[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of task-oriented approach on motor function of the affected arm in children with spastic hemiplegia due to cerebral palsy. [Subjects] Twelve children were recruited by convenience sampling from 2 local rehabilitation centers. The present study utilized a one-group pretest-posttest design. All of children received task-oriented training for 6 weeks (40 min/day, 5 days/week) and also underwent regular occupational therapy. Three clinical tests, Box and Block Test (BBT), Manual Ability Measure (MAM-16), and Wee Functional Independence Measure (WeeFIM) were performed 1 day before and after training to evaluate the effects of the training. [Results] Compared with the pretest scores, there was a significant increase in the BBT, MAM-16, and WeeFIM scores of the children after the 6-week practice period. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that a task-oriented approach to treatment of the affected arm improves functional activities, such as manual dexterity and fine motor performance, as well as basic daily activities of patients with spastic hemiplegia due to cerebral palsy.
[Purpose] The study analyzed the electroencephalographic (EEG) data of the central cortical areas, during execution of the motor gestures of feeding, activation of the system of mirror neurons, and imagery between a right hemiparetic volunteer (RHV) and a healthy volunteer (HV). [Subjects and Methods] The volunteers’ EEG data were recorded with their eyes open for 4 minutes while they performed five experimental tasks. [Results] The alpha band, absolute power value of HV was lower than that of RHV. In the beta band, during the practice condition, there was an increase in the magnitude of the absolute power value of HV at T3, possibly because T3 is representative of secondary motor areas that work with cortical neurons related to planning and organizing sequence of movements performed by the hands. The gamma band is related to the state of preparation for movement and memory. The results of this study indicate that there was increased activation of the gamma frequency band of HV. [Conclusion] The findings of this study have revealed the changes in pattern characteristics of each band which may be associated with the brain injury of the hemiparetic patient.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the wall slide device on activation of the scapulothoracic musculature. [Subjects] We recruited 15 healthy male subjects. [Methods] The subjects performed the general wall push-up plus (WPUP) and the wall slide with device (WSD) exercises. During the exercises, the muscle activities of the upper and lower trapezius (UT, LT), middle and lower serratus anterior (MSA, LSA), and pectoralis major (PM) were measured. [Results] The normalized muscle activity data of the WSD were significantly higher in UT, MSA and LSA than the WPUP. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that exercise using the WSD can more effectively activate the scapulothoracic musculature than the general WPUP.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine changes in pressure sensitivity and pinch strength in patients with thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) osteoarthritis (OA) in the contralateral hand after unilateral Kaltenborn mobilization on the symptomatic hand. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine females with dominant hand thumb CMC osteoarthritis participated (age 70–90), and were randomized into 2 groups. The experimental group received a Kaltenborn mobilization, and the placebo group received a nontherapeutic dose of intermittent ultrasound. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) at the thumb CMC joint, scaphoid bone and hamate bone and tip and tripod pinch strength were assessed before and after the intervention and 1 week (1st follow-up) and 2 weeks (2nd follow-up) after the intervention. [Results] Significant increases in PPT in the experimental group at all follow-up periods as compared with baseline data were found. The post-intervention between-group mean differences for PPT were 1.1 (95%CI 0.4–1.8) for the CMC joint, 1.1 (95%CI 0.2–2.1) for the scaphoid, and 1.5 (95%CI 0.5–2.8) for the hamate. The post-intervention between-group mean differences were 0.5 (95%CI 0.2–0.9) for the tip pinch and 0.3 (95%CI 0.1–0.6) for the tripod pinch. [Conclusion] The current secondary analysis found that Kaltenborn mobilization for the symptomatic hand reduces pressure pain sensitivity (PPT increases) and also produces motor changes in the contralateral non-treated hand compared with a placebo group.
[Purpose] Chest physical therapy techniques are essential in order to reduce the frequency of recurrent pulmonary infections that progressively affect lung function in cystic fibrosis patients. Recently, ELTGOL (L’Expiration Lente Totale Glotte Ouverte en décubitus Latéral) emerged as an inexpensive and easy to perform therapeutic option. The aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of ELTGOL and the Flutter valve in stable adult patients with cystic fibrosis. [Subjects and Methods] This was a randomized, crossover study with a sample of cystic fibrosis outpatients. The subjects underwent two protocols (Flutter Valve and ELTGOL interventions, referred to as ELTGOL and FLUTTER) in a randomized order with a one-week washout interval between them. The main outcomes were pulmonary function variables and expectorated sputum dry weight. [Results] ELTGOL cleared 0.34 g more of secretions than FLUTTER (95% CI 0.11 to 0.57). When comparing the physiological effects of ELTGOL and FLUTTER, the first was superior in improving airway resistance (−0.51 cmH2O/L/s; 95% CI −0.88 to −0.14) and airway conductance (0.016 L/s/cmH2O; 95% CI 0.008 to 0.023). [Conclusion] ELTGOL promoted higher secretion removal and improvement in airway resistance and conductance than the Flutter valve. These techniques were equivalent in reducing the pulmonary hyperinflation and air trapping in cystic fibrosis patients.
[Purpose] Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is the most common form of joint disease. It is one of the major causes of impaired function that reduces quality of life (QOL) worldwide. The purpose of this study was to compare exercise treatments for hamstring and quadriceps strength in the management of knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Forty patients with OA knee, aged 50–65 years were divided into 2 groups. The first group (57.65±4.78 years) received hot packs and performed strengthening exercises for the quadriceps and hamstring, and stretching exercises for the hamstring. The second group (58.15±5.11 years) received hot packs and performed strengthening exercises for only the quadriceps, and stretching exercise for the hamstring. Outcome measures were the WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA index questionnaire), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) assessment of pain, the Fifty-Foot Walk Test (FWS), and Handheld dynamometry. [Results] There was a significant difference between the groups. The first group showed a more significant result than the second group. [Conclusion] Strengthening of the hamstrings in addition to strengthening of the quadriceps was shown to be beneficial for improving subjective knee pain, range of motion and decreasing the limitation of functional performance of patients with knee osteoarthritis.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of running in place while using the abdominal drawing-in method on healthy adults’ lumbar stability. [Subjects] A total of 30 subjects were divided into a training group of 15 subjects and a control group of 15 subjects. [Methods] The training group ran in place using the abdominal drawing-in method for 30 minutes per session, three sessions per week, for a total of six weeks. For both the training group and the control group, static lumbar stability (SLS) and dynamic lumbar stability (DLS) were measured before and after the experiment using a pressure biofeedback unit. [Results] Pre- and post-intervention measurements were compared within the training group and the control group. According to the results, the training group showed statistically significant differences in DLS. [Conclusion] Running in place, which can be performed easily regardless of time and location, can be recommended as an exercise that will improve the dynamic lumbar stability of students or office workers.
[Purpose] This study was to examine the effects of 12 weeks of Tai Chi (TC) exercise on antioxidant capacity, and DNA damage/repair in young females who did not perform regular physical exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Ten female students from a Chinese university voluntarily participated in this program. All of them practiced the 24-form simplified Tai Chi, 5 times weekly, for 12 weeks. Plasma levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), hydroxyl radical inhibiting capacity (OH·-IC), 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) were measured at 0, 8, and 12 weeks. Heart rate (HR) was monitored during the last set of the training session at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. [Results] Plasma SOD and OH·-IC levels were increased at 8 and 12 weeks compared to the baseline (0 weeks). Gpx and GSH levels did not change significantly throughout the study period. The plasma MDA level was decreased significantly at 8 weeks but not at 12 weeks compared to the baseline value. While the plasma 8-OHdG level did not change throughout the study period, the plasma OGG1 level was significantly increased at 8 and 12 weeks compared to the baseline value. [Conclusion] TC practice for 12 weeks efficiently improved the oxidative stress response in young females who did not perform regular physical exercise. The TC exercise also increased the DNA repairing capacity.
[Purpose] This study aimed to determine whether low-frequency current therapy can be used to reduce the symptoms of idiopathic slow transit constipation (ISTC). [Subjects] Fifteen patients (ten male and five female) with idiopathic slow transit constipation were enrolled in the present study. [Results] Bowel movements per day, bowel movements per week, and constipation assessment scale scores significantly improved after low-frequency current simulation of S2-S3. [Conclusion] Our results show that stimulation with low-frequency current of the sacral dermatomes may offer therapeutic benefits for a subject of patients with ISTC.
[Purpose] This study investigated the characteristics of postural control following postural disturbance in elite athletes. [Subjects] Ten elite ski jumpers and ten control subjects participated in this study. [Methods] Subjects were required to maintain balance without stepping following unexpected horizontal surface perturbation in a forward or backward direction. [Results] A lower and reproducible peak magnitude of the center of mass velocity was shown in the athlete group compared to the control group. Cross-correlation analyses showed longer time lags at the moment of peak correlation coefficient between trunk flexor and extensor muscle activities, and shorter time lags and higher correlations between ankle flexor and extensor muscle activities were shown in the athlete group than in the control group. [Conclusion] The elite ski jumpers showed superior balance performance following surface perturbations, more reciprocal patterns in agonist-antagonist pairs of proximal postural muscles, and more co-contraction patterns in distal postural muscles during automatic postural responses than control individuals. This strategy may be useful in sports requiring effective balance recovery in environments with a dynamically changing surface, as well as in rehabilitation.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine if Korean adults meet their physical activity recommendations during their leisure time to promote a healthy living. [Subjects and Methods] The sample included South Korean adults, aged over 20, who were currently residing in K City, South Korea. The author used a quota sampling technique to select 1,000 samples. Of the 1,000 questionnaires distributed, 845 questionnaires were used to conduct a χ2 test. [Results] It was revealed by the questionnaire that there was a clear distinction in the categories of very high level activity (11.0%), high level activity (29.1%), acceptable level activity (12.9%), low level activity (9.7%), and inactive level of physical activity (38.3%) in Korean adults’ leisure time. [Conclusions] The most interesting finding was that more than half of Korean adults do reach the recommendation of at least 30 minutes of moderate activity, on three or more days a week for at least three months. The other interesting finding was that the questionnaire is a useful instrument suitable for analyzing the recommendations of physical activity, comprising frequency, intensity, time, and overall duration.
[Purpose] The present study aimed to determine the effect of an 8-week program of joint mobilization on changes in pelvic obliquity and pain level in seventeen female university students aged in their 20’s with sacroiliac joint dysfunction by dividing them into two groups: a joint mobilization group (MWM) and a control group. [Subjects] Seventeen subjects were selected from female university students aged in their 20’s attending N University in Cheon-An City, Korea, The subjects had sacroiliac joint syndrome, but experienced no problems with daily living and had no previous experience of joint mobilization exercise. The subjects were randomly assigned to a joint mobilization group of eight and a control group of nine who performed joint mobilization exercise. [Methods] Body fat and lean body mass were measured using InBody 7.0 (Biospace, Korea). The Direct Segmental Multi-frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Method (DSM-BIA) was used for body composition measurement. A pressure footstool (Pedoscan, DIERS, Germany) and a trunk measurement system (Formetric 4D, DIERS, Germany), a 3D image processing apparatus with high resolution for vertebrae, were used to measure 3D trunk images of the vertebrae and pelvis obliquity, as well as static balance ability. [Result] The MWM group showed a significantly better Balance than the control group. In addition, the results of the left/right and the front/rear balance abilities were significantly better than those of the control group. [Conclusion] This study proved that a combination of mobilization with movement and functional training was effective in reducing pelvis malposition and pain, and improving static stability control.
[Purpose] To investigate the correlation of functional balance with the functional performance of children with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] This was a cross-sectional study of children with cerebral palsy with mild to moderate impairment. The children were divided into 3 groups based on motor impairment. The evaluation consisted of the administration of the Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS) and the Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory. Correlations between the instruments were determined by calculating Pearson’s correlation coefficients. [Results] In Group 1, a strong positive correlation was found between the PBS and the mobility dimension of the Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory (r=0.82), and a moderate correlation was found between the PBS and self-care dimension of the Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory (r=0.51). In Group 2, moderate correlations were found between the PBS and both the self-care dimension (r=0.57) and mobility dimension (r=0.41) of the Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory. In Group 3, the PBS was weakly correlated with the self-care dimension (r=0.11) and moderately correlated with the mobility dimension (r=0.55). [Conclusion] The PBS proved to be a good auxiliary tool for the evaluation of functional performance with regard to mobility, but cannot be considered a predictor of function in children with cerebral palsy.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of inclined treadmill walking on pelvic anterior tilt angle, hamstring muscle length, and back muscle endurance of seated workers with flat-back syndrome. [Subjects] Eight seated workers with flat-back syndrome who complained of low-back pain in the L3–5 region participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects performed a walking exercise on a 30° inclined treadmill. We measured the pelvic anterior tilt angle, hamstring muscle length, and back muscle endurance before and after inclined treadmill walking. [Results] Anterior pelvic tilt angle and active knee extension angle significantly increased after inclined treadmill walking. Trunk extensor and flexor muscle endurance times were also significantly increased compared to the baseline. [Conclusion] Inclined treadmill walking may be an effective approach for the prevention or treatment of low-back pain in flat-back syndrome.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of unstable surface trunk stabilization exercise on the abdominal muscle structure and balance of stroke patients. [Subjects] The subjects were divided into two groups: an unstable surface trunk stabilization exercise group (n=13), and a stable surface trunk stabilization exercise group (n=11). [Methods] Both groups performed trunk stabilization exercise for 30 minutes, 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Abdominal muscle thickness and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) were measured at the baseline and after 6 weeks. [Results] There was a significant improvement in the internal oblique muscle thickness, transversus abdominis thickness and balance ability of the unstable surface trunk stabilization exercise group. [Conclusion] The unstable surface trunk stabilization exercise improved the internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles and balance ability. These results suggest that unstable surface trunk exercise is useful in the rehabilitation stroke patients.
[Purpose] The purpose of the current study was to investigate the influence of footwear type on postural sway of hemiparetic stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty-two stroke patients who were undergoing a rehabilitation program were recruited on a voluntary basis from local rehabilitation unit. [Methods] This study had a single-group repeated-measures design. The Good Balance system was used to measure the postural sway velocity (anteroposterior and mediolateral) and velocity moment of the subjects under the eyes open and eyes closed conditions in the standing posture. Postural sway of the subjects in four types of footwear was measured, including barefoot, high heel-collar shoes, flat shoes, or slippers. [Results] The postural sway when wearing the flat shoes or slippers was significantly higher than that when barefoot or wearing high heel-collar shoes. In addition, postural sway velocity and velocity moment of all the footwear types were significantly higher under the eyes closed condition than under the eyes open condition. [Conclusion] Our results reveal that when the subjects wore flat shoes or slippers they had more difficulty than when they wore the high heel-collar shoes in postural control when maintaining standing balance. We believe that this result provides basic information for improvements in postural control and may be useful in balance training to prevent falls after stroke.
[Purpose] The purpose of our study was to clarify temporal effects on restrictions to range of motion and the histopathological changes of joint components after joint immobilization in a rat knee-contracture model. [Subjects] Fifty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: a fixation group, and a control group. [Methods] In the fixation group, unilateral knee joints were immobilized at full flexion using a plaster cast for 4 weeks. At four weeks the animals were randomly divided into six subgroups, corresponding to the time of examination after cast removal: 0, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 32 weeks. For comparison, control group animals of corresponding age were also examined. [Results] Although movement restrictions of the knee joint had completely recovered 6 weeks after the cast removal, cartilage and synovial membrane structures did not completely recover. [Conclusion] These findings have not previously been reported, and as they form an addition to the fundamental scientific foundations of physical therapy, further research must examine these findings from a variety of perspectives.
[Purpose] We investigated the effects of unstable conditions on the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the rectus abdominis (RA) and the transverse abdominis–internal oblique (TrA-IO) muscles, and lumbar kinematics during unilateral upper-limb resistance exercises using elastic tubing bands. [Subjects] Twelve healthy males were recruited. [Methods] The subjects performed isometric left shoulder abduction using an elastic tubing band in a sitting position on a chair, and on a Swiss ball. During this exercise, EMG activities of the RA and TrA-IO were recorded using a wireless EMG system, and a three-dimensional motion analysis system monitored lumbar kinematics. Differences in EMG activities of the RA and TrA-IO, the ratio of TrA-IO to RA activity, and lumbar kinematics were compared between the stable and unstable conditions using the paired t-test. [Results] Under the unstable condition, the EMG activities of both muscles were significantly greater than that under the stable condition; however the ratio of TrA-IO to RA activity did not significantly differ between the conditions. The lumbar angle significantly differed only in the coronal plane. [Conclusions] These findings indicate that trunk posture should be considered when performing exercises under unstable conditions.
[Purpose] The multi-directional reach test (MDRT) is a simple, inexpensive, reliable and valid screening tool for assessing the limits of stability in the anterorposterior and mediolateral directions. The aim of this study was to quantify the limits of stability of people aged between 20 and 79 years using the MDRT. [Subjects] One hundred and eighty subjects were divided into the following 6 age groups: 20–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, 60–69 and 70–79 years (n=30 per group). [Methods] The MDRT was used to measure the limits of stability in four directions: forward, backward, leftward and rightward. Subjects performed maximal outstretched arm reach in each direction with their feet flat on the floor. [Results] All age groups performed the greatest values of the limit of stability in the forward direction. The 60–79 year group demonstrated significantly lower limits of stability in the forward, leftward and rightward directions compared to the 20–39 year group. [Conclusion] The limits of stability declined with age mainly in the forward, leftward and rightward directions. The MDRT appears to be a useful assessment tool for postural control and balance of those aged 60 years and over.
[Purpose] To investigate the effect of the five animals (wuqinxi) exercises on the lumbosacral multifidus. [Subjects and Methods] This study enrolled two groups of volunteers, 15 volunteers who did the five animals exercises, the experimental group, and 15 volunteers who did aerobic exercise (walking), the control group. Both before and after the 1 year exercise intervention, the average surface electromyography (ASEMG) of the two groups in the process of ﬂexion and extension was recorded and analyzed using DASYLab10.0 software, and the flexion extension ratio (FER) was calculated. [Results] The ASEMG in the process of flexion was lower than the ASEMG in the process of extension both before and after the 1 year exercise intervention on both sides of all volunteers. There was no significant difference in FER between the experimental group and control group before the 1 year exercise intervention; however, the FER of experimental group was lower than that of the control group after the 1 year exercise intervention. There was no significant difference between the two sides in any individual both before and after the 1 year exercise intervention in both groups. [Conclusion] The “wuqinxi” exercises improved the function of the lumbosacral multifidus, and might be an alternative method of reducing low back pain.
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the postural control characteristics of individuals with and without a history of ankle sprain during single-leg standing by examining the relationship between various parameters of center of pressure (COP) and head and foot acceleration. [Subjects] Twenty subjects with and 23 subjects without a history of ankle sprain (sprain and control groups, respectively) participated. [Methods] Mean and maximum COP velocity and maximum COP range in the anteroposterior and mediolateral components of movement were calculated using a gravicorder. The anteroposterior and mediolateral maximum accelerations of the head and foot, as well as the root mean square (RMS) of each acceleration parameter, were measured using accelerometers. [Results] In the mediolateral component, a significant positive correlation was found between maximum acceleration of the foot and all COP parameters in the sprain group. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that mediolateral momentary motion of the foot in individuals with a history of ankle sprain has relevance to various parameters of COP.
[Purpose] A decrease in hip extension has been reported to be a factor in short step width and slow walking speed. Hip motion is related to pelvic and spinal motion, and transversus abdominis (TrA) activation is important for stabilising the pelvis and spine. The abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) can be performed to activate the TrA. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the ADIM on forward steps as a gait exercise. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 healthy men (mean age, 20.8 ± 2.4 years). [Methods] Thicknesses of the lateral abdominal muscles during forward step posture with and without ADIM were measured using ultrasound, and kinematics of the hip and pelvis were examined using a three-dimensional motion capture system. [Results] Thicknesses of the TrA and internal oblique increased during forward steps with ADIM. In addition, hip extension increased and pelvic rotation and oblique angles decreased during forward step with ADIM. [Conclusion] We believe that ADIM activates the so-called corset muscles, which consequently stabilise the pelvis and spine and increase hip extension. Our results suggest that an ADIM could increase hip extension during gait exercise.
[Purpose] This study investigated the changes in electromyographic (EMG) activities of the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles during shoulder external rotation under open kinetic chain (OKC) and closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercise conditions. [Subjects] In total, 15 healthy males participated in this study. [Methods] Subjects performed shoulder external rotations under CKC and OKC conditions while standing with and without weight support provided by a height-adjustable table. Pressure biofeedback was used to ensure a constant amount of weight support. The activities of the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles during shoulder external rotation were measured using a wireless surface EMG system. The paired t-test was used to compare the EMG activities of the infraspinatus and the posterior deltoid muscles and the ratio of the infraspinatus to the posterior deltoid during shoulder external rotation under OKC and CKC conditions. [Results] The EMG activity of the infraspinatus and the ratio of the infraspinatus to the posterior deltoid activities were significantly increased, whereas the posterior deltoid activity was significantly decreased under the CKC condition compared to the OKC condition. [Conclusion] Clinicians should consider the CKC shoulder external rotation exercise when they wish to selectively strengthen the infraspinatus.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of underwater treadmill gait training on the balance ability of stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-two patients with stroke were randomly assigned to an underwater treadmill group (n =11) or a control group (n =11). [Methods] Both groups received general rehabilitation for 30 min per session, 5 times per week, over a 4-week period. The underwater treadmill group received additional underwater gait training for 30 min per session, 5 times per week, over the same 4-week period. Static and dynamic balances were evaluated before and after the intervention. [Results] The means of static and dynamic balance ability increased significantly in both groups, but there was no significant difference between the two groups. [Conclusion] Compared to the general rehabilitation program, underwater treadmill gait training was not more effective at improving the balance ability of stroke patients than land-based training.
[Purpose] This study was conducted to investigate the effect of balance and gait training on the recovery of the motor function in a Parkinson’s disease animal models. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 40 mice were randomly classified into four groups with 10 in each group: Group I-Normal; Group II-Parkinson’s disease and no training; Group III-Parkinson’s disease and balance training was performed; and Group IV-Parkinson’s disease and gait training. Parkinson’s disease was induced by administration of MPTP to animals in Groups II–IV. Groups III and IV did training once a day, five days a week, for four weeks. Neurobehavioral evaluation was performed through the pole and open-field tests. Immunological evaluation was performed via TH (tyrosine hydroxylase) protein expression, using western blot analysis. [Results] In the result of the pole test, Groups III and IV showed significantly greater motor function recovery than to Group II. The results of the open-field test also showed that Groups III and IV had significantly greater motor function recovery than to Group II, and Group IV showed significantly greater motor function recovery than to Group III. Using western blot analysis, we determined that the expression of TH protein in the corpus striatum was greatest in group I, followed by Groups III and IV, and that Group II had the lowest TH protein expression in the corpus striatum. [Conclusion] The results of this study showed that balance and gait training were effective at recovering the motor functions of a Parkinson’s disease animal models induced by MPTP, and that gait training was more effective than balance training.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the activity of the shoulder and trunk muscles in two push-up positions: standard push-ups and push-ups with the trunk flexed. [Subjects] Fifteen young adult males participated in the study. [Methods] This study measured the clavicular and sternocostal portions of the pectoralis major, the serratus anterior, and the rectus abdominis during push-ups under the two conditions. [Results] The activity of the sternocostal portion of the pectoralis major and that of the rectus abdominis were significantly greater under Condition 1 than under Condition 2. The activity of the clavicular portion of the pectoralis major and that of the serratus anterior were significantly greater under Condition 2 compared with Condition 1. [Conclusion] These results indicate that exercises can selectively activate muscle parts under different clinical situations.
[Purpose] To clarify how a novel dynamic cushion affects the leg edema evoked by wheelchair sitting, we measured the changes in leg volume induced during wheelchair sitting with the dynamic air cushion or a static cushion. [Subjects and Methods] Nine healthy male subjects participated in this study. Leg edema during wheelchair sitting was evaluated with strain gauge plethysmography (the gauge was placed around the middle portion of the lower thigh). Following a period of rest, each subject was asked to sit on a wheelchair containing the dynamic cushion for 15 min. Then, the protocol was repeated with a static cushion. The angles of the knee and ankle joints were set to 90 degrees, and no footrests were used. [Results] The change in leg volume observed during sitting on the dynamic cushion (0.00 ± 0.03 mL/100 mL) was smaller than that observed during sitting on the static cushion (0.02 ± 0.02 mL/100 mL). [Conclusion] These results suggested that the dynamic cushion relieved leg edema during wheelchair sitting.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of the mandibular range of motion (ROM) considering the neutral craniocervical position when performing the measurements. [Subjects and Methods] The sample consisted of 50 asymptomatic subjects. Two raters measured four mandibular ROMs (maximal mouth opening (MMO), laterals, and protrusion) using the craniomandibular scale. Subjects alternated between raters, receiving two complete trials per day, two days apart. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was determined using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess reliability, bias, and variability. Finally, the standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change (MDC) were analyzed to measure responsiveness. [Results] Reliability was good for MMO (inter-rater, ICC= 0.95−0.96; intra-rater, ICC= 0.95−0.96) and for protrusion (inter-rater, ICC= 0.92−0.94; intra-rater, ICC= 0.93−0.96). Reliability was moderate for lateral excursions. The MMO and protrusion SEM ranged from 0.74 to 0.82 mm and from 0.29 to 0.49 mm, while the MDCs ranged from 1.73 to 1.91 mm and from 0.69 to 0.14 mm respectively. The analysis showed no random or systematic error, suggesting that effect learning did not affect reliability. [Conclusion] A standardized protocol for assessment of mandibular ROM in a neutral craniocervical position obtained good inter- and intra-rater reliability for MMO and protrusion and moderate inter- and intra-rater reliability for lateral excursions.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of kinesiology taping on repositioning error of the knee joint after quadriceps muscle fatigue. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults with no orthopaedic or neurological problems participated in this study. [Methods] The repositioning error of the knee joint was measured using a digital goniometer when the subjects extended their dominant-side knee to a random target angle (30°, 45°, or 60°) with their eyes closed, before and after a quadriceps muscle fatigue protocol, and after application of kinesiology tape. [Results] We found that repositioning errors of the dominant-side knee joint increased after quadriceps fatigue compared with no-fatigue conditions. However, kinesiology taping of the quadriceps muscle and patella after quadriceps fatigue significantly decreased repositioning errors of the knee joint. [Conclusion] These results suggest that quadriceps fatigue increases the repositioning error of the knee joint, whereas application of kinesiology tape decreases fatigue-induced joint repositioning error.
[Purpose] This study was conducted to investigate efficient, systematic management of the Korean police and to examine the status and prevention of musculoskeletal disorders in Korean police officers. [Subjects and Methods] A survey of police officers (353 subjects) who visited the National Police Hospital from March 2013 to May 2013 was conducted using a structured questionnaire. [Results] The incidence of pain was 44.2% in the shoulder, 41.4% in the waist, 31.2% in the neck, 26.1% in the legs/foot, 16.7% in the hand/wrist/finger, and 14.7% in the arm/elbow. The comparative risk of the relevant part factors was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The shoulder had a 4.87 times higher risk in police lieutenants compared with those under the rank of corporal and a 1.78 times higher risk in people with chronic diseases than those without chronic diseases. The arm/elbow had a 2.37 times higher risk in people who exercised than those who did not exercise and a 1.78 times higher risk in people with a chronic disease than those without chronic diseases. Generally, people with a chronic disease showed a higher risk than those without chronic diseases. [Conclusion] The results of this study could be useful as basic data for improvement of police welfare, specialized treatment for the health safety of the police, and efficient management of police resources.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between clinical parameters, radiological staging and evaluated ultrasound results of quadriceps muscle thickness in knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects] The current study comprised 75 patients (51 female, 24 male) with a mean age of 57.9±5.2 years (range 40–65 years) and a diagnosis of osteoarthritis in both knees. [Methods] Knee radiographs were evaluated according to the Kellgren-Lawrence grading system. Clinical evaluation performed with the visual analog scale (VAS), Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the 50-meter walking test, and the 10-step stair test. The thickness of the muscle layer of the quadriceps femoris (M. vastus intermedius and M. rectus femoris) was measured with high-resolution real-time ultrasonography. [Results] The results of this study showed a significant negative correlation between quadriceps thickness and age, duration of disease, stage of knee OA, and VAS, WOMAC, 50-m walking test, and 10-step stair test scores. [Conclusion] The evaluation of quadriceps muscle thickness with ultrasound can be considered a practical and economical method in the diagnosis and follow-up of knee osteoarthritis.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify effects of push-up plus exercise on different support surfaces on upper extremity muscular activity. [Subjects] The subjects were 28 students (10 males, 18 females) at B University. [Methods] The subjects performed push-up plus exercises either on slings or on a fixed support. [Results] Push-up plus exercises on slings showed significant increases in the muscle activity of the trapezius (upper fiber), deltoid (anterior fiber), and serratus anterior muscles compared with stabilization exercises on a fixed support. [Conclusion] Based on these results, it is considered that performance of the push-up plus exercise on slings will increase scapular muscle activity.
[Purpose] The aim of this paper was to report the efficacy of kinesiology taping for recovery from wrist pain and limited range of motion (ROM) in a physical therapist with repetitive strain injuries. [Subjects] A 32 year-old male physical therapist developed recurring severe pain in the dominant wrist and limited active ROM with extremely painful supination. [Methods] The kinesiology tape was applied to the lumbricals, musculi interossei dorsales, palmares, the wrist extensor and flexor muscles, and the wrist joint for 3 weeks for an average of 10 h/day. [Results] After application of the kinesiology tape, the Numeric Pain Rating Scale and Patient-rated Wrist Evaluation scores decreased, and the Patient-Specific Functional Scale score increased in comparison with the initial score. [Conclusion] Repeated kinesiology taping of the wrist muscles and joint could be an effective method for recovery from occupational wrist disorders experienced by physical therapists.
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to describe the results of transcranial direct current stimulation combined with treadmill training in a child with delayed neuro-psychomotor development. [Subject and Methods] Transcranial direct current stimulation (intensity: 1 mA) was applied over the primary motor cortex for 20 minutes during simultaneous treadmill training (2.5 km/h) in ten sessions. [Results] Clinically significant improvement was found in motor development (fine motor subscale, 23 to 25; gross motor subscale, 32 to 41). Reductions in mean oscillation of the center of pressure were found in the anteroposterior (239.2 to 146.5 mm) and mediolateral (177.4 to 149.2 mm) directions. Increases occurred in cadence (106 to 123 steps/minute), step length (0.16 to 0.23 m), step width (0.09 to 0.14 m) and gait velocity with support (0.3 to 0.7 m/s). [Conclusion] After treatment, the child was able to initiate the standing position for the first time and walk without support.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to describe the effect of locomotor training on a treadmill for three individuals who have an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). [Subjects and Methods] Three indivduals (2 males, 1 female) with incomplete paraplegia participated in this prospective case series. All subjects participated in locomotor training for a maximum of 20 minutes on a motorized treadmill without elevation at a comfortable walking speed three days a week for four weeks as an adjunct to a conventional physiotherapy program. The lower extremity strength and walking capabilities were used as the outcome measures of this study. Lower extremity strength was measured by lower extremity motor score (LEMS). Walking capability was assessed using the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI II). [Results] An increase in lower extremity motor score and walking capabilities at the end of training program was found. [Conclusion] Gait training on a treadmill can enhance motor recovery and walking capabilities in subjects with incomplete SCI. Further research is needed to generalize these findings and to identify which patients might benefit from locomotor training.