Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Online ISSN : 2187-5626
Print ISSN : 0915-5287
ISSN-L : 0915-5287
26 巻 , 9 号
September
選択された号の論文の41件中1~41を表示しています
Original Article
  • Chang Ju Kim, Sung Min Son
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1317-1319
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in spatiotemporal gait parameters between children with spastic diplegic CP and children with normal development (ND). [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen children (eight children with spastic diplegic CP and eight ND children) were recruited for participation as volunteers in this study. The children with CP had a Gross Motor Function Classification (GMFC) System level of between I and II. [Results] Walking velocity, cadence, stride length, and step width of children with CP with a GMFC of between I and II were a level of 60%, 77%, 73%, and 160%, respectively, of those of ND children. The percentages of right and left double-limb support were 188% and 179% higher, respectively, and the proportion of single limb support was shorter by 83% and 82%. [Conclusion] Our results provide objective evidence of distinct differences in spatiotemporal gait parameters between children with spastic diplegic CP with a GMFC level I or II and ND children and would be helpful to persons involved in the care of these children.
  • Youngsook Bae
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1321-1324
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the changes in the myofascial pain and range of the motion of temporomandibular joint when Kinesio taping is applied to patients with latent myofascial trigger points of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 42 males and females aged 20 to 30 years (male 17, female 25). They were randomly divided into the control group and the experimental group, which would receive Kinesio taping. Kinesio taping was applied to the sternocleidomastoid muscle three times per week for two weeks. The pain triggered when the taut band or nodule was palpated was measured. Pain intensity was measured using the visual analog scale (VAS) and pressure pain threshold (PPT). The range of motion of the temporomandibular joint was measured. In all subjects, VAS, PPT, and range of motion of the temporomandibular joint were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] In the experimental group, it was found that pain in the SCM was relived, as the VAS and PPT score decrease significantly and range of motion of temporomandibular joint increase significantly. In comparison between the groups, significant differences were shown in the VAS and PPT scores and in the range of motion of the temporomandibular joint. [Conclusion] Kinesio taping is thought to be an intervention method that can be applied to latent myofascial trigger points.
  • Hyeon Su Kim, Chae-Woo Lee, In-Sil Lee
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1325-1327
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the effects of horseback riding exercise and trunk stability exercise on static and dynamic balance in normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two normal adults residing in communities were randomly divided into a horseback riding exercise group and a trunk stability exercise group, and they conducted exercise for eight weeks. [Results] Sway times of the COG (center of gravity) decreased significantly, and the A-P (anterior-posterior) and M-L (medial-lateral) velocities significantly decreased in both groups. A comparison of sway times of the COG after the intervention between the two groups revealed that the horseback riding exercise group showed larger decreases than the trunk stability exercise group. [Conclusion] In terms of the musculoskeletal factor, horseback riding may result in functional improvement and increased stability, and it may stimulate proprioceptive sense input in neurological terms. It is therefore considered a composite exercise method that may strengthen the two factors simultaneously.
  • Joanna Cholewa, Agnieszka Gorzkowska, Michal Szepelawy, Agnieszka Nawr ...
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1329-1331
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] Parkinson’s disease is one of the most frequent diseases of the central nervous system. Thorough knowledge of reasons for movement defects may contribute to the ability to quality of life at a good level as far as motor abilities are concerned. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of functional movement rehabilitation on the degree of intensity of movement symptoms in Parkinson’s disease. [Subjects] The research was carried out in people diagnosed with stage III Parkinson’s disease, according to the Hoehn and Yahr scale classification. [Methods] In order to establish the clinical state of patients, parts I, II, and III of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living scale, and the quality of life in Parkinson’s disease questionnaire were applied. The intervention group took part in 60 minutes of functional movement rehabilitation twice a week for a period of 15 weeks. The main emphasis was placed on the ability to cope with everyday activities. [Results] A significant difference in scores for the given scales between before and after research the intervention period was observed in the intervention group. [Conclusion] The obtained results revealed positive that the influence of applied rehabilitation program had a positive influence on the degree of intensity of movement symptoms in people with Parkinson’s disease.
  • Jeong-Woo Lee, Gi-Eun Lee, Ji-Hyang An, Se-Won Yoon, Myoung Heo, Hwang ...
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1333-1336
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on visual memory recall and EEG. [Subjects and Methods] In the present study, 42 adults were selected and divided equally into two groups of 21 adults, the GVS group and the Sham group. The error rate was calculated as a percentage based on the total number of errors in the answers to 24 questions after stimulation, while the reaction time was measured in intervals between the time the questions were asked and the time it took the subjects to answer the questions. EEG data were obtained by attaching electrodes to the Fz, Cz, and Pz points during the question and answer phase. [Results] The error rate showed statistically significant differences in the interaction involving the time of response and group. The reaction time showed no statistically significant differences in the interaction involving the time of response and group. When relative band power parameters were analyzed, alpha waves showed no statistically significant differences in the interaction involving the time of response and group, but only the Fz area of beta waves showed statistically significant differences in the interaction involving the time of response and group. [Conclusion] GVS may improve visual memory recall in relation to a flower, a person, an animal, or a building.
  • Ga Eul Jeon, Nam Hyun Cha, Sohyune R. Sok
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1337-1343
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the factors influencing dysmenorrhea among Korean middle school adolescents. [Subjects] The subjects included 572 female students in three different middle schools located in Seoul, South Korea. [Methods] A cross-sectional design was adopted. The measurement tools used included a demographic form and revised Menstrual distress Questionnaire (MDQ). [Results] The analyses showed that the prediction model was significant. The value of the adjusted R2 was 0.282, which corresponds to an explanatory power of 28.2%. The factor found to have the most influence on dysmenorrhea among Korean middle school adolescents was stress, followed by health status, onset of dysmenorrhea, consecutive days of menstruation, and dietary habits. [Conclusion] Nursing intervention programs for alleviating dysmenorrhea in Korean middle school adolescents are essential in order to reduce their level of stress, improve their perceived health status, and help them to maintain regular dietary habits. Reflecting on the recent trend of female students menstruating at a younger age, public health education courses and counseling programs should offer customized methods for alleviating dysmenorrhea.
  • Shinichi Watanabe, Yosuke Oya, Jun Iwata, Fujiko Someya
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1345-1350
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] To investigate the therapeutic usefulness of treadmill walking using a body weight support device (BWS), changes in circulatory dynamics and muscle activities with various levels of support were investigated. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were divided into 3 groups: 20% BWS, 40% BWS, and full body weight (FBW). The subjects walked at maximum and normal speeds. Under each condition, H and M waves and skin temperature before and after walking and changes in the heart rate during walking were measured. [Results] The heart rate continued to increase after 3 minutes of FBW at the maximum walking speed, but a steady state was reached after 3 minutes under the other walking conditions. Regarding skin temperature, no significant difference from that at rest was noted 30 minutes after walking at the normal speed, but it was significantly higher than that at rest at 30 minutes after walking at the maximum speed. The H/M ratio was significantly higher after walking at the maximum walking speed in the FBW and 20% BWS groups compared with the 40% BWS groups. [Conclusion] Treatment with 40% BWS at the maximum walking speed was safe for the circulatory system and may be effective in elevating the skin temperature for a prolonged period compared with the effects of the other walking conditions at normal speed.
  • Jaeho Yu
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1351-1353
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify changes in muscle activation by comparing muscle activities of the affected side (AS) and non-affected side (NAS) during eccentric and concentric exercises in runners with unilateral Achilles tendinopathy. [Subjects] The study included 18 participants consisting of men and women with chronic Achilles tendinopathy in a single leg who had more than 1 year of running experience. [Methods] All subjects performed concentric and eccentric exercise with the Achilles tendon moving from full plantar flexion to full dorsiflexion for 8 seconds, and electromyography data was obtained. [Results] All muscles examined showed a significant increase in %maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with concentric exercise compared with eccentric exercise. Compared with the NAS, the AS showed significant increases in %MVC of the rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and lateral gastrocnemius. All interaction effects of exercise methods and injuries showed statistically significant changes. [Conclusion] Runners with Achilles tendinopathy show increases in medial gastrocnemius activity when performing eccentric exercise.
  • Erdoğan Kavlak, Ferda Belge, Cengiz Ünsal, Aykut Göktürk Üner, Uğur Ca ...
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1355-1361
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The current study aimed to reveal the therapeutic effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field and swimming exercises on rats with experimental sciatic nerve injury, which was induced with crush-type neuropathy model damage, using electrophysiological methods. [Subjects] In the current study, the sample consisted of 28 adult male Wistar albino rats. [Methods] The rats were randomized into four groups (n=7). Swimming exercise and PEMF (2 Hz and 0.3 MT) were applied one hour a day, five days a week, for four weeks. Electroneuromyographic (ENMG) measurements were taken on day 7. [Results] When the data were evaluated, it was found that the 4 weeks of PEMF and swimming exercises led to an increase in motor conduction rates and a decrease in latency values, but the changes were not significant in comparison with the control and injury groups. The compound muscle action potential (CMAP) values of the left leg were lower in weeks 2, 3, and 4 in the swimming exercise group in comparison with the control group, although for the PEMF group, the CMAP values of the left leg reached the level observed in the control group beginning in week 3. [Conclusion] PEMF and swimming exercise made positive contributions to nerve regeneration after week 1, and regeneration was enhanced.
  • Wen-Dien Chang, Wei-Syuan Huang, Chia-Lun Lee, Hung-Yu Lin, Ping-Tung ...
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1363-1366
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The muscle strength of the quadriceps muscle is critical in patellofemoral pain syndrome. The quadriceps muscle supplies the power for dynamic patellar movement, and the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) enable the patella to stabilize during tracking. We followed the theories about open and closed kinetic chain exercises to design two exercises, sling open chain knee extension (SOCKE) exercise and sling closed chain knee extension (SCCKE) exercise. The purpose of our study was to research the changes in quadriceps muscle activity during both exercises. [Methods] Electromyographic analysis was used to explore the different effects of the two exercises. The MVC% was calculated for the VMO and VL during exercise for analysis. [Results] We found that the mean MVC% values of the VMO and VL during the SOCKE exercise were higher than those during the SCCKE exercise. The ratio of the VMO to VL was 1.0 ± 0.19 during the SOCKE exercise and 1.11 ± 0.15 during the SCCKE exercise. [Conclusions] The SOCKE exercise is targeted at quadriceps muscle training and has a recruitment effect on the VMO. The beneficial effect of the SOCKE exercise is better than that of the SCCKE exercise.
  • Sun Hur, Seon-Rye Kim
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1367-1370
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to search for the association of Type D personality and CVD risk factors through comparison of the association of exercise participation with CVD risk factors in women. [Subjects] The research subjects were randomly assigned to four groups: Type D+Exercise (n=12), Type D+non-exercise (n=12), non-Type D+Exercise (n=12), and non-Type D+non-exercise (n=10). The study consisted of 46 participants. [Methods] An aerobic exercise program and meditation were conducted in parallel for 10 months. Stretching was performed for 10 min as a warm-up, and then walking and running on a treadmill at 60 to 70% of HRmax were performed for 40 min three times a week. Blood samples were processed according to standard laboratory procedures. The concentrations of TG and HDL cholesterol were determined enzymatically using a clinical chemistry analyzer (Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). [Results] The weight, percentage of body fat, waist circumference, triglyceride concentration, HDL cholesterol concentration, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure showed a significant difference between measurement times in the exercise groups. [Conclusion] In conclusion, there were significant differences between groups in terms of cardiovascular disease risk factors.
  • Thiago Vilela Lemos, Anna Carolina Gonçalves Albino, Joao Paulo C. Mat ...
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1371-1375
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a lumbar fascia Kinesio Taping® technique forward bending range of motion. [Subjects and Methods] This was a longitudinal study with a randomized clinical trial composed of 39 subjects divided into three groups (control, Kinesio Without Tension-KWT, and Kinesio Fascia Correction-KFC). The subjects were assessed by Schober and fingertip-to-floor tests and left the tape in place for 48 hours before being reassessed 24 hours, 48 hours and 30 days after its removal. [Results] In all three experimental groups no significant differences were observed with the Schober test, but it was possible to observe an increase in lumbar flexion after 30 days. With the fingertip-to-floor distance assessment, the KFC and KWT groups showed significantly improved flexibility 24 hours and 48 hours after tape removal. [Conclusion] The Kinesio Taping® influenced fascia mobility, allowing for slight improvement of lumbar flexibility.
  • Saad M. Bindawas
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1377-1382
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The goal of this study was to examine potential differences in physical therapists’ perceptions of content areas for the new entry-level Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) curricula and specialties for post-graduate residency and fellowship programs among five geographical regions in Saudi Arabia. [Subjects and Methods] All physical therapists in Saudi Arabia were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study, which was conducted via a web-based survey. The first domain queried the importance of introducing 10 content areas into future DPT curricula. The second domain concerned the importance of developing residency and fellowship programs in nine subspecialties. Descriptive statistics were generated, and an analysis of variance with a post hoc Tukey’s HSD test was used to evaluate the significance of differences in the physical therapists’ perceptions across the geographical regions. [Results] In total, 148 participants responded to the survey. Significant differences were found among respondents in different geographical regions for 4 of the 10 skills and 3 of the 9 subspecialties. [Conclusion] Understating the variations between the five regions would be helpful in developing a new model for future DPT and post-professional programs that addresses potentially unique needs perfectly. Future research is needed to confirm the findings in a wide range of stakeholders.
  • Qiuchen Huang, Desheng Li, Yuying Zhang, Gu Rui, Ming Huo, Hitoshi Mar ...
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1383-1385
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate effects of an intervention comprising proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) or neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) on chronic low back pain as assessed by the thickness of musculus transversus abdominis [Subjects] The subjects were 12 young people (five males, seven females) who had chronic low back pain on one side for more than 6 months. [Methods] Subjects were asked to lie their sides with the painful side facing up. The subjects received PNF or NJF exercise treatments. The changes in the musculus transversus abdominis thickness were measured using ultrasonography. [Result] The thickness of the musculus transversus abdominis in the NJF group increased significantly and was higher than that in the PNF group and at rest. [Conclusion] The results showed that significantly better improvement can be obtained for chronic low back pain by applying NJF patterns to the musculus transversus abdominis.
  • Hiroaki Sakurai, Yoshikiyo Kanada, Yoshito Sugiura, Ikuo Motoya, Yosuk ...
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1387-1397
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) to postgraduate education systems for novice and mid-career therapists in workplaces. [Subjects] Physical and occupational therapists with 1 to 5 years of clinical experience took the OSCE to assess their learning, with a physical or occupational therapy faculty member and a clinical supervisor as examiners. Another clinical supervisor acted as a simulated patient. [Methods] A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to compare skills between before and after OSCE-based learning, and a Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare them between therapists with 1 to 2 years (novice) and 3 to 5 years (mid-career) of clinical experience. [Results] While no experience-related differences were observed in behavioral aspects, mid-career therapists exhibited markedly higher scores compared with novices in technical aspects, such as skills to guide patients for standing up, transfer, and dressing. [Conclusion] The OSCE may be sufficiently applicable to postgraduate education systems in workplaces.
  • Tomoaki Sugaya, Yota Abe, Masaaki Sakamoto
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1399-1402
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate muscle thickness changes in the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transversus abdominis (TrA) muscles between the neutral position and trunk rotation, under a state of rest without voluntary contractions, and isometric contractions to both sides with resistance of 50% of the maximum trunk rotation strength. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 21 healthy young men. [Methods] Muscle thickness changes in the EO, IO, and TrA in each position and state were evaluated by ultrasound. The range of motion at maximum trunk rotation and the maximum strength of trunk rotation were measured using a hand-held dynamometer. [Results] In the neutral position and at 50% trunk rotation to the right side, the thicknesses of the IO and TrA significantly increased with resistance. In both states, the thicknesses of the IO and TrA significantly increased at 50% trunk rotation to the right side. [Conclusion] The muscular contractions of the IO and TrA were stronger during ipsilateral rotation than in the neutral position and with resistance than at rest. Moreover, the muscular contraction was strongest in the resistive state during ipsilateral rotation.
  • Min-hee Kim, Won-gyu Yoo
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1403-1404
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] This study compared the center of force (COF) trajectory during sit-to-stand (STS) movements performed by elderly and old-old elderly subjects. [Subjects] We recruited 9 elderly and 10 old-old elderly subjects with no knee joint pain or lower limb orthopedic problems. [Methods] The CONFORMat system was used to measure the length of the COF trajectory as the subjects performed the STS task. [Results] The total length of the COF trajectory during the STS movement was significantly greater for the old-old elderly group than for the elderly group. [Conclusion] Our results highlight the need for novel strategies or the development of assistive devices to reduce the COF trajectory during the STS movement for old-old elderly individuals.
  • Mehmet Demir, Turgay Ulas, Ahmet Tutoglu, Ahmet Boyaci, Emel Yigit Kar ...
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1405-1409
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] To evaluate the oxidative stress parameters and urinary deoxypyridinoline levels in geriatric patients with osteoporosis. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty geriatric patients aged over 65 years were recruited. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n=40) consisted of patients with osteoporosis, and Group 2 (n=40) consisted of patients without osteoporosis. Bone mineral density measurements were performed for all patients using DEXA. Oxidative stress parameters were analyzed in blood samples, and deoxypyridinoline levels were analyzed in 24-hour urinary samples. [Results] Compared to Group 2, the total antioxidant status and oxidative stress index levels of Group 1 were not significantly different; however, total oxidant status and 24-hour urinary deoxypyridinoline levels were significantly higher. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that OSI and urinary deoxypyridinoline levels were not correlated with any biochemical parameters. ROC-curve analysis revealed that urinary deoxypyridinoline levels over 30.80 mg/ml predicted osteoporosis with 67% sensitivity and 68% specificity (area under the curve = 0.734; %95 CI: 0.624–0.844). [Conclusion] Our results indicate that oxidative stress would play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, and that urinary deoxypyridinoline levels may be a useful screening test for osteoporosis.
  • Sung-Jin Choi, Won-Seob Shin, Bok-Kyun Oh, Jae-Kwang Shim, Dae-Hyouk B ...
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1411-1414
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of task-oriented training with whole body vibration (WBV) on the sitting balance of stroke patients. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 stroke patients who were randomly divided into experimental (n1=15) and control (n2=15) groups. [Methods] Subjects in both groups received general training five times per week. Subjects in the experimental group practiced an additional task-oriented training program with WBV, which was performed for 15 minutes, five times per week, for four weeks. The center of pressure (COP) path length and average velocity were used to assess subjects static sitting balance, and the Modified Functional Reach Test (MFRT) was used to assess their dynamic sitting balance. The paired t-test was performed to test the significance of differences between before and after the intervention. The independent t-test was conducted to test the significance of differences between the groups. [Results] Following the intervention, the experimental group showed a significant change in MFRT. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that task-oriented training with WBV is feasible and efficacious for stroke patients.
  • Tea-Woo Kim, Yong-Wook Kim
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1415-1418
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to verify the effect of sideways treadmill training with and without visual blocking on the balance and gait function of patients with brain lesions. [Subjects] Twenty-four stroke and traumatic brain injury subjects participated in this study. They were divided into two groups: an experimental group (12 subjects) and a control group (12 subjects). [Methods] Each group executed a treadmill training session for 20 minutes, three times a week, for 6 weeks. The sideways gait training on the treadmill was performed with visual blocking by the experimental group and with normal vision by the control group. A Biodex Gait Trainer 2 was used to assess the gait function. It was used to measure walking speed, walking distance, step length, and stance time on each foot. The Five-Times-Sit-To-Stand test (FTSST) and Timed Up and Go test (TUG) were used as balance measures. [Results] The sideways gait training with visual blocking group showed significantly improved walking speed, walking distance, step length, and stance time on each foot after training; FTSST and TUG times also significantly improved after training in the experimental group. Compared to the control group, the experimental group showed significant increases in stance time on each foot. [Conclusion] Sideways gait training on a treadmill with visual blocking performed by patients with brain lesions significantly improved their balance and gait function.
  • Seung Kyun Kim, Myung Chul Kim
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1419-1421
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether ultrasound alone or ultrasound with bee venom is effective in treating delayed onset muscle soreness of the biceps brachii muscle, using the visual analogue scale, range of motion test (flexion and extension), and serum creatine kinase level. [Subjects] Twenty women participated in this study. [Methods] Repeated eccentric contractions were used to induce delayed onset muscle soreness in the elbow flexor of the subjects. The subjects were randomized to be treated with ultrasound alone or ultrasound with bee venom. We evaluated the effects of treatments in the 2 groups. Individual subjects were assessed using the visual analogue scale, range of motion test, and serum creatine kinase level. The assessment parameters were evaluated 4 times: before exercise and 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. [Results] The visual analogue scale scores were significantly different before and after the experiment in both the group treated with ultrasound and the group treated with ultrasound and bee venom. The difference in elbow flexion and extension before and after the experiment was significantly different in both groups. No significant difference was found in the serum creatine kinase levels before and after the experiment. [Conclusion] Treatment with ultrasound and bee venom is effective for managing delayed onset muscle soreness.
  • Taehyung Kim, Hyolyun Roh
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1423-1428
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze, through ergonomic analyses, those motions most used by radiological technologists that can cause musculoskeletal disorders. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 7 radiological technologists with work experience in hospitals for more than 5 years. For the analysis of working postures, we simulated the work posture of radiological technologists when moving patients, when pushing or pulling an apparatus, when conducting ultrasonography, and when handling a mouse for MRI were analyzed. [Results] In this study, the burdens on the radiological technologists’ waists were shown to be high when they were moving patients for a CT scan. During mouse handling for an MRI scan, large burdens were imposed on the neck. In the case of ultrasonography working postures, larger burdens on the leg and neck were found when the patient’s examination sites were located further away. The assessment of working postures when pushing a portable radiation apparatus showed that burdens on the musculoskeletal system increased as the weight of the apparatus increased. [Conclusion] The musculoskeletal disorders of radiological technologists occur in various regions of their bodies but occur most frequently in the shoulder and the lumbar region. Therefore, hospitals need to be educated regarding the concept of musculoskeletal disorders.
  • Akiyoshi Matsugi, Keisuke Tani, Yasuhiro Mitani, Kosuke Oku, Yoshiki T ...
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1429-1431
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to confirm the accuracy of a revised method for predicting the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) at discharge when stroke patients are first admitted to a rehabilitation hospital. [Subjects and Methods] The predictive equation with logarithmic trend line was calculated based on the total score of the FIM at admission and discharge in 93 patients with cerebral infarction (CI) and 60 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In other patients with CI or ICH (validation group), the differences between the actual FIM and the predicted FIM at discharge calculated by the CI or ICH equation and the combined (CI + ICH) equation, as well as by the CI or ICH equation and combined equation used in a previous study, were calculated. [Results] The multiple correlation coefficients of the CI equation, ICH equation, and combined equation were 0.87, 0.71, and 0.8. The residual of the actual FIM and predicted FIM at discharge calculated by the CI equation was the smallest in the CI validation group. In the ICH validation group, the residual calculated for ICH patients alone was smaller than that calculated by the previous ICH equation. [Conclusion] This easy-to-use method using a new equation for prediction was more precise than the previous equation. Therefore, we should revise the equation for predicting stroke patient outcome strata according to data from within the governing medical administration system.
  • Ozgur Taspinar, Muge Kepekci, Nihal Ozaras, Teoman Aydin, Mustafa Gule ...
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1433-1436
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] Doner kebab is a food specific to Turkey; it is a cone-shaped meat placed vertically on a high stand. The doner kebab chefs stand against the meat and cut it by using both of their upper extremities. This work style may lead to recurrent trauma and correspondingly the upper extremity problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the upper extremity disorders of doner chefs. [Subjects and Methods] Doner kebab chefs were selected as the study group, and volunteers who were not doner kebab chefs and didn’t exert intense effort with upper extremities their business lives were selected as the control group. A survey form was prepared to obtain data about the participants’ ages, working experience (years), daily work hours, work at a second job, diseases, drug usage, and any musculoskeletal (lasting at least 1 week) complaint in last 6 months. [Results] A total of 164 individuals participated in the study, 82 doner chefs and 82 volunteers. In 20.6% of the study group and 15.6% of the control group, an upper extremity musculoskeletal system disorder was detected. Lateral epicondylitis was more frequently statistically significant in the work group. [Conclusion] Hand pain and lateral epicondylitis are more frequent in doner chefs than in other forms of business.
  • Myoung-Kwon Kim, Yun-Seop Lee
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1437-1440
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to discover why people who have flat feet show a higher risk of damage to the musculoskeletal system than those who have normal feet. Furthermore, we examined the kinematic differences in the lower extremity between flat feet and normal feet in individuals on an ascending slope using three-dimensional gait analysis. [Subjects] This study was conducted on 30 adults having normal feet (N = 15) and flat feet (N = 15), all of whom were 21 to 30 years old. [Methods] A treadmill (AC5000M, SCIFIT, Berkshire, UK) was used to analyze the kinematic features during gait. These features were analyzed at slow, normal, and fast gait velocities on an ascending slope. Gait data were obtained using a 6-camera motion analysis system (Eagle system, Motion Analysis, Santa Rosa, CA, USA). [Results] Both groups showed significant differences in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes according to the speed changes. After comparing the lower extremity kinematics between those with flat feet and those with normal feet, significant differences were found with respect to hip adduction (frontal plane) in the stance phase and hip internal rotation (transverse plane) in the swing phase. [Conclusion] Due to hip adduction, the internal rotation angle of the lower extremity has a tendency to increase according to the increase in gait velocity on an ascending slope, and we can expect that the hip adductor muscles and internal rotator muscles in individuals with flat feet are used much more than would be the case for those with normal feet when they perform actions that require a lot of power, such as walking on an ascending slope and walking quickly.
  • Jeong-Woo Lee, Se-Won Yoon, Woong-Sik Park, Myoung Heo, Dong-Geol Lee, ...
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1441-1443
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of types of electrode on N100 and P300 in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applications. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to two groups with 15 subjects in each group depending on the electrode types. A positive electrode on the primary motor area (C4) and a negative electrode on the left primary motor area (C3), and stimulation was applied for 20 minutes. Before and after tDCS, N100 and P300 were measured by attaching an electrode to Fp1 and Fp2. [Results] In tDCS applications, N100 and P300 showed no significant interaction effects between time and group for either latency or amplitude in the Fp1 and Fp 2 areas, but there was a statistically significant difference in the main effect duration. [Conclusion] The latencies of N100 and P300 were shortened and that their amplitudes increased in both the Fp1 and Fp2 areas, regardless of the type of electrode.
  • Sangyong Lee, Daehee Lee, Jungseo Park
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1445-1447
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] This study investigated the influence of the indoor horseback riding exercise on the electromyographic activity of the lower extremity and balance during one-leg standing. [Subjects] Twenty normal adults were divided into an indoor horseback riding exercise group (IHREG, n=10), which performed the indoor horseback riding exercise using equipment 3 times a week for 3 weeks, and a control group (CG, n=10), which performed no exercise. [Methods] For comparitive analysis, an electromyographic test was performed to measure the electromyographic activities of the rectus femoris (RF), adductor longus (AL), and gluteus medius and the Biodex Balance System was used to measure the anteroposterior stability index (APSI), mediolateral stability index, and overall stability index (OSI). [Results] The electromyographic activities of RF and AL significantly increased and the balance abilities of APSI and OSI decreased significantly in the IHREG compared to the CG. [Conclusion] We consider indoor horseback riding exercise is an effective intervention for increasing electromyographic activities of the RF and AL, and the balance abilities of APSI and OSI of normal adults.
  • Zun Wang, Lei Wang, Hongjuan Fan, Wenjun Jiang, Sheng Wang, Zhaohua Gu ...
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1449-1454
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of adapted low intensity ergometer aerobic training for early and severely impaired stroke survivors. [Subjects] The subjects were forty-eight early stroke survivors. [Methods] Eligible subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. Both groups participated in comprehensive rehabilitation training. Low intensity aerobic training was only performed by the experimental group. Outcome measures were the Fugl-Meyer motor score, Barthel index, exercise test time, peak heart rate, plasma glucose level and serum lipid profiles. [Results] Patients in the experimental group finished 88.6% of the total aerobic training sessions prescribed. In compliant participants (adherence≥80%), aerobic training significantly improved the Barthel index (from 40.1±21.1 to 79.2±14.2), Fugl-Meyer motor score (from 26.4±19.4 to 45.4±12.7), exercise test time (from 12.2±3.62 min to 13.9±3.6 min), 2-hour glucose level (from 9.22±1.16 mmol/L to 7.21±1.36 mmol/L) and homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistence index (from 1.72±1.01 to 1.28±0.88). [Conclusion] Preliminary findings suggest that early and severely impaired stroke patients may benefit from low intensity ergometer aerobic training.
  • Emrah Atay
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1455-1457
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of injuries of children participating in sports, and to present advice on injury prevention. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were 445 children involved in sports with a mean age of 12.74±1.03 years, a mean height of 156.56±10.82 cm, and a mean weight of 45.39±10.29 kg; 52.8% of the study subjects were male, and 47.2% were female. The subjects were surveyed using a questionnaire developed by the author. [Results] The highest incidence of sport injury was in the foot-ankle region, and the lowest incidence was in the hip-femur region. The incidences of injuries to the neck, shoulder, elbow, hand, wrist, superior dorsal region, waist, hip-femur region, knee, and foot-ankle regions weren’t statistically significant. [Conclusion] This study established that children participating in competitive sports are at risk of injury. The causes of injuries were examined to propose preventive measures to minimize their occurrence and severity. It should not be overlooked that injuries can occur more easily among children because their musculoskeletal system is not fully developed, and coaches should be educated in the appropriate training intensities for children.
  • Teoman Aydın, Ozgur Taspınar, Yildiz Akbal, Celaleddin Peru, Mustafa G ...
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1459-1463
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to measure bone mineral density, serum and urinary bone turnover parameters, and to evaluate the influence of demographic and genetic factors on these parameters in FMF patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven attack-free patients who were diagnosed with FMF (in accordance with Tel Hashomer criteria) were recruited at outpatient rheumatology clinics. We investigated whether there were any differences between the FMF patients and a control group in terms of lumbar and femur bone mineral density (BMD), standard deviation scores (Z scores and T scores) and bone markers. [Results] In terms of the median values of lumbar BMD (p = 0.21), lumbar T (p = 0.098) and Z (p = 0.109) scores, femoral neck BMD, femoral T and Z scores and total femur BMD, T (p = 0.788) and Z scores, there were no significant differences. [Conclusion] In our study, no statistically significant differences were found between FMF patients and a control group in terms of osteoporosis. The 25-OH vitamin D was found to be significantly lower in FMF patients than in the control group.
  • Yong-Jun Cha
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1465-1467
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine which ankle position most influences knee extensor strength in training programs for strengthening the knee extensors using three different active ankle positions. [Subjects] Twenty-one healthy adults (6 males and 15 females) participated in this study. [Methods] Subjects were trained isokinetically in knee extension and flexion at 70 or 80% of 1RM under three actively and naturally fixed, contracted ankle conditions: dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, and resting position. After each group successfully executed the training four times a week for three weeks, mean peak torque (PT) and total work (TW) variables were measured and compared at 60°/sec and 180°/sec among the three groups. [Results] Significant differences were revealed in knee extensor TW at 60°/sec, PT and TW at 180°/sec, with the greatest PT and TW observed with the ankle in active dorsiflexion position. [Conclusion] These results suggest that active ankle dorsiflexion in a knee strength training program may be more effective at increasing knee extensor strength than a resting or plantarflexion position.
  • Daisuke Uritani, Tetsuji Kawakami, Tomohiro Inoue, Tadaaki Kirita
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1469-1472
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of upper quadrant posture of young women with temporomandibular disorders. [Subjects] The participants were 19 female patients with temporomandibular disorders (patient group: mean age, 30.1 years) and 14 controls (control group: mean age, 24.6 years). [Methods] Outcome measures were the neck inclination angle (formed by a line connecting C7 and the ear tragus with a horizontal line), the angle of the shoulder (formed by a line connecting C7 and the acromial angle with a horizontal line), the cranial rotation angle (formed by a line connecting the ear tragus and the corner of the eye with a horizontal line), and the neck-length/shoulder-width ratio [the ratio of the neck length (from C7 to the tragus) to the width of the shoulder between the acromial angle]. The maximum range of mouth opening was measured using a scale. [Results] The neck inclination angle and maximum range of mouth opening were significantly smaller in the patient group than in the control group. No significant differences were observed in the other outcome measures between the two groups. [Conclusion] Temporomandibular disorders with limited mouth opening in young females are associated with the head position relative to the trunk.
  • Seong Gil Kim, Min Sik Yong, Sang Su Na
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1473-1474
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of trunk stabilization exercise on the muscle EMG activations related to core stability. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen elderly people in a geriatric hospital performed trunk stabilization exercises with a Swiss ball for 20 minutes five times per week for 8 weeks. Trunk muscle activations were measured using electromyography before and after the intervention. [Results] After the intervention, the muscle activations of the rectus abdominis, erector spinae, lateral low-back (quadratus lumborum and external oblique), and gluteus medius muscles increased significantly. [Conclusion] The trunk stabilization exercise with a Swiss ball significantly increased the muscle activities of the elderly.
  • Chang Ju Kim, Young Mi Kim, Dong Dae Kim
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1475-1479
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare joint angles between normal children and those with spastic diplegia using three-dimensional gait analysis. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were eight patients with spastic diplegia and eight normal children. Three-dimensional gait analysis was used for the survey. The measured gait variables were the joints of the lower extremity in the sagittal plane, frontal plane, and transverse planes and the maximum and minimum angles of their stance phase and swing phases. [Results] In the sagittal plane, the maximum angles of both the right and left pelvis and hip joint in the stance phase and swing phases were significantly greater for children with spastic diplegia than for normal children. In the stance phase of the right side of the hip joint, the maximum angles of the hip in the swing phase and the knee joint’s minimum angles in the stance phase differed significantly. In the transverse plane, there were a significant differences on the left side of the pelvis in the maximum angles in the swing and stance phases. There were also significant differences on the right side pelvis, in the maximum and minimum angles in the stance phase and minimum angles in the swing phase. [Conclusion] Children with spastic diplegia employ a different gait strategy and pattern from normal children.
  • Igsoo Cho, Gak Hwangbo, Daehee Lee, Sangyong Lee
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1481-1484
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of closed kinetic chain exercises (CKCEs) and open kinetic chain exercises (OKCEs) with elastic bands on the electromyographic activity of patients with degenerative gonarthritis. [Subjects] The study subjects were 30 degenerative gonarthritis patients who were divided into a CKCE group (CKCEG, n=10), an OKCE group (OKCEG, n=10), and a control group (CG, n=10). [Methods] The CKCEG and the OKCEG performed exercises with elastic bands, and the CG took part in a quadriceps strengthening exercise. All three groups performed the exercises three times per week for four weeks. The electromyographic activities of the subjects’ vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), semitendinosus (ST), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles were measured and compared. [Results] Within-group comparisons revealed that the electromyographic activities of the VM, RF, VL, ST, and BF muscles increased significantly in the CKCEG. The OKCEG displayed significant increases in the electromyographic activity of the VM, RF, ST, and BF muscles, and the CG showed significant increases in the electromyographic activities of the RF, VL, ST, and BF muscles. In between-group comparisons after the intervention, the electromyographic activities of the VM, RF, and VL muscles of the CKCEG were significantly higher than those of the CG. The electromyographic activities of the VM, RF, and ST muscles of the OKCEG were significantly higher than those of the CG. [Conclusion] We consider CKCEs with elastic bands are an effective intervention for increasing the electromyographic activities of the VM, RF, VL, ST, and BF muscles of degenerative gonarthritis patients, and OKCEs with elastic bands are an effective intervention for increasing the electromyographic activities of the VM, RF, ST, and BF muscles of degenerative gonarthritis patients.
  • Jun Ho Eom, Sin Ho Chung, Jae Hun Shim
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1485-1487
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of squat exercises performed in toilet-using postures on the blood flow velocity of the lower extremities for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis. [Subjects] The subjects were 28 students who were attending B University in Cheonan. They were divided into a group of 14 subjects of sitting toilet users and a group of 14 subjects of squat toilet users. [Methods] The subjects performed squat exercises in different toilet-using postures and we investigated the changes in blood flow velocity. [Results] The variations in blood flow velocities before and after the exercises showed significant differences in both groups but the differences between the two groups were not significant. [Conclusion] Based on the results of this study, we consider squat exercises are effective at improving the variation in lower-extremity blood flow velocity when using a toilet.
  • Hyolyun Roh, Daehee Lee
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1489-1492
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] This study compared the respiratory function and oxygen saturation levels of university students living at high altitude, to present a new approach for improving respiratory function using high altitudes above sea level. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 100 female students attending a university located approximately 850 m above sea level and 104 female students attending a university located at low altitude. Oxygen saturation, heart rate (HR), and respiratory function levels were measured. [Results] For the students living at high altitude, HR, PEF, and FEV1/FVC levels were low. In contrast, their oxygen saturation, FEV1, and FVC levels were higher than the levels found in students living at low altitude. Differences in respiratory function were revealed in first- and second-year students living at high and low altitudes. On the other hand, no significant differences in respiratory function were found between third- and fourth-year students. [Conclusion] University students living at high altitude had a slower HR and higher oxygen saturation levels as well as higher lung and inspiratory capacity levels. Thus, physiological improvement in oxygen saturation levels and pulmonary function were seen in the individuals living at high altitude.
Review
  • Fariba Ghaderi, Ali E. Oskouei
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1493-1499
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] This review article is designed to expose physiotherapists to a physiotherapy assessment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and the treatment and possibly preventive roles that they might play for women with SUI. Specifically, the goal of this article is to provide an understanding of pelvic floor muscle function and the implications that this function has for physiotherapy treatment by reviewing articles published in this area. [Methods] A range of databases was searched to identify articles that address physiotherapy for SUI, including the Cochrane Library, Medline, and CINAHL. [Results] According to the articles identified in our databases research, greater improvements in SUI occur when women receive a supervised exercise program of at least three months. The effectiveness of physiotherapy treatment is increased if the exercise program is based on some principles, such as intensity, duration, resembling functional task, and the position in which the exercise for pelvic floor muscles is performed. Biofeedback and electrical stimulation may also be clinically useful and acceptable modalities for some women with SUI. [Conclusion] We concluded that the plan for physiotherapy care should be individualized for each patient and include standard physiotherapy interventions.
Case Study
  • Won-gyu Yoo
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1501-1502
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] We investigated the effects of individual strengthening exercises for subdivisions of the gluteus medius in a patient with sacroiliac joint pain. [Subject] A 32 year-old female who complained of pain in the posterior area of the left iliac crest and sacroiliac joints over a period of 6 months was the subject of this study. [Methods] She performed individual strengthening exercises for subdivisions of the gluteus medius over 3 weeks. Pain-provocation tests and VAS scores were evaluated before and after the intervention. [Results] After individual strengthening exercises for subdivisions of the gluteus medius, the subject showed no pain in the Gaenslen, Patrick, or REAB tests for the left sacroiliac joint. The VAS score was less the 3/10, compared with 7/10 initially. [Conclusion] Individual strengthening exercises for the subdivisions of the gluteus medius were effective at reducing SI joint pain for this patient.
Original Article -Rapid publication-
  • Chih-Wei Lee, Ji-Hung Wang, Jen-Che Hsieh, Tsung-Cheng Hsieh, Yu-Zu Wu ...
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1503-1508
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of Phase II cardiac exercise therapy (CET) on exercise capacity and changes in coronary risk factors (CRFs) of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). [Subjects] Thirty male subjects with AMI were divided into an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG). Another 30 age-matched subjects with patent coronary arteries served as a normal-control group (NCG). [Methods] Subjects in EG (n=20) trained using a stationary bicycle for 30 min at their target heart rate twice a week for 8 weeks. Exercise capacity was defined as the maximal metabolic equivalents (METs) that subjects reached during the symptom-limited maximal exercise test. HR, BP and RPP were recorded. Subjects in EG and CG received exercise tests and screening for CRFs at the beginning of, end of, and 3 months after Phase II CET, while subjects in NCG participated only in the 1st test. [Results] METs of CG did not improve until the 3rd test, while RPP at the 2nd test showed a significant increase. However, EG showed increased METs at the 2nd test without increase of RPP, and increased their high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) during the follow-up period between the 2nd and 3rd tests. [Conclusion] Phase II CET shortens the recovery time of exercise capacity, helps to maintain the gained exercise capacity and increases HDL-C in phase III.
  • Chien-Hui Huang, Gee-Gwo Yang, Tung-Wei Chen
    2014 年 26 巻 9 号 p. 1509-1513
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] Measurements of inspiratory strength are critical for detecting inspiratory muscle weakness. Sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP) is a quick, noninvasive measurement of global inspiratory strength; however, it is not clear how many trials are needed for reliable measurements. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred and nineteen subjects (age 39.9±16.5, range 18–69 yrs) completed the study. They were divided into subgroups of different ages and gender. Subjects were asked to take 20 maximal sniffs after normal expiration, with 30 seconds rest in-between. The highest values among the first 10 and last 10 SNIP maneuvers were recorded as SNIP1-10, and SNIP11-20, respectively. The paired t-test was used to compare the differences. Two-way measures ANOVA was used to compare the effects of age and gender on SNIP. [Results] SNIP 11–20 was significantly greater than SNIP1–10, suggesting that 10 trials is not enough to eliminate learning effects. Age did not affect SNIP in either gender, suggesting SNIP is preserved. In stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, the SNIP values were positively related with body mass index in women and positively related with weight in men. [Conclusion] The results suggest that twenty trials are needed for reliable SNIP measurements. The mean value and lower limits of normal SNIP are provided for clinical comparison.
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