[Purpose] To determine the effect of dual-task training with cognitive tasks on cognitive and walking ability after stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients diagnosed with stroke participated in this study. All participants were receiving a traditional rehabilitation program 5 days a week. Dual-task and single-task training were additionally performed for 4 weeks, 3 days a week. The Stroop test, Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT), and Figure-of-8 Walk Test (F8WT) were used to measure cognitive and walking abilities and were evaluated 3 times (before and after training and at the 2-week follow-up). [Results] Dual-task training improved cognitive and walking abilities, and dual-task training subjects’ performance was better than single-task training subjects’ performance. In addition, these training benefits were maintained for 2 weeks. [Conclusion] Dual-task training improves cognitive and walking abilities of patients with stroke.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) for patients with chronic low back pain and their dynamic balance ability. [Subjects] Twenty-eight patients with chronic low back were divided into an extracorporeal shockwave therapy group (ESWTG: n=13) and a conservative physical therapy group (CPTG, n=15). [Methods] An exercise program that included Williams’ exercises and McKenzie’s exercises was performed by both groups. The program was implemented twice a week for six weeks. The visual analog scale (VAS) was used to measure the chronic low back pain of the patients. Their dynamic balance ability was measured with BioRescue. [Results] The within-group comparison of the VAS of the ESWTG and the CPTG showed significant improvements after the intervention. In the VAS comparison between the groups after the treatment, the ESWTG showed a significantly larger improvement. In the within-group comparison of dynamic balance ability, the ESWTG showed significant improvements after the intervention in SAPLS, SAPRS, SAPFS, SAPBS, and TSA, and the CPTG showed significant improvements in SAPLS and SAPBS. In the between-group comparison of the dynamic balance ability after the treatment, the ESWTG showed significantly larger improvements in their SAPLS, SAPRS, SAPFS, and TSA. [Conclusion] The exercise program combined with the ESWT relieved chronic back pain more than the exercise program combined with the CPT. The former was also more effective at improving the patients’ dynamic balance ability in terms of SAPLS, SAPRS, SAPFS, and TSA.
[Purpose] The effect of skin resection on joint contracture was determined by comparing the first measurement of range of motion after cast removal and the second measurement after the skin resection. This study aimed to verify that both the joint movement during the measurement and skin affect range of motion. [Subjects] Twelve female Wistar rats were used. [Methods] The right hind limb ankle of each rat was immobilized in complete plantar flexion in a cast. In the resection group (n = 6), the skin of the right hind limb ankle was removed surgically, but not in the non-resection group (n = 6). In the resection group, the first measurement of the dorsiflexion angle was obtained after the cast was removed, and the second measurement was obtained after skin resection. In the non-resection group, both measurements of the dorsiflexion angle were obtained soon after the cast was removed. [Results] Compared with the non-resection group, the resection group showed a significant increase between the first and second measurements of range of motion. [Conclusion] These results show that range of motion is substantially affected by skin, in addition to joint movement, during measurement.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate the reliability of isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement of patients who underwent femoral neck fracture surgery, as well as the relationship between independent mobility in the ward and knee muscle strength. [Subjects] The subjects were 75 patients who underwent femoral neck fracture surgery. [Methods] We used a hand-held dynamometer and a belt to measure isometric knee extension muscle strength three times, and used intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to investigate the reliability of the measurements. We used a receiver operating characteristic curve to investigate the cutoff values for independent walking with walking sticks and non-independent mobility. [Results] ICCs (1, 1) were 0.9 or higher. The cutoff value for independent walking with walking sticks was 0.289 kgf/kg on the non-fractured side, 0.193 kgf/kg on the fractured side, and the average of both limbs was 0.238 kgf/kg. [Conclusion] We consider that the test-retest reliability of isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement of patients who have undergone femoral neck fracture surgery is high. We also consider that isometric knee extension muscle strength is useful for investigating means of independent mobility in the ward.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the degree of thoracic deformity (TD) and the angle formed by a line drawn on transverse plane computed tomography (CT) images, connecting the sternum and the spinous process of the vertebrae at the level of the xiphisternum, and the perpendicular line from the floor (ANGLE), in individuals with severe motor and intellectual disorders (SMID). [Subjects] Twenty seven individuals with SMID were examined. [Methods] CT transverse images were acquired at the level of the xiphisternum of each patient. Two protocols were used to measure the anteroposterior (AP) and laterolateral (LL) diameters. The largest AP diameters were measured along a perpendicular line from the floor (protocol 1) and the line from the midline of the sternum to the spinous process of the vertebrae (protocol 2). The largest LL diameters were measured along the lines perpendicular to the AP diameters in each protocol. The ratios of the AP to LL diameters and the difference between the ratios of protocols 1 and 2 (DIFFERENCE) were calculated. [Results] Moderate to good correlation between DIFFERENCE and ANGLE was observed, and DIFFERENCE became larger with increasing ANGLE. [Conclusions] These results show that ANGLE indicates the degree of TD.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of hippotherapy on elderly persons’ static balance and gait. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two elderly persons residing in the community were randomly divided into a hippotherapy group and a treadmill group and they conducted exercise for eight weeks. [Results] Step lengths increased significantly, and step time and sway path lengths significantly decreased in both groups. A comparison of sway path lengths after the intervention between the two groups revealed that the hippotherapy group showed larger decreases than the treadmill group. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that hippotherapy may improve the static balance and gait of elderly persons residing in the community.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of horseback riding simulation machine training on trunk balance and gait of patients with chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 patients hospitalized for treatment after being diagnosed with stroke. Horseback riding simulation training was provided for 30 minutes, 5 times a week, for 6 weeks. Trunk balance was assessed using the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS) and a balance measuring device (Biorescue, RM ingenierie, France), and gait ability was measured using the Functional Gait Assessment (FGA) and a gait analyzer (GAITRite, CIR system Inc., USA). [Results] There were significant changes in movement area, distance and velocity of body sway as measured by the TIS and the balance measuring device, and in gait velocity, cadence, stride length and double limb support as measured by the FGA and gait analyzer. [Conclusion] Horseback riding simulation training improved the trunk balance and gait of chronic stroke patients. This present study provides preliminary objective data for future research, and useful clinical information for physical therapists using horseback riding simulation machines as a treatment modality for patients with chronic stroke.
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate how long joint position sense (JPS) can be retained in memory. [Subjects] Eleven healthy subjects (5 men and 6 women) were enrolled in this study. [Methods] Subjects memorized a specific joint position visually, and then they were asked to reproduce without visual aid the position at 3 different time intervals: immediately, 5 minutes post-memorization, and 30 minutes post-memorization. [Results] Differences in JPS between time intervals of immediate and 30 minutes post-memorization were statistically significant with the exception of knee flexion at 60° with a 5 kg load. Differences in reproduced JPS between time intervals of immediately and 5 minutes post-memorization were not statistically significant. [Conclusions] The results suggest that JPS can be retained in memory for approximately 5 minutes.
[Purpose] This study investigated the relationship between herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) and fat infiltration of muscles around the spine by measuring body mass index (BMI) and fat infiltration of the muscles around the spine. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 82 people, both men and women they were divided into two groups, a normal group and a patient group who were suffering from serious HNP between L4 and L5. Of the anthropometric measurement, and fat infiltration muscles by measuring the cross-sectional area from the center of the disc to the muscle around the spine and the cross-sectional area of fat infiltration. [Results] Fat infiltration rate of each lumbar layer in the normal group was different L34–L45 and L45–L5S1, but not between L23–L34. Fat infiltration in the muscle between the normal group and patients with HNP was different in the layers and the difference was greatest in the L5–S1 layer. [Conclusion] We performed correlation analysis of BMI and the total fat infiltration rate in each group to find the relationship between obesity and fat infiltration in the lumbar spine. Fat infiltration increased, and normal people or patients with chronic back pain are considered to be exposed to other diseases as fat infiltration in the lumbar spine increases.
[Purpose] Learning ballet is connected with continuous use of the locomotor system while subjecting it to high loads. Therefore, we conducted some research defining the appearance of weak links in the motor system, in order to eliminate the risk of injury. [Methods] Fifty-two female students of a ballet school were examined. To identify weak links, low-threshold Performance Matrix tests were performed. An analysis of weak link occurrence in the locomotor system was carried out, using two way analysis of variance ANOVA Tukey’s HSD test, clustering methods and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). [Results] The average age of the subjects was 11.64±0.53 years (mean ± standard deviation), their average body height was 151.1±7.5 cm, their average body weight was 35.92±5.41 kg, and their average time of learning at ballet school was 2.17±0.65 years. We found that there were significant differences in weak links occurrence in the motor system of every girl examined. [Conclusions] Weak links were found in every location of the motor system. Our results show that the influence of weak link location is essentially different from their occurrence, and that learning ballet has a significantly different impact on the number of weak links in different locations.
[Purpose] To analyze the short-term effects of a proprioceptive session on the monopodal stabilometry of athletes. [Subjects] Thirty-seven athletes were divided into a control group (n=17) and an experimental group (n=20). [Methods] Both groups performed a conventional warm-up, after which a 25-minute proprioceptive session on ustable platforms was carried out only by the experimental group. Before the training session, all athletes carried out a single-leg stabilometry test which was repeated just after training, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 6 hours and 24 hours later. [Results] Analysis of covariance (α=0.05) revealed that the experimental group had lower values than the control group in length and velocity of center of pressure (CoP) of left-monopodal stance and in velocity of CoP of right-monopodal stance in post-training measurements. Also, the experimental group had values closer to zero for the CoP position in the mediolateral and anteroposterior directions of left-monopodal stance (Xmeanl and Ymeanl) and the anteroposterior direction in on right-monopodal stance (Ymeanr) in post-training measurements. Within-group analysis of Xmeanl and Ymeanl, length and velocity of CoP in right-monopodal stance showed continuous fluctuations of values between sequential measurements in the control group. [Conclusion] Proprioceptive training on unstable platfoms after a warm-up stabilizes the position of CoP in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions and decreases CoP movements in short-term monopodal stability of athletes.
[Purpose] It has been shown that an eight-hour joint fixation daily (i.e. for the remaining 16 hours, rats were set free in the cage without joint fixation) for one week induces a joint contracture. The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference between an 8 hours continuous joint fixation and an 8 hours intermittent joint fixation per day (two 4 hours joint fixations) in the development of joint contractures in rats. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 34 Wistar rats. On the first day, all of the rats’ right ankle dorsiflexion angles were measured. The right hind limbs of all the rats were fixed in plantar flexion, and then the rats were divided into three groups as follows: Group 1 was in continuous fixation for 24 hours a day; Group 2 was in continuous fixation for 8 hours a day; Group 3 was in intermittent fixation for 8 hours a day. The fixation was performed daily for seven consecutive days. On the last day, ankle dorsiflexion angles of all the rats were measured after the casts had been removed. [Results] The development of joint contractures was statistically significant for Groups 1 and 2. [Conclusion] Our results indicate that 8 hours a day of continuous fixation induces a joint contracture, but 8 hours a day of intermittent fixation does not.
[Purpose] This study investigated the relationship between lumbar pelvic rhythm and the physical characteristics of stoop lifting. [Subjects and Methods] Participants performed a stoop lifting task under two conditions: with and without load. We assessed the lumbar kyphosis and sacral inclination angles using the SpinalMouse® system, as well as hamstring flexibility. During stoop lifting, surface electromyograms and the lumbar and sacral motions were recorded using a multi-channel telemetry system and flexible electrogoniometers. [Results] In the initial phase of lifting, lumbar extension was delayed by load; the delay showed a negative correlation with sacral inclination angle at trunk flexion, whereas a positive correlation was observed with electromyogram activity of the lumbar multifidus. Additionally, a positive correlation was observed between sacral inclination angle and hip flexion range of motion during the straight leg raise test. [Conclusion] We found that a disorder of the lumbar pelvic rhythm can be caused by both load and hamstring tightness. In the initial phase of stoop lifting, delayed lumbar extension is likely to lead to an increase in spinal instability and stress on the posterior ligamentous system. This mechanism shows that stoop lifting of a load may be harmful to the lower back of people with hamstring tightness.
[Purpose] The purpose of the study was to provide information for intervention by comparing lower limb muscle thickness, gross motor function and functional level of activity daily living between cerebral palsy (CP) and mental retardation (MR). [Subjects] Sixty subjects participated: 38 CP and 9 MR subjects and 13 normally developing infants. [Methods] Ultrasonography and a manual muscle tester were used for measuring the thickness and strength of knee extensor and ankle plantar flexor muscles. The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and Wee Functional Independence Measure (WeeFIM) were used to evaluate level of gross motor and independence level. [Results] Knee extensor thicknesses of CP and MR subjects were thinner than those of normally developing infants. Strengths of knee extensor and ankle plantar flexor showed differences being strongest in normally developing infants, followed by MR, and CP. Subjects in the examination of GMFM, there were no significant differences between CP and MR. A decline in social cognition of MR subjects was found in the examination of WeeFIM. [Conclusion] CP and MR subjects had smaller muscle thicknesses and strengths than those of normally developing infants, and lower gross motor function and functional independent level.
[Purpose] The extent of functional independence ultimately achieved by an individual patient will be influenced by a variety of medical and non-medical factors. [Subjects and Methods] this study included 419 patients with spinal cord lesions treated in the Clinic for Rehabilitation “Dr M. Zotovic”, Belgrade, Serbia, from January 2000 to December 2009. The patients were divided in two groups according to achievement of increase in Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score of more than 13 at discharge compared to admission. A variety of clinical variables were followed in both groups. [Results] one hundred twenty-one patients (28.9%) showed improvements in FIM score of ≤13, while 298 (71.1%) patients showed an increases in FIM score of >13 at discharge compared to admission. Better functional recovery was observed in patients with non-traumatic spinal cord lesions, lower neurological levels of the lesion (OR = 6.07), and in patients treated surgically, but the level of the spinal cord lesion was the most influential factor affecting outcome. [Conclusion] the patients with spinal cord lesions should not only be grouped by traumatic and non-traumatic lesions only, but also sub-categorized, according to the etiology, level of injury and treatment method.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to verify a new method for improving respiratory functions by applying both abdominal stimulation and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) to train the inspiratory muscle and the expiratory muscle simultaneously, to improve the efficiency of IMT of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] Eighteen stroke patients were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 9) and a control group (n = 9). [Methods] The experimental group was administered IMT with abdominal stimulation, and the control group was administered only IMT. During the intervention period, the experimental group and control group received training 20 min/day, 3 times/wk, for 4 weeks. To examine the lung functions of the subjects, FVC, FEV1, PEF, and FEF25–75 were measured using an electronic spirometer. The diaphragm thickness ratio was calculated from measurements made with a 7.5-MHz linear probe ultrasonic imaging system. [Result] The experimental group and the control group showed significant increases in diaphragm thickness ratio on the paretic side, but not on the non-paretic side. With regard to lung function, the experimental group showed significant increases in FEV1, PEF, and FEF25–75. The changes between before and after the intervention in the two groups were compared with each other, and the results showed significant differences in FEV1 and PEF. [Conclusion] The present study identified that IMT accompanied by abdominal stimulation improved the pulmonary function of chronic stroke patients.
[Purpose] This study analyzed the activities of the back and hip muscles during Pilates exercises conducted in a prone position. [Subjects] The subjects were 18 healthy women volunteers who had practiced at a Pilates center for more than three months. [Methods] The subjects performed three Pilates exercises. To examine muscle activity during the exercises, 8-channel surface electromyography (Noraxon USA, Inc., Scottsdale, AZ) was used. The surface electrodes were attached to the bilateral latissimus dorsi muscle, multifidus muscle, gluteus maximus, and semitendinous muscle. Three Pilates back exercises were compared: (1) double leg kick (DLK), (2) swimming (SW), and (3) leg beat (LB). Electrical muscle activation was normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to assess the differences in activation levels among the exercises. [Results] The activity of the multifidus muscle was significantly high for the SW (52.3±11.0, 50.9±9.8) and LB exercises(51.8±12.8, 48.3±13.9) and the activity of the semitendinosus muscle was higher for the LB exercise (49.2±8.7, 52.9±9.3) than for the DLK and SW exercises. [Conclusion] These results may provide basic material for when Pilates exercises are performed in a prone position and may be useful information on clinical Pilates for rehabilitation programs.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the concurrent validity and test-retest reliability of the recently introduced OPTOGait Photoelectric Cell System for the assessment of spatio-temporal parameters of gait. [Subjects] Twenty healthy young adults (mean age = 27.35, SD = 7.4) were asked to walk 3 times on walkway at a comfortable speed. [Methods] Concurrent validity was assessed by comparing data obtained using the OPTOGait and GAITRite systems, and reliability was assessed by comparing data from the first and third OPTOGait sessions. [Results] Concurrent validity, as identified by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC (2, 1) = 0.929–0.998), coefficients of variation (CVME = 0.32–11.30%), and 95% limits of agreement, showed high levels of correlation. In addition, the test-retest reliability of the OPTOGait Photoelectric Cell System was demonstrated as showing a high level of correlation with all spatio-temporal parameters by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC (3, 1) = 0.785–0.952), coefficients of variation (CVME = 1.66–4.06%), 95% limits of agreement, standard error of measurement (SEM = 2.17–5.96%), and minimum detectable change (MDC95% = 6.01–16.52%). [Conclusion] The OPTOGait Photoelectric Cell System has strong concurrent validity along with relative and absolute test-retest reliabilities. This portable system with easy-to-use features can be used for clinical assessments or research purposes as an objective means of assessing gait.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate thoracic coupled motions of 20 Korean young individuals. [Methods] Thoracic motion of twenty healthy male college students aged 23.2±3.1 was examined. The coupled motions of the thoracic regions T1–4, T4–8, T8–12 were measured using a three dimensional motion capture system. [Results] Coupled axial rotation in the same direction as lateral bending was observed in T1–T4 and T4–T8 in the neutral, flexed, and extended postures of the thoracic spine. In T8–T12, coupled axial rotation in the same direction as lateral bending were observed in the neutral and flexed postures, while coupled axial rotation in the opposite direction was observed in an extended posture. [Conclusion] The patterns of coupled motions in the thoracic spine demonstrated some variability between postures and regions in vivo. However, coupled motions in the same direction were predominantly lateral flexion or axial rotation in the three postures.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare two methods for the muscle stabilization of the trunk of patients with chronic low back pain. The methods comprised combination patterns of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) and ball exercise. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 40 volunteers who had low back pain. All subjects were randomly assigned to either a group which received proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation or a group which performed ball exercise. Measurements were taken four times in total, at pre-intervention, two weeks later, four weeks later, and six weeks later. The main measurement methods used were the visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain and electromyography (EMG) for muscle activity. [Results] VAS and EMG activity were significantly reduced in the PNF combination pattern group and the ball exercise group. A comparison of the groups showed significant differences. In VAS and EMG activity; in particular, the combination pattern group using PNF increased EMG activity more than the ball exercise group did after six weeks of intervention. [Conclusion] This study showed that PNF combination pattern training for six weeks was more effective for patients with low back pain than performing ball exercise.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the potential effects of resistance exercise according to the positions of the arms and the rotation of the humerus on the subhumeral acromial space. [Subjects] The study subjects were 34 subjects without shoulder pain. [Methods] Ultrasonographic measurements of the acromiohumeral distance of the subjects were made at three shoulder positions: 90° flexion, scaption at 90° abduction, and 90° abduction in an upright sitting position. The subjects were instructed to vertically push against a table to the maximum level with the humerus in internal, neutral, and external rotation. The measurements were made three times in each position. [Results] There was a significant difference in acromiohuneral distance between neutral and internal rotation of the humerus, and between external rotation and internal rotation of the humerus. In the scaption position, there was a significant difference between neutral and internal rotation of the humerus, and between external rotation and internal rotation of the humerus. In the 90° flexion position, there was a significant difference between neutral and internal rotation, and between neutral and external rotation. There was a significant difference between the flexion position and the abduction position, and between the flexion position and the scaption position. In terms of the internal rotation of the humerus, there was a significant difference between 90° flexion and 90° abduction. [Conclusion] These findings can be applied in exercises prescribed to increase the acromiohumeral distance and to aid the treatment and evaluation of shoulder dysfunctions.
[Purpose] The gross morphology of the vastus medialis (VM) muscle has been thoroughly described. However, there is insufficient evidence of physiological differentiation between the VM obliquus (VMO) and VM longus (VML). To elucidate spinal reflex arc excitability in two divisions of the VM, we compared H-reflexes and T-waves in VMO and VML. [Subjects] Twenty-three healthy male volunteers participated in this study. [Methods] The H-reflex was evoked from the VMO and VML by electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve during knee extension at 10% maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Also, the patellar tendon was tapped by an examiner using an electrical tendon hammer, and a component of the compound muscle action potential (T-wave) was recorded. [Results] The configurations of the H-reflex and T-wave were sharp and slow in VMO and VML, respectively. No significant differences in the amplitudes of the H-reflexes and T-waves were observed between VMO and VML. The durations of VML H-reflexes and T-waves were significantly longer than those in VMO. [Conclusion] Spinal reflex arc excitability corresponding to VMO and VML was similar. However, the configurations and durations of the H-reflex and T-wave were differentiated with electromyography. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that VMO and VML are electrophysiologically distinct entities.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 12-week walking program on increasing an individual’s self-management and decreasing the risk factors of metabolic syndrome in the older adult population. [Subjects] A total of 31 older adults participated in this study. Eighteen participants in the experimental group and 13 controls completed the pretest and posttest measures. A walking exercise and health education were provided for the experimental group. Data were analyzed by ANCOVAs to examine group differences. [Results] At the end of the 12-week study period, the experimental group showed a significant improvement in individuals’ ability to self-manage their health compared to the control group. Also, there were significant differences between the two groups in the total numbers of risk factors of metabolic syndrome, systolic blood pressure and BMI. No significant difference in blood sugar levels, HDL-C, waist circumference, and triglyceride levels were found between the experimental and control group. [Conclusion] This study revealed that a combination of health education and for walking exercise can lead to improved lifestyle management and reduce risk factors of metabolic syndrome for the elderly population of Korea.
[Purpose] We investigated the effect exercise training has on cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) and cardiovascular risk profiles in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). [Subjects] Fifteen type 1 DM children (all boys; 13.0±1.0 years of age) were enrolled in the study. [Methods] The subjects received exercise training three times a week in a 12-week program. Each child was asked to walk on a treadmill to achieve an exercise intensity of VO2max 60%. ANS activity was measured by power spectral analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG). Blood samples were obtained for serum lipid profiles. To evaluate Doppler-shifted Fourier pulsatility index (PI) analysis, a 5-MHz continuous wave Doppler (VASCULAB D10) set was used to measure forward blood flow velocity (FLOW) in the radial artery. [Results] Total and low-frequency (LF) power of heart rate variability increased significantly after exercise intervention. Total cholesterol (TC) levels were significant lower after exercise intervention. Total and high-frequency (HF) power were significantly correlated with higher TC levels, but diastolic blood pressure and HF was significantly correlated with lower TC levels. [Conclusion] Regular exercise intervention should be prescribed for children with type 1 DM.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the immediate effect of short-foot exercise (SFE) on the dynamic balance of subjects with excessively pronated feet. [Subjects] This study included 18 subjects with excessively pronated feet (navicular drop ≥ 10 mm) selected using the navicular drop test. [Methods] The limit of stability (LOS) was measured to determine the changes in the dynamic balance from before and after SFE in the standing and sitting positions. [Result] After the SFE, LOS increased significantly in all areas, namely, the left, right, front, back, and overall. [Conclusion] SFE immediately improved the dynamic balance of subjects with excessively pronated feet. Subsequent studies will be conducted to examine the effects of SFE performed over the long term on postural stability.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine test-retest reliability of the Good Balance system® for measurement of postural sway in poststroke patients. [Subjects] Sixty chronic stroke patients (40 men and 20 women; age 63.08 years; stroke duration 16.45 months) participated in this study. [Methods] Postural sway was evaluated using a force platform system (Good Balance system, Metitur Oy, Jyvaskyla, Finland). Two examiners measured postural sway for all participants during two separate testing sessions. The second measurement was performed one week after the first measurement. Intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC(2,1)] were used for estimation of reliability. [Results] The ICC (95% CI) for intra-examiner reliability was good to very good, ranging from 0.69 to 0.93 (0.53–0.96), and the ICC for inter-examiner reliability was good to very good, ranging from 0.85 to 0.98 (0.77–0.99). [Conclusion] The results of the current study indicated that the intra- and inter-examiner reliability of the Good Balance system® for measurement of postural sway was good to very good. Therefore, we suggest that measurement of postural sway using the Good Balance system® would be useful for clinical assessment in poststroke patients.
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to investigate if lactate thresholds in rats could be accurately determined during downhill running in rats. [Subjects] Twenty-four female Wistar rats were used in this study. Rats were randomly divided into two groups: the level running group and downhill running group. [Methods] Catheters were inserted into the right external jugular veins of the rats. Two days after the operation, the rats performed incremental exercise tests. The level running group ran on a treadmill at a 0° incline; the downhill running group ran on a treadmill at a −16° incline. The lactate threshold was determined using the 2-line combination that minimizes the total sum of squares for fitting all data. [Results] Maximal running speeds and running speeds at the lactate threshold for the downhill running group were significantly higher than those for the level running group. [Conclusion] In this study, it was possible to accurately determine the lactate threshold during downhill running. These findings suggest that when the treadmill speed is the same, downhill running can be done at lower metabolic intensity than level running.
[Purpose] The present study investigated the effect of manual lymph drainage (MLD) of the neck on electroencephalography (EEG) in subjects with psychological stress. [Methods] Twenty-six subjects were randomly allocated to receive one 15-min session of either MLD or resting on a bed (control). [Results] Analysis of EEG in the MLD group showed a significant increase in relaxation, manifested as an increase in average absolute and relative delta and alpha activity. [Conclusion] It is suggested that MLD provides acute neural effects that increase relaxation in subjects with psychological stress.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of five minutes of plantar flexor static stretching (PSS) on the balance and gait of the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five subjects aged 65 years and above performed 5 min of PSS in the form of wedge board standing. The sway length of each subject’s center of mass was measured to examine the subject’s static balance. It was measured by one minute of quiet standing with the eyes closed. Functional reach tests (FRTs), timed up and go tests (TUGs), and 10-meter walk tests (10MWTs) were performed to examine dynamic balance and gait before and after PSS. [Results] The outcome showed significant increases in sway distances (6.55 ± 5.03 cm) after stretching. However, in the FRTs, TUGs, and 10MWTs, the reach distance and time did not show any significant changes. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the elderly subjects temporarily experienced difficulties in maintaining balance immediately after the PSS but that their dynamic balance and gait were not adversely affected after a short period of time. Therefore, to prevent falls and perform exercises in a safe way, it is recommended to allow patients to rest after performing PSS.
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate changes in electromyographic (EMG) activity of the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles during shoulder external rotation under different shoulder flexion angles. [Subjects] Thirteen participants were included in this study. [Methods] The participants performed isometric shoulder external rotation at 45°, 90°, and 135° of shoulder flexion. A surface EMG system recorded the EMG activity of the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles during shoulder external rotation. The changes in the muscle activity of infraspinatus and posterior deltoid and ratio of infraspinatus to posterior deltoid muscle activity were analyzed using one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni’s correction. [Results] The posterior deltoid activity was significantly decreased, while the ratio of the infraspinatus to posterior deltoid activity was significantly increased at 45° of shoulder flexion compared with 90° and 135° of shoulder flexion (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the EMG activity of the infraspinatus among the three conditions (p > 0.05). [Conclusion] These findings indicate that shoulder external rotation at 45° of shoulder flexion effectively reduced the contribution of the posterior deltoid activation to shoulder external rotation.
[Purpose] This study investigated the effectiveness of a class- and home-based exercise with massage between Thai traditional and standardized physical therapy (TPT and SPT) in older people with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one subjects with KOA (aged 50–85 years) in two selected villages were randomly assigned into the TPT or SPT programs. Seventeen TPT subjects received Thai exercise with traditional massage, and 14 SPT individuals performed strengthening exercise with Swedish massage. Both programs consisted of a class with supervision plus home self-care for 8 weeks; the subjects then managed home self-care for 1 year. [Results] After 2 months, the six-minute walk test (6MWT), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), and SF-36 testing showed significant improvement in both groups, but the improvement of the TPT group was greater. After 1year, only the score for the 6MWT was greater in the TPT group than in the SPT group. [Conclusion] The TPT program yielded better results for the 6MWT, but, both programs had beneficial effects on the pain, function, and QOL of middle-aged and older patients with KOA in the community setting.
[Purpose] We investigated the effects of modulation of the optic flow speed on gait parameters in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. [Methods] We examined 10 children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. The children underwent gait analysis under 3 different conditions of optic flow speed: slow, normal, and fast optic flow speed. The children walked across the walkway of a GAITRite system, while watching a virtual reality screen, and walking velocity, cadence, stride length, step length, single support time, and double support time were recorded. [Results] Compared with the other applied flow speed conditions, the fast optic flow speed (2 times the normal speed) significantly increased walking velocity, cadence, normalized step length, base of support, and single support cycle of both the paretic and non-paretic lower limbs. Moreover, compared with the other applied flow speed conditions, the slow optic flow speed (0.25 times the normal speed) yielded a significantly decreased walking velocity, cadence, normalized step length, base of support, and single support cycle for both the paretic and non-paretic lower limbs. [Conclusion] The gait parameters of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy are altered by modulation of the optic flow speed. Thus, we believe that gait training involving modulation of the optic flow speed is feasible and suitable for resolving abnormal gait patterns in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.
[Purpose] To evaluate the effects of early passive range of motion exercise on the function of upper extremities and activities of daily living in patients with acute stroke. [Methods] A total of 37 patients with acute stroke in intensive care units, were assigned to the experimental group (n=19) and control group (n=18). The experimental group performed passive range of motion exercise twice a day, for 4 weeks, immediately after a pretest; the patients in the control group performed the range of motion exercise in the same manner for 2 weeks beginning 2 weeks after the pretest. The functions of upper extremities (edema, range of motion), manual function, and activities of daily living of both groups were measured before and at four weeks after the intervention. [Results] The experimental group showed a significant decrease in the edema of upper extremities compared with the control group. It also showed a significant increase in the range of motion, function of upper extremities, and the activities of daily living compared to the control group. [Conclusion] Passive range of motion exercise in the early stage can improve the function of upper extremities and activities of daily living in patients with acute stroke.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of abdominal bracing with low extremity movement on changes in thickness of abdominal muscles and lumbar strength. [Subjects] Sixteen patients with chronic low back pain were randomly assigned to two groups: an abdominal bracing with active straight leg raise (ABSLR) group and abdominal bracing with ankle dorsiflexion (ABDF) group. [Methods] All subjects were evaluated for their abdominal muscle strength using a MedX Lumbar Extension Machine and thickness of external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transverse abdominis (TrA) muscles using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging. Subjects in both groups were instructed to perform Abdominal bracing (AB). Simultaneously, those in the ABSLR group performed active SLR, and those in the ABDF group performed ankle dorsiflexion. [Results] In comparison between the ABSLR and ABDF groups, significant differences in the thickness of the IO and TrA muscles were observed after the intervention in the ABSLR group. Also, lumbar strength was showed a significant increase in both groups after interventions. [Conclusion] The results of this study demonstrated that ABSLR is a more effective method than ABDF for improvement of abdominal stabilization by increasing the thicknesses of the TrA and IO.
[Purpose] The physical strength elements required for athletic throwing events include muscle strength, swiftness, agility, speed, flexibility, and physical balance. Although plyometric training and weight training are implemented as representative training methods for improving swiftness and agility, most studies of it have been conducted with players of other sports. [Subjects] The study subjects were 10 throwing event athletes attending K physical education high school. The subjects were randomly assigned to a control group of five subjects and an experimental group of five subjects. To analyze the body composition, an Inbody 3.0 instrument (Biospace, Korea) was used as experimental equipment to measure heights, weight, body fat percentages, and muscle masses and a Biodex system 4.0 (BIODEX, USA) was used to measure isokinetic muscle-joint and lumbar muscle strengths. The plyometric training consisted of 15 techniques out of the training methods introduced in the ‘Power up plyometric training’. The plyometric program was implemented without any training load three times per week during daybreak exercises for the experimental group. The number of times and the number of sets were changed over time as follows: three sets of 10 times in the 1st −4th weeks, three sets of 15 times in the 5th–8th weeks, and five sets of 15 times in the 9th−12th weeks. [Results] According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar extensor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. According to the ANCOVA results of lumbar flexor muscle strength at 60°/sec, the overall reliability of the model was significant. [Conclusion] Plyometric training positively affected high school throwing event athletes. To summarize the study findings, the application of plyometric training with high intensity and loads improved the results of athletes who perform highly intensive exercises at normal times.
[Purpose] This report describes an unusual incidental finding during ultrasound investigation of the vastus medialis muscle. Volunteers underwent ultrasound scanning as part of an on-going investigation into the architecture of the vastus medialis muscle. [Subjects and Methods] The distal thighs of forty-one subjects were scanned using the Philips iU22 US system. An unusual muscle morphology was detected bilaterally in one subject, who then underwent a 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan in order to further investigate the muscle morphology. The subject in question was a 32 year-old female who suffers from recurrent bilateral patellar dislocations. [Results] The MRI scan confirmed the ultrasound findings, and indicated the presence of the vastus medialis in two layers, with the VML continuing deep, separate from the VMO. [Conclusion] Although this rare variant has been been reported in previous cadaveric studies, we believe this to be the first report in the literature of this morphology in vivo. The biomechanical implications of this muscle arrangement are unknown, but it may not be without significance that this individual suffers from recurrent patellar dislocations.