[Purpose] This study was conducted to determine the influence of Taekwondo as security martial arts training on anaerobic threshold, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood lactate recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen healthy university students were recruited and divided into an exercise group and a control group (n = 7 in each group). The subjects who participated in the experiment were subjected to an exercise loading test in which anaerobic threshold, value of ventilation, oxygen uptake, maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate were measured during the exercise, immediately after maximum exercise loading, and at 1, 3, 5, 10, and 15 min of recovery. [Results] At the anaerobic threshold time point, the exercise group showed a significantly longer time to reach anaerobic threshold. The exercise group showed significantly higher values for the time to reach VO2max, maximal values of ventilation, maximal oxygen uptake and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate. Significant changes were observed in the value of ventilation volumes at the 1- and 5-min recovery time points within the exercise group; oxygen uptake and maximal oxygen uptake were significantly different at the 5- and 10-min time points; heart rate was significantly different at the 1- and 3-min time points; and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate was significantly different at the 5-min time point. The exercise group showed significant decreases in blood lactate levels at the 15- and 30-min recovery time points. [Conclusion] The study results revealed that Taekwondo as a security martial arts training increases the maximal oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold and accelerates an individual’s recovery to the normal state of cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lactate level. These results are expected to contribute to the execution of more effective security services in emergencies in which violence can occur.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of mat Pilates and apparatus Pilates on pain and static balance of businesswomen with chronic back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly allocated to Pilates mat exercises (PME) or Pilates apparatus exercise (PAE), and performed the appropriate Pilates exercises 3 days per week for 8 weeks. In order to measure the improvement in the participants’ static balance ability as a result of the exercise, the sway length and sway velocity of the subjects were measured before and after the experiment while the subjects stood on a Balance Performance Monitor (BPM) facing the front wall for 30 seconds with their eyes open. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the degree of pain. [Results] The VAS score, sway length, and sway velocity of both groups decreased significantly after the experiment, but the PME group showed a greater decrease than the PAE group. [Conclusion] PME showed greater improvement in pain level and balance compared with PAE in this research. Since the subjects of this study were patients with low back pain, PME is assumed to have been more suitable and effective because it uses body weight to strengthen core muscles rather than heavier apparatuses as in PAE.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of tempo changes in rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) on gait in stroke patients. [Subjects] Forty-one chronic stroke patients who had had a stroke with more than 6 months previously were recruited for this study. [Methods] All participants were asked to walk under 5 different conditions in random order: (1) no RAS (baseline); (2) baseline-matched RAS (0%); and (3) −10%, (4) +10%, and (5) +20% of the baseline. A GAITRite system was used to evaluate the spatial and temporal parameters of gait. [Results] Compared with under the RAS 0% conditions, the gait velocity, cadence, and stride length on the affected side were significantly decreased under the RAS −10% conditions. Gait velocity and cadence were significantly improved, but gait symmetry was significantly decreased under the RAS +10% and +20% conditions compared with under the RAS 0% conditions. [Conclusion] A faster RAS tempo significantly improved gait velocity and cadence, and applying RAS significantly improved the gait symmetry of stroke patients.
[Purpose] This study sought to determine the usefulness of sit to stand training in self-directed treatment of stroke patients. It examined the effect that sit to stand training has on balance and functional movement depending on the form of support surfaces. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients were randomly sampled and divided into an unstable support surface group (15) and stable support surface group (15). In order to identify the effect depending on the form of support surfaces, 15 minutes of support surface training plus + 15 minutes of free gait training was performed. [Results] The results of the unstable support surface training showed that the corresponding sample t-test results were significant for the 7-item 3-point Berg balance scale, timed Up and Go test, and 6-minute walking test. The independent samples t-test, showed that there were significant outcomes in step length on the affected side, and step length on the unaffected side. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the sit to stand training on stable support surfaces was not as effective as the training using unstable support surfaces, but it is a simple and stable exercise with less risk of falls during training. It can also be performed alone by the patient in order to increase endurance and dynamic balance ability. Therefore, it is considered a useful exercise that can be performed alone by the patient outside the treatment room.
[Purpose] To investigate the correlation between the effect treadmill exercise and change in serum proteins in rats with osteoarthritis, a study of proteins was carried out using a mass spectrometer. [Subjects and Methods] Rats were randomly divided into five groups. After 4 weeks of treadmill training, serum from each rat was analyzed by Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Complementary component 9 (C9) was discovered to be downregulated in the serum of the exercise groups, and this was validated by Western blot. [Results] Seventeen proteins were discovered to be elevated in the monosodium iodoacetate injection osteoarthritis group samples by more than 1.5 fold compared with the control group. One of the proteins upregulated, C9 protein, was validated, and it was found to decrease in the middle-intensity exercise group. [Conclusion] We showed that the serum level of C9, an inflammatory-related protein, decreased after treadmill exercise. Therefore, treadmill exercise with an appropriate intensity might be recommended for OA patients.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of stretching and joint stabilization exercises applied to spastic shoulder joints on improving shoulder dysfunction in hemiplegic patients. [Subjects and Methods] Hemiplegic patients were classified into three groups: one group received 30 min of traditional exercise therapy for the spastic shoulder joint; one group received 30 min stretching; and one group received 15 min of stretching and 15 min of joint stabilization exercises. The exercises were performed once a day, five times per week for eight weeks. Changes in the pathologic thickness of tendons and recovery of shoulder function were compared among the three groups. Differences among the three groups before the experiment, at four weeks, and at eight weeks were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. [Results] The stretching and joint stabilization exercise therapy group showed greater improvement in shoulder function than the traditional exercise therapy group and the stretching only group. This group also showed greater decreases in the pathologic thickness of tendons, than the other groups. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that an exercise therapy program that combined stretching and joint stabilization exercise was more effective than other exercises for improvement of spastic shoulder joint dysfunction in hemiplegic patients.
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to examine whether mirror therapy in conjunction with FES in stroke patients can improve gait ability. [Subjects] This study was conducted with 30 subjects who were diagnosed with hemiparesis due to stroke. [Methods] Experimental group I contained 10 subjects who received mirror therapy in conjunction with functional electrical stimulation, experimental group II contained 10 subjects who received mirror therapy, and the control group contained 10 subjects who received a sham therapy. A gait analysis was performed using a three-dimensional motion capture system, which was a real-time tracking device that delivers data in an infrared mode via reflective markers using six cameras. [Results] The results showed a significant difference in gait velocity between groups after the experiment, and post hoc analysis revealed significant differences between experimental group I and the control group and between experimental group II and the control group, respectively. There were also significant differences in step length and stride length between the groups after the experiment, and post hoc analysis revealed significant differences between experimental group I and control group. [Conclusion] The present study showed that mirror therapy in conjunction with FES is more effective for improving gait ability than mirror therapy alone.
[Purpose] Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (BaPWV), which has been reported as an index of arterial stiffness, is very closely related to cardiovascular risk factors. A high BaPWV indicates high cardiovascular risk. However, BaPWV and pressure waveforms after stroke are not fully understood. [Methods] BaPWV was measured in thirty-two subjects (twenty-two healthy volunteers and ten stroke patients) while they were in the supine position. It was measured in their bilateral upper and lower extremities. [Results] BaPWV was significantly increased in the stroke group compared with the healthy volunteers. It was also significantly increased on both the affected and non-affected sides of stroke patients in the stroke group. Furthermore, analysis of the pressure waveforms showed that the peak pressure was significantly increased in the stroke group compared with the control group. The peak pressure on both the affected and non-affected sides was also significantly greater than in the control group. However, the rise and decay times were significantly decreased in the stroke group compared with the control group. The rise and decay time on both the affected and non-affected sides were also significantly more decreased than in the control group. [Conclusion] The results demonstrated that increased BaPWV and changed pulse waves are closely associated with the pathologic states of hemiplegic stroke patients.
[Purpose] Elderly female patients with glenohumeral joint (GHJ) contracture, forced into prolonged immobility were examined. Range of motion exercises using humerus anatomical neck-shaft rotation were performed, and the immediate effect and adaptation were investigated. [Subjects and Methods] A total of ten individuals with a mean age of 79.4 ± 11.0 years were included in this study. The controlled intervention involved conventional range of motion exercises, and the experimental intervention involved humerus anatomical neck-shaft rotation. Each exercise was performed 30 times. Shoulder joint flexion and abduction and external rotation of the GHJ range of motion were measured with the scapula fixed. Each change in range of motion was compared using ANOVA; less than 5% was considered significant. [Results] After the experimental intervention, significant increases were seen in shoulder joint flexion, abduction, and external rotation ranges of motion. [Conclusion] Therefore, this method was effective as a means of improving the range of motion of the GHJ.
[Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine users’ satisfaction with assistive devices, and their serviceability and effectiveness. [Methods] A random sample of 138 users participated in this study. The Korean-Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology 2.0 and an additional questionnaire were used for data collection. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. [Results] Overall client satisfaction was high. Respondents most commonly reported use of their device for “personal activities of daily living” and “mobility”, and considered engagement in “activities of daily living”, and “social participation” to be most desirable, respectively. [Conclusion] This study will provide rehabilitation professionals with valuable information about client satisfaction with assistive devices.
[Purpose] The aim of the study was to assess the effect of an 8-week balance exercise program for enhancement of gait function on temporal and spatial parameters of school aged children with intellectual disabilities. [Subjects] Forty young people with intellectual disabilities were assigned either to the balance exercise program for enhancement of gait function group (BG group, n=19) or the control group (n=21). [Methods] The BG group attended an 8-week balance exercise program for enhancement of gait function consisting of two sessions a week. Gait was assessed using temporal and spatial parameters. [Results] The balance exercise program resulted in significant improvements in participant performance in temporal and spatial parameters. [Conclusion] A balance exercise program for enhancement of gait function can be an effective intervention for improving functional outcomes and can be recommended as an alternative mode of physical activity programming for improving balance and gait.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of stair walking training on balance ability of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Forty stroke patients were allocated equally and randomly to an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group undertook 30 minutes of training therapy and 30 minutes of walking exercise on stairs with flat surfaces. The control group undertook 30 minutes went of training therapy and 30 minutes of walking exercise on a flat surface. All the participants had five training sessions each week for four weeks. A Biorescue system was used to measure the weight-bearing footprint, anterior length in the limit of stability, posterior length in the limit of stability, surface area ellipse of Romberg, and length of Romberg before and after the training. [Results] With regard to changes in the weight-bearing footprint, the anterior length in the limit of stability, and the posterior length in the limit of stability, there were significant differences on both the paretic and nonparetic sides, and there were also significant differences in the surface area ellipse of Romberg and length of Romberg after the intervention. [Conclusion] The experiment results showed that walking exercise on stairs is effective in enhancing balance performance. The same exercise can be applied to patients with other types of neurological disorders to improve their balance.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an unstable surface on trunk and lower extremity muscle activities during various types of bridging exercises. [Subjects] Thirty healthy female adults voluntarily participated in this study. [Methods] All subjects were asked to perform 3 different bridging exercises (bridging exercise, single leg lift bridging exercise, single leg cross bridging exercise) with and without an unstable surface. The trunk and lower extremity muscle activities were measured by using surface electromyography during bridging exercise. [Results] During the bridging exercise (BE), single leg lift bridging exercise (LBE), and single leg cross bridging exercise (CBE), the muscle activities of the external oblique muscle (EO), erector spinae (ES), and biceps femoris (BF) were significantly higher on an unstable surface than on a stable surface. The muscle activities of the EO on both sides, contralateral BF, and ipsilateral ES were significantly higher during LBE than during BE and CBE. [Conclusion] Use of an unstable surface increases muscle activity of the trunk and lower extremities, and single leg lift bridging exercise increases the muscle activity of the EO on both sides, ipsilateral ES, and contralateral BF.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to present an individualized resistance training method to enable exercise while maintaining an exercise load that is set according to an individual’s joint angle-torque using a haptic-based resistance training machine. [Methods] Five participants (machine group) performed individualized shoulder internal and external rotation training with a haptic resistance training machine, while another five participants performed general dumbbell-based shoulder internal and external rotation training for eight weeks. Internal and external rotation powers of subjects were measured using an isokinetic machine before and after training. [Results] The average powers of both shoulder internal and external rotation has been improved after training (25.72%, 13.62%). The improvement in power of external rotation in the machine group was significantly higher than that in the control group. [Conclusion] This study proposes a haptic-based individualized rotator cuff muscle training method. The training protocol maintaining the joint angle-torque profile showed better improvement of shoulder internal/external rotation than dumbbell training.
[Purpose] The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate the effect of manual lymph drainage (MLD) of the neck on frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry in subjects with psychological stress. [Subjects] Thirteen subjects with psychological stress participated in the study. [Methods] Subjects received MLD of the neck for 15 min. [Results] Analysis of the frontal asymmetry index showed that the energy shift in the alpha frequency band from the left hemisphere to the right hemisphere after MLD resulted in greater left-side activation (positive asymmetry values), which could be related to the positive emotional state observed particularly in the F7–F8 area. [Conclusion] These preliminary findings suggest that frontal EEG asymmetry was significantly attenuated after MLD.
[Purpose] Little data exist on systemic training programs to improve skating abilities in ice hockey players. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a complex training program on skating abilities in ice hockey players. [Methods] Ten male ice hockey players (training group) that engaged in 12 weeks of complex training and skating training and ten male players (control group) that only participated in 12 weeks of skating training completed on-ice skating tests including a 5 time 18 meters shuttle, t-test, Rink dash 5 times, and line drill before, during, and the training. [Results] Significant group-by-time interactions were found in all skating ability tests. [Conclusion] The complex training program intervention for 12 weeks improved their skating abilities of the ice hockey players.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare differences in respiratory pressure and pulmonary function and the effectiveness of respiratory feedback training according to walking ability in children with cerebral palsy (CP). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three children with spastic CP were enrolled in the final analysis and were divided into an independent walking group (n=12) and non-independent walking group. All children received respiratory feedback training for four weeks. Before and after the training, respiratory muscle strength was measured and a pulmonary function test was performed. [Results] Comparison of respiratory pressure and pulmonary function test results between the two revealed that the independent walking group had significantly higher respiratory function than the other group in all variables except peak expiratory flow. In comparison of changes in respiratory function between the two groups, the independent walking group showed significantly higher improvement of respiratory function in terms of maximal inspiratory pressure, maximal expiratory pressure, and forced vital capacity. [Conclusion] These findings showed that children with independent walking ability had better respiratory muscle strength and pulmonary function compared with children without independent walking ability. Understanding respiratory function and the effectiveness of respiratory training according to walking ability will be valuable clinical information for respiratory assessment and therapy in children with CP.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of visual field condition on electromyography of the lower extremities during arm reaching in healthy adults, and to compare differences in electromyography of the lower extremities between young and old adults according to visual fields condition. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine young persons in their 20s and 19 elderly persons in their 60s, a total of 48 persons, participated in this study. Prior to participation in the study, each subject signed an informed consent form to comply with ethics guidelines dictated by the ethics committee for research at Silla University, Korea. We collected the muscle activation data for both of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscle during reaching by subjects using electromyography. Data analysis with SPSS for Window Version 20.0 was performed using repeated one-way analysis of variance according to visual fields and age. [Results] There were no significantly differences between subjects in their 20s and 60s to visual field conditions except for left tibialis anterior muscle activation during left-side reaching. Left tibialis anterior muscle activation in subjects in their 60s was higher than in subjects in their 20s during left-side reaching. [Conclusion] We determined that tibialis anterior muscle activation in subjects in their 60s was higher than in subjects in their 20s. We suggest that visual field conditions are the important factor for physical therapy interventions to improve balance and priority of intervention .
[Purpose] The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of a virtual reality-based yoga program on middle-aged female low back pain patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty middle-aged female patients who suffered from low back pain were assigned to either a physical therapy program or a virtual reality-based yoga program for a period of four weeks. Participants could check their posture and weight bearing on a monitor as they shifted their weight or changed their postures on a Wii balance board. There were a total of seven exercise programs. A 30-minute, three times per week, virtual reality-based Wii Fit yoga program or trunk stabilizing exercise was performed, respectively. [Results] Repeated-measures analysis of covariance revealed significant differences in between pre- and post-training VAS, algometer, Oswestry low-back pain disability index (ODI), Roland Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ), and fear avoidance beliefs questionnaire (FBQ) scores. The VAS, algometer, ODI, RMDQ, and FBQ scores showed significant differences in groups. Regarding the effect of time-by-group interaction, there were significant differences in VAS, ODI, ODI, and FBQ scores. [Conclusion] In conclusion, for middle-aged female patients who have low back pain, a virtual reality-based yoga program was shown to have positive effects on physical improvements, and this program can be employed as a therapeutic medium for prevention and cure of low back pain.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to correlate the talocrural range of motion (ROM) and blood flow velocity in the lower limb arteries of diabetic women. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty women were divided into a control group (G1), consisting of 15 sedentary right-handed subjects (41.27 ± 7.24 years old) who had no history of blood system disorder, and a diabetes group (G2), consisting of 15 sedentary right-handed subjects (57.87 ± 6.20 years old) who had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Talocrural ROM was measured by using goniometry for dorsiflexion and plantar flexion movements. In addition, blood flow velocity of the dorsalis pedis, posterior tibial, and popliteal arteries was also assessed. [Results] No significant differences were found between the groups by comparing talocrural ROM and arterial blood velocity. However, a significant association was found in G2 only between the following variables: plantar flexion and blood flow velocity of the dorsalis pedis artery (rs = 0.57), plantar flexion and blood flow velocity of the popliteal artery (rs = 0.50), and dorsiflexion and blood flow velocity of the posterior tibial artery (rs = 0.57). [Conclusion] The decrease in talocrural ROM is related to a decrease in the arterial blood flow velocity in diabetic women.
[Purpose] Although shortwave diathermy has been widely used by physiotherapists, there are a few studies assessing the performance of the equipment in use. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the procedures adopted by physiotherapists as users of shortwave diathermy continuous (CSWD), as well as to measure the power output and frequency of CSWD equipment. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three physical therapists were interviewed and 23 CSWD equipment were evaluated. Admeasurement was carried out by using a standard phantom to simulate the electrode-skin distance, which ranged from 0.5 to 3.0 cm. Data analysis was performed by using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and a post-hoc Tukey’s test or Pearson’s correlation coefficient. [Results] The questionnaires showed that 48% of the interviewees use the correct electrode-skin distance, 70% use a single electrical outlet, and 35% use a grounded electrical outlet, and that 48% of the physiotherapy tables and 61% of the plinths were made of wood. However, only 13% of the interviewees perform yearly preventive maintenance. The highest power (95.56 W) was achieved at electrode-skin distances ranging from 1.0 to 1.5 cm, with distances of 2.5 cm and 3.0 cm being null in four and eight equipment, respectively. There was a negative correlation between power output and electrode-skin distance as well as between power output and purchase date. [Conclusion] The physiotherapists involved in this study had inadequate knowledge about the correct use of CSWD equipment, which may adversely affect its performance and patient safety.
[Purpose] This study sought to identify the gait aspects according to the FES stimulation position in stroke patients during gait training. [Subjects and Methods] To perform gait analysis, ten stroke patients were grouped based on 4 types of gait conditions: gait without FES stimulation (non-FES), gait with FES stimulation on the tibialis anterior (Ta), gait with FES stimulation on the tibialis anterior and quadriceps (TaQ), and gait with FES stimulation on the tibialis anterior and gluteus medius (TaGm). [Results] Based on repeated measures analysis of variance of measurements of gait aspects comprised of gait speed, gait cycle, and step length according to the FES stimulation position, the FES stimulation significantly affected gait aspects. [Conclusion] In conclusion, stimulating the tibialis anterior and quadriceps and stimulating the tibialis anterior and gluteus medius are much more effective than stimulating only the tibialis anterior during gait training in stroke patients using FES.
[Purpose] Complaint of pain is common in computer workers, encouraging the investigation of pain-related workplace factors. This study investigated the relationship among work-related characteristics, psychosocial factors, and pain among computer workers from a university center. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen subjects (median age, 32.0 years; interquartile range, 26.8–34.5 years) were subjected to measurement of bioelectrical impedance; photogrammetry; workplace measurements; and pain complaint, quality of life, and motivation questionnaires. [Results] The low back was the most prevalent region of complaint (76.9%). The number of body regions for which subjects complained of pain was greater in the no rest breaks group, which also presented higher prevalences of neck (62.5%) and low back (100%) pain. There were also observed associations between neck complaint and quality of life; neck complaint and head protrusion; wrist complaint and shoulder angle; and use of a chair back and thoracic pain. [Conclusion] Complaint of pain was associated with no short rest breaks, no use of a chair back, poor quality of life, high head protrusion, and shoulder angle while using the mouse of a computer.
[Purpose] This research was designed to find out how the so-called “dynamic balance” is affected by doing different types of warm up exercises. In particular, the research is focused on the difference in the effect on dynamic Balance of warming up in water versus on the ground. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy adults were the subjects of this study, with 10 people assigned each to two groups, one warming up in water and another warming up on the ground. The dynamic balance was measured for all subjects before the warming up. The group warming up on the ground conducted active stretching on the ground, and the group warming up in water conducted stretching in water by using water as resistance. [Results] The results indicate that warming up in water has a more powerful effect on a subject’s dynamic balance than warming up on the ground. [Conclusion] The group warming up in water, who made use of the viscosity and flow of the water, showed better balance than the group warming up on the ground. Warming up in water, which entails an element of resistance, should be implemented in warm-up routines in the future.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using spinal stabilizing exercise to reduce atrophy of the multifidus and psoas major muscles, reduce the levels of pain and disability, and increase paraspinal muscle strength in patients with degenerative disc disease (DDD). [Subjects and Methods] In 33 patients (Age range: 25–65 years) diagnosed with DDD, spinal stabilization exercise was conducted for 8 weeks. The levels of pain and disability were measured before and after exercise using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Paraspinal muscular strength in four directions was evaluated with a CENTAUR 3D Spatial Rotation Device. Cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of both the left and right multifidus and the psoas major at the upper endplate of L4 were measured before and after exercise using computed tomography (CT). [Results] After 8 weeks of spinal stabilization exercise, the pain and lumbar disability in subjects decreased significantly from 6.12±1.24 to 2.43±1.14. The ODI score also improved from 20.18±7.14 to 8.81±5.73. In addition, paraspinal muscle strength increased significantly, while the CSAs of the left and right multifidus and psoas major widened as compared with the pre-exercise size. [Conclusion] Spinal stabilization exercise was effective for reducing pain and disability in DDD patients. It was an effective adjunct to aid rehabilitation in these cases.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to verify the decline in functionality of elderly people. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects comprised 152 individuals (96 women; 56 men) divided into 3 groups: G1 (60 to 69 years, n=53); G2 (70 to 79 years, n=65); and G3 (80 years or older, n=34). Physical performance, balance, mobility, and muscle strength were assessed using Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), Berg Balance Scale (BERG), Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, and leg press test, respectively. Comparison among age-stratified groups (G1, G2 and G3) and between genders were examined using analysis of variance with Tukey’s test as a post hoc test or the Kruskal-Wallis test with Bonferroni correction. [Results] SPPB and BERG scores decreased significantly in comparison between G1 and G3, and between G2 and G3 in women. TUG and leg press scores decreased significantly in comparison between G1 and G3 and between G2 and G3. [Conclusion] People in their 60s and 70s have similar functional characteristics (physical performance, balance, mobility and muscle strength for both genders), and functionality starts to decline when people are in their 80s.
[Purpose] Muscle co-contraction is important in stabilizing the spine. The aim of this study was to compare cervical muscle co-contraction in adults with and without chronic neck pain during voluntary movements. [Subjects and Methods] Surface electromyography of three paired cervical muscles was measured in fifteen young healthy subjects and fifteen patients with chronic neck pain. The subjects performed voluntary neck movements in the sagittal and coronal plane at slow speed. The co-contraction ratio was defined as the normalized integration of the antagonistic electromyography activities divided by that of the total muscle activities. [Results] The results showed that the co-contraction ratio of patients was greater during flexion movement, lesser during extension movement, slightly greater during right lateral bending, and slightly lesser during left lateral bending compared with in the controls. [Conclusion] The results suggested that neck pain patients exhibit greater antagonistic muscle activity during flexion and dominate-side bending movements to augment spinal stability, while neuromuscular control provides relatively less protection in the opposite movements. This study helps to specify the changes of the stiffness of the cervical spine in neck pain patients and provides a useful tool and references for clinical assessment of neck disorders.
[Purpose] The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of different positions on pulmonary function test (PFT) values such as forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of asthmatic patients .[Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects with severe asthma aged between 20–39 years were enrolled after they had signed a written consent. Subjects were selected using the inclusion criteria, and PFT were randomly administered. Spirometer measurements (FVC, FEV1) were taken in the supine, side lying on right, side lying on left, sitting and standing positions. Each measurement was taken three times, and the average values were analyzed. [Results] One- way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s Test (post hoc) for pair- wise comparison indicated that there was a significant difference in the FEV1 values of the asthmatic patients however a significant difference was obtained between standing and supine positions. There was also a significant difference in the FVC values between the standing and supine lying position in the pair -wise comparison. [Conclusion] This study showed standing is the best position for measuring FEV1 and FVC of asthmatic subjects. The more upright the position, the higher the FEV1 and FVC will be.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare cervical repositioning errors according to smartphone addiction grades of adults in their 20s. [Subjects and Methods] A survey of smartphone addiction was conducted of 200 adults. Based on the survey results, 30 subjects were chosen to participate in this study, and they were divided into three groups of 10; a Normal Group, a Moderate Addiction Group, and a Severe Addiction Group. After attaching a C-ROM, we measured the cervical repositioning errors of flexion, extension, right lateral flexion and left lateral flexion. [Results] Significant differences in the cervical repositioning errors of flexion, extension, and right and left lateral flexion were found among the Normal Group, Moderate Addiction Group, and Severe Addiction Group. In particular, the Severe Addiction Group showed the largest errors. [Conclusion] The result indicates that as smartphone addiction becomes more severe, a person is more likely to show impaired proprioception, as well as impaired ability to recognize the right posture. Thus, musculoskeletal problems due to smartphone addiction should be resolved through social cognition and intervention, and physical therapeutic education and intervention to educate people about correct postures.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of adjusting the scapula into its ideal position through active scapular protraction on the muscle activation and function of the upper extremity. [Subjects] Twenty female college students aged 19–21 without any physical or functional disability were the subjects of this study. They had no history of injury to their upper extremities or hands. [Methods] After the initial measurements the experimental group was asked to perform active scapular protraction; then, their grip strength and muscle activation were measured again. Every action was maintained for 5 seconds and repeated 3 times. The mean values of the measurements were analyzed. A resting of 1 minute was given between each action. [Results] The results revealed a significant change in the experimental group’s grip strength after active scapular protraction had been performed. The surrounding muscles of the scapula, such as the serratus anterior, upper trapezius, flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radialis and palmaris longus, showed significant changes in muscle activation after active scapular protraction. The muscles of the upper extremity also showed significant changes after active scapular protraction. [Conclusion] The adjustment of scapula into its ideal position through active scapular protraction increased the activations of the muscles surrounding the shoulder joint and improved the function of the upper extremity.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to verify whether precise contraction of the pelvic floor muscle (PFM) using visual feedback actually affects the thickness of abdominal muscles. [Subjects] The subjects were 29 healthy adults in their 20s who consented to participate in this study. [Methods] This study provided visual feedback on PFM using one ultrasound device and identified changes in the transversus abdominis (TRA) using another ultrasound device. Abdominal muscle thicknesses were measured by ultrasound under three conditions (rest, PFM contraction, PFM contraction with visual feedback). [Results] There were no statistically significant differences in the external oblique (EO) and internal oblique (IO) muscles between the measurements taken at rest and during the contraction of the PFM, and between those taken at rest and during the contraction of the PFM with visual feedback. There were significant differences in the TRA. In particular, TRA thickness was highest in the order of PFM contraction, PFM contraction with visual feedback, and rest. [Conclusion] Hollowing with visual feedback is not an efficient stabilization exercise method for the PFM.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of mid, and high exercise intensities on hemodynamic responses and cardiac events during two exercise types of treadmill exercise (TM) and cycle ergometer exercises (CE) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). [Subjects] Patients who had percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ACS and were participating in cardiac rehabilitation program were included. [Methods] The patients were assessed for hemodynamic responses, cardiac events, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) with target heart rates of 60% and 85% heart rate reserve (HRR) during TM and CE. [Results] Maximum systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), RPE, and rate pressure product (RPP) measured during CE were significantly higher than their values in TM at the same exercise intensities. The highest SBP was shown at 85% HRR during CE. SBPmax to SBPmax ratios obtained during the graded exercise test (GXT) showed that all %SBPmax were significantly greater in CE than in TM at the same exercise intensities. Out of 102 patients, cardiac events occurred in 8 at 85% HRR during CE, and 1 at 85% HRR during TM. Patients with cardiac events (CE-E) had significantly higher %SBP, %RPP, and RPE at 85% HRR than those without events (CE-NE) during CE. [Conclusion] Prescribing exercise based on the intensity obtained in a treadmill GXT may expose patients to cardiovascular complications such as higher RPP, higher exercise intensity, and cardiac events during CE.
[Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the effects of virtual reality-based balance training on balance of the elderly. [Methods] The subjects were 32 healthy elderly people aged between 65 and 80, who were divided into a VR (virtual reality) training group (n=17) and a control group (n=15). The VR training group engaged in a 30-minute exercise session using Wii Fit three times a week for eight weeks, while the control group received no intervention. The balance of the two groups was measured before and after the intervention. [Results] According to the Romberg Test conducted to examine the effects of the training on balance, both the area covered by the body’s center of pressure movement, and movement distances per unit area of the body’s center of pressure envelope significantly decreased in the VR training group. Moreover, the two groups showed significant differences in balance. [Conclusion] Virtual reality training is effective at improving the balance of the healthy elderly. Thus, virtual reality training can be proposed as a form of fall prevention exercise for the elderly.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of an inclined ankle on the activation of the abductor hallucis muscle during short foot exercises. [Subjects] We recruited 14 healthy volunteers who were free of pain, and did not suffer from arthritis or osteomuscular problems related to the foot or ankle. [Methods] The subjects performed short foot exercises and short inclined foot exercises with 30° passive ankle dorsiflexion. [Results] The exercise with an inclined foot showed a significantly larger activation of the abductor hallucis than that shown during the neutral short foot exercises. [Conclusion] These results suggest that passive ankle dorsiflexion during short foot exercise for strengthening the abductor hallucis is a more effective clinical treatment exercise.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between the muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) obtained during muscle twitches from evoked potentials and the dynamic characteristics of muscular tension (muscle dynamic characteristics) by manipulating deep temperature. [Subjects] Subjects were 10 healthy adult men. Their mean age was 23.0 ± 3.9 years. [Methods] Measurement items were MFCV of the right tibialis anterior muscle and the force-time curve of right ankle dorsiflexion (muscle twitch). Measurements were made under conditions of ordinary (room) temperature, hot and cold. The rate of change in maximum torque was calculated from the force-time curve. [Results] In all subjects, MFCV increased significantly with heating and decreased significantly with cooling. A strong correlation was seen between MFCV and deep temperature. A strong correlation was also seen between MFCV and the rate of change in maximum torque. Stronger correlations were seen in the present results than in previous studies that conducted investigations using voluntary contractions. [Conclusion] The present results were not affected by psychological or other such factors, and are valuable as data with high physiological reliability. In conclusion, this study was able to clarify the relationship between MFCV from evoked potentials and muscle dynamic characteristics.
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of wobble board training on static balance, with and without vision, of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). [Subjects] Ten adolescents with DS were recruited for this study. [Methods] Participants performed quiet standing with their eyes open and closed, pre- and post-wobble board training. During quiet standing, the center of pressure (COP) data was recorded using a force plate. To assess the static balance ability of the participants, the 95% confidence ellipse area of COP was calculated. The paired t-test was used to compare the 95% confidence ellipse area of COP between the eyes open and closed conditions, and between pre- and post-training. [Results] Although there was no significant difference in the 95% confidence ellipse area of COP between with and without vision, the 95% confidence ellipse area of COP decreased significantly after wobble board training. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that wobble board training is an effective at improving the static balance ability of adolescents with DS.