Journal of Pesticide Science
Online ISSN : 1349-0923
Print ISSN : 1348-589X
ISSN-L : 0385-1559
最新号
選択された号の論文の8件中1~8を表示しています
Regular Articles
  • Shunsuke Yamamoto, Yoshitaka Tanetani, Chihiro Uchiyama, Atsushi Nagam ...
    2021 年 46 巻 3 号 p. 249-257
    発行日: 2021/08/20
    公開日: 2021/08/31
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    Fenquinotrione is a novel herbicide that can control a wide range of broadleaf and sedge weeds with excellent rice selectivity. We revealed that fenquinotrione potently inhibited the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) activity in Arabidopsis thaliana with an IC50 of 44.7 nM. The docking study suggested that the 1,3-diketone moiety of fenquinotrione formed a bidentate interaction with Fe(II) at the active site. Furthermore, π–π stacking interactions occurred between the oxoquinoxaline ring and the conserved Phe409 and Phe452 rings, indicating that fenquinotrione competes with the substrate, similar to existing HPPD inhibitors. A more than 16-fold difference in the herbicidal activity of fenquinotrione in rice and the sedge, Schoenoplectus juncoides, was observed. However, fenquinotrione showed high inhibitory activity against rice HPPD. Comparative metabolism study suggested that the potent demethylating metabolism followed by glucose conjugation in rice was responsible for the selectivity of fenquinotrione.

  • Joon-Heum Park, Sunyo Jung
    2021 年 46 巻 3 号 p. 258-266
    発行日: 2021/08/20
    公開日: 2021/08/31
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    We examined the effect of Bradyrhizobium japonicum FeCh (BjFeCh) expression on the regulation of porphyrin biosynthesis and resistance to norflurazon (NF)-induced photobleaching in transgenic rice. In response to NF, transgenic lines F4 and F7 showed lesser declines in chlorophyll, carotenoid, Fv/Fm, ϕPSII, and light-harvesting chlorophyll (Lhc) a/b-binding proteins as compared to wild-type (WT) plants, resulting in the alleviation of NF-induced photobleaching. During photobleaching, levels of heme, protoporphyrin IX (Proto IX), Mg-Proto IX (monomethylester), and protochlorophyllide decreased in WT and transgenic plants, with lesser decreases in transgenic plants. Most porphyrin biosynthetic genes were greatly downregulated in WT and transgenic plants following NF treatment, with higher transcript levels in transgenic plants. The expression of BjFeCh in transgenic rice may play a protective role in mitigating NF-induced photobleaching by maintaining levels of heme, chlorophyll intermediates, and Lhc proteins. This finding will contribute to understanding the resistance mechanism of NF-resistant crops and establishing a new strategy for weed control.

  • Koji Ueda, Takashi Nagai
    2021 年 46 巻 3 号 p. 267-273
    発行日: 2021/08/20
    公開日: 2021/08/31
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    We investigated the relative sensitivity of duckweed Lemna minor and six species of algae to seven herbicides, using an efficient high-throughput microplate-based toxicity assay. First, we assessed the sensitivity of L. minor to the seven herbicides, and then we compared its sensitivity to that of previously published data for six algal species based on EC50 values. For five herbicides, the most sensitive species differed: L. minor was most sensitive to cyclosulfamuron: Raphidocelis subcapitata was most sensitive to pretilachlor and esprocarb: Desmodesmus subspicatus was most sensitive to pyraclonil; and Navicula pelliculosa was most sensitive to pyrazoxyfen. Simetryn was evenly toxic to all species, whereas 2,4-D was evenly less toxic, with only small differences in species sensitivity. These results suggested that a single algal species cannot represent the sensitivity of the primary producer assemblage to a given herbicide. Therefore, to assess the ecological effects of herbicides, aquatic plant and multispecies algal toxicity data sets are essential.

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