Seasonal variation of basal metabolism was measured on seven young male (the Ground Self-Defence Force Officials) aged 19-26 for twelve months (from March 1983 through February 1984) at the Beppu Post in Oita. The results are as follows: The basal metabolism fluctuates like sine curve. The highest value (5.2% higher than the annual mean) is obtained in April and the lowest (5.8% lower) is in October. Therefore, the annual deviation in the basal metabolism was 11.0% from the annual mean. The annual mean basal metabolism corrected to twenties, is 39.9 kcal/m2/hr, and this value is 6.6% higher than the reference value (37.5 kcal/m2/hr) . In Japanese, it has been accepted that basal metabolism is lower in summer and higher in winter, and the reasons of the seasonal variation are explained by the wide range of the temperature throughout the year, and by the lower ratio in fat intake. Our results generally agree them.
As a protective clothing against agricultural chemicals non-permeable materials are used in closed designs. Such clothings give us great physical and mental burdens. To examine the comfortableness of protective clothings experiments were performed with four protective dothings A, B, C and D of different materials or designs and a training wear (TW) . Five healthy female young adults were exposed to 26°C, 50%RH and 0.1 m/s wind in a laboratory. They kept rest on chairs for 10 minutes, then performed an exercise of stepping up and down a 25 cm high platform 30 times/min for 20 minutes and again kept rest on chairs for 30 minutes. Rectal temperature and skin temperatures on nine points, microclimate under the clothing, heart rate, total sweat rate and an amount of absorbed water to clothings were measured. The subjects described their feeling of warmth, discomfort, wetness and wearing of clothings before, during and after the experiment by rating scales. Mean skin temperature showed a maximum at five minutes of exercise. The maximal change of the skin temperature was larger in the order TW < C <A ≅ B < D. Total sweat rate was not different between the four protective clothings, but the absorbed water to a clothing was larger in the order TW < C < B ≅ A < D. Therefore, protective clothing C with a high moisture permeability was the most effective one. The heart rate showed a maximum at the end of exercise and could not recover perfectly at the end of the experiment with little difference between the four protective clothings. The recovery from discomfort feeling was better with protective clothing C or TW while it was the worst with D among the four. As a result, feeling of wearing was the best with TW followed by C, and was the worst with D. The feeling of discomfort or wearing had a high correlation with mean skin temperature, inner humidity or absorbed water to clothing.
Five healthy male subjects (19-22 years old) were immersed to the neck in ‘Kan-no-Jigoku’ spring water (13°C) for 15 min, twice a day, for consecutive 12 days. Venous blood samples for the measurements of glucose, free fatty acids (FFA) and insulin were drawn before and after the 1st, 7th, 13th, 19th and 23rd immersions. At the 1st immersion, no acute response in blood glucose to the cold-water stimulus was observed. However, blood glucose levels decreased at 15-60 min after each of the 7th to 23rd immersions. FFA levels showed an acute rise after every cold immersion, but the degree of the acute response in FFA gradually decreased during the course of the serial immersions. Basal insulin level tended to increase until the 7th day and to be maintained in a high level thereafter. These results suggest that either the mobilization of glucose and FFA decreased or the utilization of those substrates increased by the repeated cold-water immersions.