[Purpose] The purposes of this study were to investigate the lower extremity joint kinematics and kinetics of patients with the knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) during stair descent and clarify the biomechanical factors related to their difficulty in stair descent. [Subjects and Methods] Eight healthy elderly persons and four knee OA patients participated in this study. A 3-D motion analysis system and force plates were employed to measure lower extremity joint angles, ranges of motion, joint moments, joint powers, and ratios of contribution for the joint powers while descending stairs. [Results] Knee joint flexion angle, extension moment, and negative power during the early stance phase in the knee OA group were smaller than those in the healthy subjects group. However, no significant changes in these parameters in the ankle joint were observed between the two subject groups. [Conclusion] Knee OA patients could not use the knee joint to absorb impact during the early stance phase of stair descent. Hence, they might compensate for the roles played by the intact knee joint by mainly using ipsilateral ankle kinematics and kinetics.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on heart rate variability (HRV). [Subjects and Methods] Ten healthy subjects participated in the study. All subjects received NMES with a pulse duration of 300 us and frequency of 30 Hz at the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis for 15 minutes. The stimulation intensity was adjusted in the range of 20 to 30 mA. HRV using a pulse oximeter was measured in the sitting position before and after NMES. [Results] After the NMES, all HRV data slightly increased, but there was no significance between before and after data. [Conclusion] We suggest that strengthening exercises using NMES may be undertaken safely.
[Purpose] The present study analyzed the effect of the Togu exercise program on the lumbar back strength of middle-aged women who did not perform regular exercise, and presents an effective exercise method for middle-aged women with chronic low back pain symptom. [Subjects] The subjects were 16 women with chronic low back pain attending N University, Chungcheong-do, Korea. [Methods] Height, weight, body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were measured using a body composition analyzer (Inbody 720, Biospace, Korea), which utilizes bioelectrical impedance analysis. Using isokinetic lumbar muscle strength measurement equipment [Isomed 2000, Back system, (Germany)], peak torque/body weight, total work and average power of flexion and extension of the lumbar region were measured. For lumbar stabilization exercises, an air cushion (Germany), jumper (Germany), and aero step (Germany) were employed. First, warm-up exercise was conducted for 10 minutes, followed by 10 sets of the 3 main exercises using the above tools with 10-second rest intervals. The main exercise was done for 40 minutes in total. [Results] The paired sample t-test showed significant in the Togu exercise group peak torque of flexion, peak torque of extension, total work of flexion, total work of extension, average power of flexion, average power of extension, after the exercise showed a significant difference in the Togu exercise group. [Conclusion] The trunk muscle actiation program for middle-aged women had a significant effect on muscle strength and low back pain. Therefore the trunk muscle activation program is effective at increasing muscular strength of middle-aged women, and the results suggest improve muscle strength is effectively stabilizaties the lumbar region.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between Y-balance test (YBT) distance and the lower-limb strength of adult women. [Subjects] Forty women aged 45 to 80 years volunteered for this study. [Methods] The participants were tested for maximal muscle strength of the lower limbs (hip extensors, hip flexors, hip abductors, knee extensors, knee flexors, and ankle dorsiflexors) and YBT distances in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to quantify the linear relationships between YBT distances and lower-limb strength. [Results] Hip extensor and knee flexor strength were positively correlated with YBT anterior distance. Hip extensor, hip abductor, and knee flexor strength were positively correlated with the YBT posteromedial distance. Hip extensor and knee flexor strength were positively correlated with YBT posterolateral distance. [Conclusion] There was a weak correlation between lower-limb strength (hip extensors, hip abductors, and knee flexors) and dynamic postural control as measured by the YBT.
[Purpose] This study assessed the use of different exercise speeds and isokinetic feedback on the middle and lower serratus anterior muscles during push-up exercises. [Subjects] Ten male workers voluntarily consented to participate in the study. [Methods] The subjects performed push-up exercises under three conditions. Surface electrodes were placed on the dominant right side of the middle and lower serratus anterior muscles. [Results] The middle and lower SA muscle activities under condition 2 were significantly decreased when compared with those under conditions 1 and 3. The middle SA activity under condition 3 was significantly increased when compared with that under condition 1. [Conclusion] This study suggests that proper selection of push-up exercise speed may be necessary for selective strengthening of the SA and that isokinetic feedback information obtained using an accelerator can help in selective strengthening of the middle SA.
[Purpose] The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of pulsed and continuous ultrasound (US) irradiation on heat shock protein (HSP) 70 and mRNA levels of chondrogenesis-related gene expression in rat tibial articular cartilage. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-eight rats with body weights of 200−250 g were randomly divided into three groups. In the control (CON) group, three rats were treated with sham sonication. The pulsed US irradiation group was irradiated with a pulse rate of 20%, a frequency of 1 MHz, and an intensity of 1.5 W/cm2 for 10 minutes. The continuous US irradiation group was continuously with a frequency of 1 MHz and an intensity of 1.5 W/cm2 for 10 minutes. Immunohistochemistry for evaluation of HSP 70 and RT-PCR for expression of the chondrogenesis-related mRNA were used. [Results] The expression of HSP70 protein was increased in the pulsed and continuous US groups. The increase in the continuous US group was more prominent than in the pulsed US group. In addition, pulsed and continuous US irradiation increased the expression of Mustn1 and Sox9. [Conclusion] The results of this study show that US increases chondrogenesis via the increase of HSP 70 and chondrogenesis-related mRNA expressions in rat articular cartilage.
[Purpose]This study was conducted to identify the effects of a fall-prevention exercise program on the participation and static balance of elderly persons in daily life roles. [Subjects] Ten participants over 65 years of age (75.29±2.93) who were healthy community-dwellers (two men and eight women) were recruited. [Methods] The participants exercised three times a week for eight weeks. The exercise program was based on the fitness and mobility exercise (FAME) protocol. The outcome measures were changes in activity participation level and the fall index. [Results] After the exercise, the activity participation level significantly increased, and the fall index significantly decreased. [Conclusion] A fall prevention exercise program can have a positive effect on participation and static balance in older adults.
[Purpose] Weakening of trunk muscles in stroke patients hinders functional ability, safety and balance. To confirm whether strengthening trunk muscles could facilitate rehabilitation of stroke patients, we investigated the effectiveness of sling exercise therapy (SET) using closed kinetic chain exercises to activate trunk muscles and improve balance in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty stroke patients with chronic hemiplegia were equally divided into 2 groups, a SET group and a control group that performed regular exercises on a mat with the assistance of a table. Patients in both groups exercised for 30 min, three times per week for 4 weeks. Trunk muscle activity was measured using surface electromyography, whereas balance was measured using the Berg Balance Scale, Frailty and Injuries Cooperative Studies of Intervention Technique, Timed Up & Go test, and BioRescue before and after the 4-week experimental period. [Results] Trunk muscle activity and balance before and after intervention in both groups were significantly different. However, no significant differences were observed between the 2 groups. [Conclusion] Although SET was not more effective than regular exercise, significant improvement was observed before and after SET. Therefore, SET can be considered effective in strengthening trunk muscles in stroke patients with chronic hemiplegia.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between lower extremity tightness and lower extremity balance, measured by the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), in junior high school baseball players. [Subjects] Thirty-three male students belonging to baseball clubs in 2 junior high schools participated in this study. [Methods] For the SEBT, we chose to examine the anterior (ANT), posterior (POS), lateral (LAT), and medial (MED) directions. Regarding muscle tightness measurement, the angle of each joint of the bilateral iliopsoas, quadriceps, hamstring, gastrocnemius, hip internal rotator, and hip external rotator was measured. [Results] The ANT direction of the SEBT was significantly negatively correlated with gastrocnemius tightness. The MED direction of the SEBT was significantly positively correlated with hip internal rotator tightness and hamstrings tightness and significantly negatively correlated with gastrocnemius tightness. The LAT direction of the SEBT was significantly negatively correlated with iliopsoas tightness and gastrocnemius tightness. [Conclusion] Since the rate of upper extremity injury is high in these subjects and this could be due to tightness and instability of the lower extremity from a kinetic viewpoint, the SEBT could be used as a standard evaluation test when examining upper extremity injuries in young baseball players.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the work-related musculoskeletal system symptoms and the extent of job stress in female caregivers, as well as the interrelationship between these factors. [Subjects and Methods] Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) Code H-43 of the Guidelines for the Examination of Elements Harmful to the Musculoskeletal System was used as a tool to measure musculoskeletal symptoms. Caregiver job stress was assessed from the Korean Occupational Stress Scale short form. [Results] The level of symptoms in the hand/wrist/finger and leg/foot regions had some relation to job stress. Job stress scores were mainly shown to be high when pain was reported. On the other hand, it was shown that the degree of musculoskeletal symptoms by body part was unrelated to conflicts in relationships, job instability, or workplace culture. [Conclusion] As for the correlations between musculoskeletal symptoms and job stress, it was shown that as job requirements increased, most musculoskeletal symptoms also increased.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of muscle vibration in the lower extremities in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) during walking. [Subjects] Nine patients with PD participated in this study and were tested with and without vibration (vibration at 60 Hz). [Methods] Eight oscillators of vibration were attached to the muscle bellies (tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, and rectus femoris) on both sides of the lower extremities with adhesive tape in this study. Spatiotemporal gait parameters were measured using a motion analysis system. [Results] Stride length and walking speed with vibration were significantly increased compared with those without vibration in PD patients. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the application of vibration to lower extremity muscles in patients with PD may improve the parkinsonian gait pattern.
[Purpose] This study determined the difference between flatfeet and normal feet in humans on an ascending slope using electromyography (EMG). [Subjects] This study was conducted on 30 adults having normal feet (n=15) and flatfeet (n=15), all of whom were 21 to 30 years old. [Methods] A treadmill (AC5000M, SCIFIT,) was used to analyze kinematic features during gait. These features were analyzed at slow, normal, and fast gait velocities on an ascending slope. A surface electromyogram (TeleMyo 2400T, Noraxon Co., USA) was used to measure muscle activity changes. [Results] The activities of most muscles in the subjects with flatfeet were significantly different from the muscle activities in the subjects with normal feet at different gait velocities on an ascending slope. There were significant differences in the vastus medialis and abductor hallucis muscles. [Conclusion] Because muscle activation of the vastus medialis in relation to stability of the lower extremity has a tendency to increase with an increase in gait velocity on an ascending slope, we hypothesized that higher impact transfer to the knee joints occurs in subjects with flatfeet due to the lack of a medial longitudinal arch and that the abductor halluces muscles, which provide dynamic stability to the medial longitudinal arches, do not activate well when they are needed in subjects with flatfeet.
[Purpose] This study was to examine the effects of tai chi on low back pain in young males. [Subjects and Methods] Forty males in their 20s with low back pain were randomly assigned to two groups. Tai chi was applied to one group, and stretching was applied to the other group. The subjects conducted exercise for one hour, three times per week for four weeks. They performed warm-up exercises for 10 min at the beginning and end of the sessions and conducted the main exercise for 40 minutes. Wireless surface electromyography (sEMG) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) were employed to measure muscle activity and pain, respectively. [Results] There were significant differences between the two groups in pain and muscle activity. The tai chi group’s VAS decreased from 3.1 to 2.1, and its muscle activity decreased from 21.5% maximum voluntary isomeric contraction (MVIC) to 16.4% MVIC. The stretching group’s VAS decreased from 3.4 to 2.8, and its muscle activity decreased from 24.1% MVIC to 22.1% MVIC. [Conclusion] Tai chi is more effective for low back pain in males in their 20s than stretching. Tai chi can be considered an effective method to reduce low back pain in males in their 20s.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze stabilometry in athletes during an indoor season in order to determine whether injured athletes show different stabilometric values before injury than non-injured athletes in two different training periods (volume and pre-competition periods). [Subjects] The subjects were 51 athletes from Unicaja athletic club who trained regularly. [Methods] At the end of the preseason and volume periods, athletes were subjected to bipodal and monopodal stabilometry. In addition, all injuries happening in the periods after performing stabilometry (volume and pre-competition periods) were tracked. [Results] Variance analysis of bipodal stabilometric measurements taken at the end of the preseason period showed that athletes with higher values for the center-of-pressure spread variables suffered injuries during the volume period. The right-leg monopodal stabilometric measurements taken at the end of the volume period showed that athletes with higher values in the center-of-pressure position variables suffered injuries during the pre-competition period. [Conclusion] Athletes showing the worst values for center-of-pressure spread variables are more prone to sports injuries in the subsequent training period. In monopodal measurements, athletes with poorer mediolateral stability were more prone to injuries in the subsequent training period.
[Purpose] The present study longitudinally investigated injury occurrences and the risk factors for muscle tightness, core stability, and dynamic standing balance among junior high school student baseball players. [Subjects] Thirty-nine male students, belonging to baseball clubs at 2 junior high schools, participated in this study. [Methods] Study measurements were obtained twice, once in the early stage of the baseball season (March) and once at the end of the season (July). All subjects underwent muscle tightness testing, the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), and trunk endurance testing during each measurement session. [Results] Fifteen players experienced episodes of elbow or shoulder pain while throwing. Players in the pain group demonstrated a significant increase in the tightness of their shoulder internal rotators, axis-leg quadriceps, and axis-leg hamstrings. There was no clear evidence of differences of changes in core stability and dynamic standing balance between the groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that lower extremity muscle tightness early in a season and the subsequent decline in the flexibility of the axis-leg quadriceps and hamstrings during the season may be due to an increased upper extremity load while throwing, thus producing shoulder and elbow pain.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to understand the factors involved in increasing physical activity levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients for improved glycemic control. [Subjects] The subjects were 101 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who had completed an inpatient diabetes education program. [Methods] The survey evaluated physical activity levels on the basis of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a questionnaire listing physical and psychosocial factors. [Results] Four variables—participation or non-participation in farm work, presence or absence of a job, stage of change in attitude toward exercise behavior, and social support—accounted for 34% of physical activity levels in these diabetes mellitus patients. The Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient between physical activity level and HbA1c was −0.31. [Conclusion] Intervention in terms of practical use of living environments, promotion of exercise behavior, and social support may be effective in helping to improve glycemic control.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the rotational axis position of a reclining wheelchair’s back support on fluctuations in the shear force applied to the buttocks while the back support is reclined. [Subjects] The subjects were 12 healthy adult men. [Methods] The shear force applied to the buttocks was measured using a force plate. This study used two different experimental conditions. The rotational axis of the back support was positioned at the joint between the seat and the back support for the rear-axis condition, and was moved 13 cm forward for the front-axis condition. [Results] With the back support fully reclined, the shear forces were 11.2 ± 0.8%BW and 14.1 ± 2.5%BW under the rear-axis and front-axis conditions, respectively. When returned to an upright position, the shear forces were 17.1 ± 3.1%BW and 13.8 ± 1.7%BW under the rear-axis and front-axis conditions, respectively. Significant differences appeared between the two experimental conditions (p < 0.01). [Conclusion] These results suggest that the shear force value could be changed by altering the position of the back support’s rotational axis during reclining.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aquatic exercise on pulmonary function of patients with spinal cord injury. [Subjects] The subjects were randomly allocated to an aqua group (n=10) and a land group (n=10). [Methods] Both groups trained for 60 minutes, 3 times a week for 8 weeks. Pulmonary function was assessed by measuring the forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory flow rate (FER), force expiratory volume at one second (FEV1) and force expiratory volume at one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC). [Results] Following the intervention, the aqua group showed significant changes in FVC, FER, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC. The land group showed only significant differences FER. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest the effects on the aqua group were significantly higher than those on the land group in patients with spinal cord injury.
[Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the effects of therapeutic ultrasound on range of motion and stretch pain and the relationships between the effects. [Subjects] The subjects were 15 healthy males. [Methods] Subjects performed all three interventions: (1) ultrasound (US group), (2) without powered ultrasound (placebo group), and (3) rest (control group). Ultrasound was applied at 3 MHz with an intensity of 1.0 W/cm2 and a 100% duty cycle for 10 minutes. The evaluation indices were active and passive range of motion (ROM), stretch pain (visual analog scale; VAS), and skin surface temperature (SST). The experimental protocol lasted a total of 40 minutes; this was comprised of 10 minutes before the intervention, 10 minutes during the intervention (US, placebo, and control), and 20 minutes after the intervention. [Results] ROM and SST were significantly higher in the US group than in the placebo and control groups for the 20 minutes after ultrasound, though there was no change in stretch pain. [Conclusion] The effects of ultrasound on ROM and SST were maintained for 20 minutes after the intervention. The SST increased with ultrasound and decreased afterwards. Additionally, the SST tended to return to baseline levels within 20 minutes after ultrasound exposure. Therefore, these effects were caused by a combination of thermal and mechanical effects of the ultrasound.
[Purpose] This study was performed to assess the influence of applying dual pressure biofeedback units (DPBUs) on the angle of pelvic rotation and abdominal muscle activity during the active straight leg raise (ASLR). [Subjects] Seventeen patients with low-back pain (LBP) participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects were asked to perform an active straight leg raise (ASLR) without a PBU, with a single PBU, and with DPBUs. The angles of pelvic rotation were measured using a three-dimensional motion-analysis system, and the muscle activity of the bilateral internal oblique abdominis (IO), external oblique abdominis (EO), and rectus abdominis (RA) was recorded using surface electromyography (EMG). One-way repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to determine the rotation angles and muscle activity under the three conditions. [Results] The EMG activity of the ipsilateral IO, contralateral EO, and bilateral RA was greater and pelvic rotation was lower with the DPBUs than with no PBU or a single PBU. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that applying DPBUs during ASLR is effective in decreasing unwanted pelvic rotation and increasing abdominal muscle activity in women with chronic low back pain.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the functionality of women diagnosed with breast cancer according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). [Subjects and Methods] This was a cross-sectional study. We applied instruments consistent with the summary of ICF codes for breast cancer: quality of life questionnaire (WHOQOL), upper limb symptoms and function (DASH), social support, physical examination and functional medical record data. [Results] The study included 105 women who were 55 years old and subjected to surgical treatment within an average of 1.63 year previously. The ‘function’ component considered in the WHOQOL, the DASH and physical examination. There were high prevalences of positive responses for most codes, and only b130, d430, d445, d640, d650, d920 and codes of environmental factors considered by the Social Support Questionnaire showed high prevalences of negative responses (47.6%, 61%, 43.8%, 63.8%, 56.2%, 52.4%, and 35.2%, respectively). [Conclusion] There was a lower prevalence of disability, with the exception of issues related to strenuous activity and load. Some findings showed conflicting results between different instruments that measure the same code, and studies that propose more accurate tools and are able to consider the ICF codes specific to this pathology are necessary.
[Purpose] Concurrent feedback is more detrimental for long-term retention of motor skills because learners depend on accessible visual information provided in parallel with movements. However, visual information is not always accessible. Furthermore, the effects of concurrent feedback vary with aspects of the task being performed. We investigated the effects of inaccessible visual feedback used concurrently or terminally, focusing on aspects of movement. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen subjects were quasi-randomly assigned to either a concurrent feedback group or a terminal feedback group. They practiced a task that involved right shoulder flexion with a specific acceleration. Learning achievements were assessed by measurement of errors in movement duration, peak timing, and strength. [Results] Regarding errors in movement duration, the concurrent feedback group was superior to the terminal feedback group during the midterm and final sessions. Regarding errors in peak timing, learning occurred in the concurrent feedback group, but not in the terminal feedback group because the improvement in performance during practice was inadequate. Regarding errors in peak strength, learning occurred in both groups. [Conclusion] Concurrent visual feedback that is used inaccessibly has learning effects that either equal or surpass those of terminal feedback that is used with inaccessible visual information for all parameters.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate kinetic relationships between the ankle and hip joints during gait, in the late stance, in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). [Subjects] The subjects were 3 ambulant children with spastic hemiplegic CP (aged 10, 13, and 14: CP group) and 3 typically developing children with the same ages (control). [Methods] A three-dimensional gait analysis including force data was performed to compare the peak moment, power, and ankle/hip power ratio between the hemiplegic (uninvolved and hemiplegic) and the control groups. In the statistical analysis, mean values from 5 gait cycles for each of 3 conditions (uninvolved, hemiplegic and control) were used. The three conditions were compared by performing a Kruskal-Wallis test and Steel-Dwass multiple comparisons. [Results] The peak moments of ankle plantar flexors in the 10-year-old case, were significantly lower on the uninvolved and hemiplegic sides compared with the control group, respectively. The peak flexion moments of the hip on the hemiplegic side were significantly higher compared with the control in the 14- and 13-year-old cases. The peak of ankle power generation (A2) in the 13- and 10-year-old cases were significantly lower on the uninvolved and hemiplegic sides, respectively, compared with the control. The peaks of hip flexor power generation (H3) in the 14- and 13-year-old cases were significantly higher on the uninvolved and hemiplegic sides, respectively. The A2/H3 ratios were significantly lower on the uninvolved and hemiplegic sides compared with the control, and the ratio for the hemiplegic side was lower than that for the uninvolved side. [Conclusion] This study shows that propulsion of walking is generated by hip, rather than the ankle, on both the hemiplegic and involved sides.
[Purpose] The aims of this study were: 1) to confirm the motion learning process of Nordic backward walking (NBW) in older adult community-dwelling volunteers and, 2) to check the change in psychological condition resulting from NBW. This study examined whether the learning process and psychological condition become more efficient after repeated sessions of NBW. [Methods] The subjects were 19 community-dwelling elderly individuals between the ages of 64 and 78 years. [Results] Significant differences in walking speed during NBW were only found between the first and second sessions and between the second and third sessions. The walking speed in the sixth session, measured one hour after the fifth session, was decreased in comparison with that in the fifth session. Significant differences in stride length during NBW were only found between the first and second sessions and between the second and third sessions. The stride length in the sixth session, measured one hour after the fifth session, was decreased in comparison with that in the fifth session. Significant differences in VAS score (sense of fear) after NBW were found for each session. VAS score for the sixth session, measured one hour after the fifth session, was decreased in comparison with that for the fifth session. [Conclusions] The findings in the present study suggest that NBW is indeed a novel task and that motor learning occurs as a result of practice, leading to a more efficient recruitment of motor units.
[Purpose] The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of isometric quadriceps exercise on muscle strength, pain, and function in knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Outpatients (N=42, 21 per group; age range 40–65 years; 13 men and 29 women) with osteoarthritis of the knee participated in the study. The experimental group performed isometric exercises including isometric quadriceps, straight leg raising, and isometric hip adduction exercise 5 days a week for 5 weeks, whereas the control group did not performed any exercise program. The outcome measures or dependent variables selected for this study were pain intensity, isometric quadriceps strength, and knee function. These variables were measured using the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), strength gauge device, and reduced WOMAC index, respectively. All the measurements were taken at baseline (week 0) and at the end of the trial at week 5. [Results] In between-group comparisons, the maximum isometric quadriceps strength, reduction in pain intensity, and improvement in function in the isometric exercise group at the end of the 5th week were significantly greater than those of the control group (p<0.05). [Conclusion] The 5-week isometric quadriceps exercise program showed beneficial effects on quadriceps muscle strength, pain, and functional disability in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.
[Purpose] This study examined the relationship between core stability and exercise intensity during a pulley-based shoulder exercise (PBSE) on an unstable support surface. [Subjects] Twenty healthy college students enrolled in this study. [Methods] Surface EMG was carried out in twenty healthy adult men. The electromyographic activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), erector spinae (ES), exercises with 14 kg or 26 kg of resistance and external oblique (EO) muscles during pulley-based shoulder on an unstable support surface (USS) were compared. [Results] The EMG signals of the RA, ES, and EO did not increase with increasing exercise resistance. [Conclusion] Increasing the exercise intensity to increase the core stability during PBSE on a USS may be ineffective.
[Purpose] This study compared the cervical range of motion and cervical FRR between computer users in their early and late 20s in Korea. [Subjects] Eleven male and 7 female computer users in their early 20s and 10 male and 6 female computer users in their late 20s participated in this study. [Methods] All cervical ROM measurements were taken with a Cervical Range of Motion Instrument. Electromyographic (EMG) data were obtained for analyzing the FR ratio. [Results] Cervical extension, right and left lateral flexion, and right and left rotation in the late 20s computer users were significantly lower compared with the cervical motions in the early 20s computer users. The cervical FRR in the late 20s computer users was significantly lower compared with the cervical FRR in the early 20s computer users. [Conclusion] This study was conducted to be prepared that the possibility for young computer generations in Korea could easily develop chronic neck pain.
[Purpose] A 3-month follow-up study was conducted on a patient diagnosed with acute nonspecfic lumbago. Direct stretching (DS) of the tensor fasciae latae muscle (TFLM) was performed, and an immediate effect was confirmed. [Subjects] The case subject was a 60-year-old woman diagnosed with acute nonspecific lumbago. [Methods] We used a single-case study design and an AB-type study structure, in which the leg was placed in positions that relieved the back pain in period A and DS of the TFLM was performed in period B. The evaluation indices were the visual analog scale (VAS), finger-to-floor distance (FFD), and posterior lumbar flexibility (PLF), which were analyzed using the binomial test. [Results] The VAS, FFD, and PLF in period B showed significant improvement when compared with period A. Additionally, complaints of lower back pain ceased after 2 weeks, and the results of the follow-up study showed no recurrence of back pain during the 3 months. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that DS of the TFLM has an immediate effect on acute nonspecific lumbago in addition to long-term pain relief effects.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of pelvic adjustment using Gonstead techniques on posture in female university students. [Subjects] In this study, 30 female university students were selected and divided into a pelvic adjustment group of 15 subjects as an experimental group and a stretching group of 15 subjects as a control group. [Methods] Step length difference (SLD), stance phase difference (STPD), swing phase difference (SWPD), single support difference (SSD), and step time difference (STD) were evaluated in the subjects using an OptoGait. [Results] Whereas the adjustment group showed statistically significant differences in SLD, STPD, SWPD, SSD, and STD, the stretching group did not show any statistically significant differences in any of the items. [Conclusion] Pelvic adjustment can be applied using Gonstead techniques as a method of reducing differences in normal gait variables between the left and right sides in adults.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of ankle taping and balance exercises on postural stability indices in healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy female students were randomly assigned into two equal groups: ankle taping and balance exercise. The balance exercise group performed balance exercises for 6 weeks, with 3 sessions per week and each session lasting 40 minutes. Ankle joint taping was performed for 6 weeks and was renewed three times a week. Before and after the interventions, overall, anteroposterior, and mediolateral stability indices were measured with a Biodex Balance System in bilateral and unilateral stance positions with the eyes open and closed. [Results] In the taping group during bilateral standing with the eyes closed, the overall stability index changed from 6±1.4 to 4.8±1.3, anteroposterior stability index changed from 4.2±1.27 to 3.4±0.97, and mediolateral stability index changed from 3.2±0.75 to 2.7± 0.7. In the balance exercise group during bilateral standing with the eyes closed, the overall stability index changed from 5.7±1.69 to 4.5±1.94, anteroposterior stability index changed from 4.1±1.61 to 3±1.21, and mediolateral stability index changed from 3.5±1.4 to 2.2± 1.3. No significant difference was seen between the two groups regarding any study variables. [Conclusion] The results showed that compared with the taping technique, balance training increases postural stability in the majority of the studied balance situations.
[Purpose] Physical therapists must often determine whether hemiparetic patients can walk independently. However, there are no criteria, so decisions are often left to individual physical therapists. The purpose of this study was to explore how physical therapists determine whether a patient with hemiplegia can walk independently in a ward. [Methods] The subjects were 15 physical therapists with experience of stroke patients’ rehabilitation. We interviewed them using semi-structured interviews related to the criteria of the states of walking in the ward of hemiparetic patients. The interviews were transcribed in full, and the texts were analyzed by coding and grouping. [Results] From the results of the interviews, PTs determined patients’ independence of walking in hospital by observation of behavior during walking or treatment. The majority of PTs focused on the patients’ state during walking, higher brain function, and their ability to balance. In addition, they often asked ward staff about patients’ daily life, and self-determination. [Conclusions] We identified the items examined by physical therapists when determining the in-hospital walking independence of stroke patients. Further investigation is required to examine which of these items are truly necessary.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to provide data for decision making regarding the optimal and maximal hip adduction loads for clinical and fitness purposes, respectively. [Subjects] Forty-eight (24 males, 24 females) asymptomatic adults participated in this study. [Methods] Subjects performed optimal and maximal hip adduction loads. Regarding the gender, body weight and height variables, a stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to identify the most informative variables for predicting the optimal and maximal loads during the hip adduction exercise. [Results] The regression model for optimal hip adduction load (kg) was: 34.3 + 0.4 × weight − 0.27 × height (r2= 0.77); and the regression model for maximal hip adduction load (kg) was: 39.5 + 0.5 × weight − 0.3 × height (r2= 0.75). [Conclusion] These models can aid in deciding the optimal and maximal hip adduction loads for clinical and fitness purposes, respectively. Thus, the optimal hip adduction load model can be used to strengthen the hip adductor muscles or enhance core stability in clinical settings.
[Purpose] We examined cardiorespiratory and metabolic changes across the 1st (G1), 2nd (G2) and 3rd (G3) trimesters in pregnant women. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-two healthy, active, non-smoking, pregnant women participated in this study. They were divided into G1, G2 and G3 groups depending on their mean gestational ages at the time of testing which were 10.5 ±2.9, 19.2 ±3.4, and 33.3 ±2.4 weeks of gestation, respectively. Cardio-respiratory and metabolic variables, VO2 (oxygen consumption), VCO2 (carbon dioxide production), and VE (minute ventilation), were measured using indirect calorimetry (IC, gas analyser) to estimate ventilatory equivalents of oxygen (VE/VO2) and carbon dioxide (VE/VCO2), RER (respiratory exchange ratio) and REE (resting energy expenditure). [Results] Women in the late pregnancy period had higher resting VCO2 and RER, whereas the VE/VCO2 ratio was significantly lower than in G1 and in G2. Even though the values of VO2 and REE increased throughout the course of pregnancy, no significant differences were found. [Conclusion] In pregnant women, resting cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables continuously changed throughout the 3 trimesters. Changes in VE/VCO2 and RER indicate shifting metabolic energy substrates. In addition, changes in cardiorespiratory variables, in parallel with gas exchange, indicate a better gas exchange process.
[Purpose] This study compared the symmetry of right and left lateral cervical flexion and rotation, and the cervical flexion-relaxation ratio (FRR) in young computer workers in Korea. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty computer workers (14 males and 6 females) participated in this study. We measured their right and left lateral cervical flexion, rotation, and FRR. [Results] Right and left lateral flexion and right and left rotation showed no significant differences between the sides. The left cervical FRR was significantly lower than the right cervical FRR. [Conclusion] The cervical FRR, expressed as a numerical value, is a more sensitive marker for measuring neuromuscular changes associated with mild asymmetry than CROM.
[Purpose] Many patients receive intermittent cervical traction in a daily treatment setting. However, unified settings for traction force, duration, and direction have yet to be determined. Therefore, an objective index is required to determine changes in traction conditions or to indicate its effectiveness. [Subjects] Fifteen healthy males volunteers participated in this study. [Methods] The thickness of the trapezius and splenius capitis muscles before and during traction were measured using ultrasonography at three traction forces: 5, 8 and 11 kg. [Results] Significant differences in muscle thickness were observed at 11 kg in the trapezius, and at 8 kg and 11 kg in the splenius capitis muscles. The muscle thickness ratio of the trapezius muscle showed a significant difference between 11 kg and 5 and 8 kg, and between 5 kg and 8 and 11 kg, as well as between 8 kg and 11 kg for the splenius capitis muscles. [Conclusion] Differences in muscle direction between the trapezius and splenius capitis muscles may account for the contrasting results obtained at the 8 kg traction force. This finding suggests that cervical traction must be performed considering the effects on different neck regions.
[Purpose] An understanding of pain is very important in the study of nanophysiotherapy. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of endothelin-1 (ET-1)- and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-related pain, and suggest their applications in pain physiotherapy. [Method] This review focuses on the signal transduction of pain and its mechanisms. [Results] Our reviews show that mechanisms of ET-1- and MAPK-related pain exist. [Conclusions] In this review article, we carefully discuss the signal transduction in ET-1- and MAPK-related pain with reference to pain nanophysiotherapy from the perspective of nanoparticle-associated signal transduction.
[Purpose] The purpose of this case report is to describe for the first time, the use of serial casting in the management of knee joint flexion contracture for a young child with spina bifida. [Case Description] The child was 6 years old, and had L3–L4 spina bifida level lesion with quadriceps muscle strength grade 3 +. The child had previously received weekly physiotherapy including stretching for knee flexion contracture on both lower limbs, but without improvement. [Results] The knee flexion contracture, which was not corrected with passive stretching, improved with casting from −40° knee extension to −5° knee extension as measured by a standard goniometer over a period of 4 weeks. Careful measures were taken to ensure skin integrity. At follow up after one-year, the child could ambulate independently with the help of walking aids. [Conclusion] The outcome indicates that using serial casting and follow-up with the use of bracing may be useful for enhancing the walking ability of a young child with spina bifida with knee flexion contractures. Further investigations of serial casting as well as investigation of serial casting with other interventions are warranted.