variables. Ultimatley, investigation of the causality of fall efficacy revealed that the BMI, pain, and mobility were influential factors. In other words, fall efficacy tends to be lower when there are higher degrees of obesity, increased pain, and decreased mobility. [Conclusion] To improve the fall efficacy of elderly people living in rural areas, pain management and the maintenance of physical functionality are required. The present study confirms that the elderly need continuous obesity management to lead healthy lives.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to reveal the effect of expiratory muscle fatigue (EMF) on respiratory response under two different exercise conditions: exercise (EX) with EMF (EMF-EX) and control EX without EMF (CON-EX). [Methods] Nine healthy adult men performed cycle exercise with a ramp load, and a spirometer was used to measure forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second, percent of forced expiratory volume, maximal expiratory mouth pressure, and maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (PImax) to evaluate respiratory functions immediately and at 15 and 30 min after exercise. To assess the respiratory response during exercise, an exhaled gas analyzer was used to measure minute ventilation (VE), respiratory frequency (f), tidal volume (VT), oxygen uptake, and carbon dioxide output. In addition, the Borg Scale was used to evaluate dyspnea, while electrocardiography was used to measure heart rate. [Results] The results showed that compared with the CON-EX condition, no change in VE, an increase in f, or a decrease in VT was observed under the medium-intensity EMF-EX condition, while high-intensity exercise reduced VE and f without changing VT. [Conclusion] These results suggest that during medium-intensity exercise, EMF modulates the respiratory response by inducing shallow and fast breathing to increase ventilation volume.
[Purpose] This study compared patients having active acromegaly with those having controlled acromegaly in terms of peripheral muscle strength, body composition, and functional capacity. We also examined the associations between these measures. [Methods] A total of 14 patients with active acromegaly, 12 patients with controlled acromegaly, and 12 healthy controls were subjected to isometric dynamometry, surface electromyography, electrical bioimpedance, and a six-minute walk test. [Results] The active acromegaly group exhibited significantly more fat-free mass than the control group. With respect to the peripheral muscle performance, the controlled acromegaly group presented a significantly lower electromyographic median frequency than the control group. The quadriceps maximum strength was significantly lower in the controlled acromegaly group than in the control group. The fat-free mass was significantly correlated with the quadriceps maximum strength. The global scores of the Acromegaly Quality of Life Questionnaire were significantly correlated with the six-minute walk distance. [Conclusion] Patients with acromegaly have more fat-free mass, less peripheral muscle strength, and greater fatigability than healthy control subjects. These findings depend on the degree of hormonal control. In acromegalic patients, peripheral muscle strength is related to body composition, and functional capacity is correlated with quality of life.
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of an ankle-foot orthosis on gait variables (velocity and cadence) of stroke patients. To do this, a systematic review was conducted of four databases. [Subjects and Methods] The papers identified were evaluated based on the following inclusion criteria: 1) design: controlled, clinical trial; 2) population: stroke patients; 3) intervention: analysis of spatiotemporal variables of gait with an ankle-foot orthosis; 4) control group with different intervention or no intervention; and 5) outcome: improvement in gait velocity or cadence. [Results] Thirteen controlled trials addressing the effect of an ankle-foot orthosis on gait variables of stroke patients were found. They exhibited methodological quality of 3 or more points on the PEDro scale. [Conclusion] While the findings suggest the benefits of an AFO regarding gait velocity, the impact of this type of orthosis on cadence remains inconclusive. Thus, there is a need for further well-designed randomized, controlled, clinical trials to establish better scientific evidence for the effects of AFO usage on gait variables of stroke patients.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of thoracic stretching, a thoracic extension exercise and exercises for cervical and scapular posture on thoracic kyphosis angle and upper thoracic pain. [Subject] A 36-year-old male, who complained of upper thoracic pain at the T1–4 level with forward head and round shoulders, was the subject. [Methods] He performed thoracic stretching (session 1), a thoracic extension exercise (session 2), and muscle exercises for cervical and scapular posture (session 3). [Results] The upper thoracic pressure pain threshold increased after session 1, session 2, and session 3. The thoracic kyphosis angle decreased after session 1, session 2, and session 3. [Conclusion] We suggest that intervention for thoracic pain or kyphotic thoracic correction should use not only an approach for extending the thoracic muscles, but also an approach treating muscles in the cervical and scapular region.
[Purpose] Dysfunction of lower extremity muscles is one risk factor of falls for amputee patients. However, the change in muscle activity pattern and balance ability of amputees who have no experience in standing with prosthesis during the period from prosthesis fitting to regaining the ability to walk has never been studied. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to elucidate changes over time in the muscle activity pattern and walking speed from first prosthesis fitting to hospital discharge. We also investigated the differences of muscle activity during standing between younger and elderly amputee patients. [Methods] Electromyography measurements were performed on the gastrocnemius of the intact leg during standing. The test subjects were asked to shift their center of gravity forward. [Results] Two unique patterns of gastrocnemius activities were observed over time. In a younger patient, the amount of muscular activity of the gastrocnemius gradually increased over time. In an elderly patient, however, the amount of muscular activity of gastrocnemius gradually decreased over time. [Conclusion] The time-dependent changes in gastrocnemius muscle activities are indicative postural control ability. Therefore, understanding the time-dependent changes in muscle activities during rehabilitation and the differences of postural control between younger and elderly patients would contribute to the development of effective rehabilitation programs for each patient.