This paper describes electronic holography that can record and reconstruct real objects. Images of objects were captured by integral photography (IP) . Object beams were obtained from the captured images by simulating an IP reconstructed optical system. The beam reproduced by IP with a wide viewing zone was divided horizontally into three ranges in the direction of propagation, and each beam was recorded in a separate hologram. In holographic reconstruction, three holograms were displayed in another liquid crystal panel with a pixel pitch of 6.8 μm and 4096 (horizontal) ×2400 (vertical) pixels and illuminated by a He-Ne laser. The horizontal viewing zone was enlarged by combining each reconstructed beam from LC panels, and three-dimensional holographic images of real, moving objects could be seen with both eyes at a distance of 40 cm.
We developed an all-printed flexible organic TFT with a channel length below 10μm and a mobility of over 0.01 cm2/Vs using an offset-based high-resolution printing technique and inkjet printing of small-molecule organic semiconductors. These technologies have been applied to a demonstration of a 10.5-inch VGA flexible active-matrix electrophoretic display driven by an all-printed organic TFT backplane.
Owing to its outstanding features (low power consumption, small thickness and light weight), LCD is becoming a prevalent display device. The improvement of optical materials is one of the most important factors that will continue to influence the progress of the LCD trend. One important issue for TN-mode LCDs is their uniformity is decreased due to light leakage caused by heating tests. This phenomenon, which is caused by shrinkage of a polarizing film, is called mura. We showed that the physical properties of the adhesive used had a great influence on mura. We found that the strain generated in the polarizing film was changed by the physical properties of its adhesive, and thereby the appearance of mura was changed.
We examined the validity of perceived blur edge width (PBEW) by analyzing the correlation between observer rating values and physical properties that were extended blur edge width (EBEW) and PBEW. We also examined the correlation with changing contrast sensitivity function (CSF) models in the calculation of PBEW. In our results, PBEW correlated more with the observer's rating values than EBEW. It was also shown that Spatio-Velocity CSF model is significant for calculating PBEW.
We investigated the design conditions of the nematic optically compensated birefringence (NCB) mode and found that a small pretilt angle and a short slit electrode distance is required to make a stable dual-domain structure in an ECB cell. The fabricated NCB mode LCD had a fast response time of less than 4 ms and a high contrast ratio of over 800:1.
Color gamut and luminance are important factors in determining the image quality of an LCD. The RGB primaries are determined by color filters and a cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) using RGB phosphors. However, there is an inverse relationship between expansion of the color gamut and increase in luminance. In order to achieve a wide color gamut and high luminance simultaneously, we have tested a combination of Sr5 (PO4) 3Cl:Eu2+ (SCA), BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+, Mn2+ (BAM:Mn) , and Y2O3:Eu3+ (YOX) as blue-, green-, and red-emitting phosphors for a CCFL. SCA is highly efficient and has a narrow half-full width at half maximum. As a result, the amount of the green-emitting phosphor, which is dominant for luminance, can be increased without reducing the color gamut. In this way, a CCFL for a wide-color-gamut LCD with high luminance has been realized.
A 34-inch inorganic EL panel for a high-definition TV with a simple structure has been successfully developed by combining color-conversion materials and BaAl2S4: Eu blue phosphor. The luminance and maximum efficacy of the blue phosphor devices are higher than 2,300 cd/m2 for applied AC voltage of threshold-voltage plus 60 V at operation frequency of 120 Hz and 2.5 lm/W, respectively. The panels, which were fabricated using these technologies, achieved a peak luminance of over 400 cd/m2, a color gamut of larger than 95% of the NTSC color area in CIE (x, y), and a wide viewing angle.
To ensure safety, display devices that are used in automobiles need motion picture visibility at any situation. However, low temperatures cause conventional LCDs to respond more slowly, and this leads to motion blur. To eliminate this blurring, we have newly developed a high-performance OCB-LCD that responds quickly at low temperatures. We have speeded up the response time by using of an LC material that has a low rotational viscosity and by improving the bend transition. The new OCB-LCD has both a very fast response time and bend transition. The response time is a third that of the conventional OCB-LCD at -20°C, and does not require the present optical design to be changed. The bend transition time is about 1 second at -30°C. This speed is highly suitable for display devices used in automobiles.
Clustering methods, which are based on Self-Organaizing Map, can not precisely classify data when noise data is included. We describe a clustering method that can precisely classify data even when noise data are included.
This paper clarifies the relationship between the accommodation mechanism and the image processing mechanism in human vision. The stimuli used in the experiments were moving plaid sine waves composed of two kinds of drifting sine waves with different spatial frequencies and moving directions. The motion perception states were specified, and the accommodative responses were measured using an infrared optometer, while focusing on two kinds of drifting components or their coherent component. The following results were obtained: (1) when the perception was switched between motion transparency and motion capture, the accommodation lag for motion capture was larger than that for motion transparency; (2) in coherent motion perception, the accommodation lag increased as the coherent component's spatial frequency decreased; (3) when the perception was switched among the above three types of perception, the accommodation lag for motion capture and that for coherent motion perception were almost the same and larger than that for motion transparency. These results suggest that the accommodation mechanism interacts with the image processing mechanism that includes the local motion and the coherent motion detection mechanisms.
When a scene is recorded with a camcorder, there may be disruptions such as object interference or battery exhaustion resulting in missing segments in the recorded video. A temporal video completion method that inserts a video segment captured by another camera in the place of such a faulty segment is proposed. In the proposed method, a user initially uses an interface to select both faulty and preferred segments from videos captured by two different cameras. To minimize the visual difference at the transition points between the two videos, the most similar frames to those previous to and following the faulty segment are detected around both ends of the preferred segment as the start and the end frames of the inserted segment. Note that, in order to prevent artifacts as much as possible, the length of the inserted segment can be different from the length of the faulty segment. Visually plausible video completion is then achieved by smoothing the motion and color gaps between the transition frames and completing the missing regions by using spatio-temporal features of the video. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the visual plausibility of the completed videos by changing the distance between the camera and the recorded target or between two cameras.
A reliable 15-μm-thick high-gain avalanche rushing amorphous photoconductor (HARP) film with an avalanche multiplication factor of about 200 has been developed. High-sensitivity HARP photoconductive film, which makes use of the avalanche multiplication phenomenon, has been investigated for the purpose of reporting breaking news at night or producing nature and science programs. HARP films that are thicker and more sensitive than previous 8-μm-thick ones have been studied. However, thickening the HARP film caused defects to appear during shooting intense spotlights. Controlling the operating temperature of the 15-μm-thick HARP film over 30°C was found to prevent the occurrence of defects. Moreover, heat resistance of the film was improved to resist temperatures of over 30°C.