The present study concerns with the hybridization experiments attempted between the Domestic fowl (Gallus gallus var. domesticus) and the Common Pheasant (Phasianuscolchicus), during the years of 1939 to 1940, and this paper includes the records of breeding, the morphology and plumage of the hybrid birds, and the results of some other oecological observations. The detailed accounts on the anatomical and cytological investigations of the hybrids will be given in other paper (Yamashina, '43). The cross between these two forms is easily made in captivity, and no attempt was made on the artificial insemination. In the various combinations of the parent birds, 164 hybrid eggs were obtained in total. After incubation, 46 eggs were proved to be fertilized, from which 9 unhatched embryos, 12 chicks and 9 adult birds came under our observation. The combination of forms and their offsprings obtained are given as follows: In the most successful combination (the Red-hackled Shamo _??_×the Korean Ring-necked Phasant _??_), 37 fertilized eggs were obtained in 100 eggs examined (37%), and in other combination, the Black Shamo _??_×the Korean Ring-necked Pheasant _??_, and the Red-hackled Shamo Bantam _??_×the Korean Ring-necked Pheasant _??_, the result showed nearly 13% for each case. In the 46 fertilized eggs obtained in the present experiment, the sexes were determined of unhatched hybrid embryos, the birds which died after hatching and those which were killed at later stages for observations: It is evident from the above table that among the hybrid offsprings, the sex-ratio is approximately 1 to 1. The unusual excess of males reported by previous authors in the similar cross was interpreted due to the results derived from observations on the adult stage. It seems apparent from the author's study that the mortality of female hybrids is very high during the incubation and also in the stage of chicks just hatched out. The hatch-ability was shown to be 68% among 37 fertilized eggs incubated. Among 25 hatched chicks 9 had reached the maturity (36%). The feather patterns of the hybrid chick produced between the Red-hackled Domestic fowl and the Pheasant were just intermediate found in the chicks of the Red Jungle-fowl and of the Pheasant. The feathers of the adult hybrid seemed to show rather primitive patterns, but the feather of the under-parts were mostly dark in colour, when the Green Pheasant was used as a parent. In the cross between the Black Shamo _??_ and the Pheasant _??_, the colour of feathers was nearly black in both of the chick and the adult, and the gene of black colour in the Black Shamo seems to play a dominant factor in this cross. There was found a noticable longitudinal groove running along each side of the bill of the hybrid when the Red-hackled Shamo was employed in the cross, and among seven F1 offsprings, two had well developed groove, the other two indistinct groove, and the remaining three entirely lacking. In two F1 males of 24 months old, sex hormone injection was made, 0.5cc of Puberogen and Testosteron applied subcutaneously every other day and 6 times in all. After this injection the bare parts of the face became to appear that of young bird and very fresh, but the injection showed no marked influence upon the activity of the germ cell.
One of the most striking and interesting variations existing among domestic fowls is the condition known as rumplessness, in which the birds have no tail. The present author had the opportunity to obtain at Sapporo five rumpless fowls, three hens and two cocks, in 1930 and 1932 (Table 1). They appeared sporadically as an occasional occurrence in a flock of normal-tailed White Leghorns (Figs. 1-2). A morphological study of these rumpless fowls made by the present author (Hayasi 1941) revealed that they completely lacked one or two synsacral vertebrae, the free caudal vertebrae and the pygostyle (Figs. 4-8). On this basis, their condition is to be referred to as complete rumplessness. Dunn ('25, '26) and Laudauer and Dunn ('25) reported that there are two types of complete rumplessness, one type being accidental rumplessness which is non-heritable in character, while the other is hereditary rumplessness and was inherited as a dominant trait in their genetical experiments. With the five rumpless fowls herein obtained some genetical experiments were attempted by the present author, to see whether the rumpless character in this case showed the same type of inheritance as reported by the previous authors. The mating of a rumpless hen with a normal-tailed cock which was firstly made, produced progeny with normal external appearance having completely developed tails. The result is given in Table 2. The data suggest that the rumpless character in this case may probably be inherited as a recessive trait. In the inter es matings of F1-fowls obtained in the above experiment, there were obtained 96 F2-offsprings which segregated in the approximate proportion of 3 normals to 1 rumpless (cf. Table 3); that is, segregation took place in monohybrid fashion. Furthermore, the back-crossing attempted between F1-hen and a rumpless cock, one of the parent birds, produced normal and rumpless progeny in approximately equal proportions (cf. Table 4). These results are sufficient to conclude that the rumpless character in the present case is inherited by a simple, Mendelian recessive gene, which is symbolically designated as r. It is quite evident that the rumpless fowls used as parents in these experiments are homozygotes for this rumpless gene r.
In der II. Mitteilung dieser Studien wurden die Komlementgene C und R, C und T beschrieben, und zwar ist C das Gen für Chromogen und R das für rote Blattfärbung. T produziert einen roten runden Fleck auf dem Blatt bei Anwesenheit von C. Die von uns untersuchten Sippen, die kein rotes Pigment im Blatt aufweisen, wurden in die folgenden 3 Kategorien eingeteilt: 1. Eine Mosaikpflanze mit grüngefleckter Streifung auf einem Rot-tricolor-Individuum wurde in der früheren Mitteilung beschrieben. Der Genotypus dieser Pflanze wurde nach der Aufspaltung in der Nachkommenschaft und der Kreuzung mit einer grünen Pflanze als CcRrTT bestimmt. Die Entstehung der Mosaikpflanze muss man wohl so erklären, dass das Gen C somatisch in das rezessive Allel c mutierte. 2. Bei der Bastardierung von salicifolius (CcRRtt)×tricolor (CCrrTT) wurde eine gelbe Pflanze mit rotem Stengel und Blattstiel beobachtet, die von uns als “Rotstengel” bezeichnet wurde. Bei der Selbstbestäubung des Rotstengels wurde stets die Spaltung: 2 Rotstengel: 1 gelb: 1 grün festgestellt. Die gelben und grünen Nachkommen spalten sich nie in der nächsten Generation auf. Das Gen für diese Rotstengel-Pflanze wurde S genannt. Sie ist demnach CcSsrr. S und c scheinen gänzlich gekoppelt zu sein. Der Genotypus der gelben Pflanze ist? CCssrr und der der grünen Pflanze ccSSrr. 3. Die Bastarde (CcSsRr) aus den Verbindungen grün (ccSSrr)×rot (CCssRR) und grün (ccSSRR)×gelb (CCssrr) zeigten die Spaltung:9 rot:2 Rotstengel:1 gelb: 4 grün. 4. Das Gen S ist mit den anderen untersuchten Genen (R und T) nicht gekoppelt. 5. Aus der dunkelroten Sippe wurde Albino-Keimlinge gewonnen. Es wurde das normale Gen, das in das rezessive Albino-Allel a mutierte, A genannt. A, R und T sind nicht gekoppelt. 6. Den Tricolor-Charakter betreffend, wurden 2 Gruppen unterschieden: hell-und dunkel-tricolor. Das Gen für das erstere Merkmal bezeichneten wir als T1 und das für das letztere als T2. Die 2 Tricolor-Faktoren (T1 und T2) bilden mit dem rezessiven Faktor t eine Serie multipler Allelomorphen, deren Dominanzverhältnisse wie folgt ausgedrückt werden können: T2>T1>t. Jede beliebige Kombination je 2 dieser Gene weist eine monohybride Aufspaltung auf.
(1) The numerical relations of the chromosomes studied in the male germ cells of seven species belonging to Lestidae and Coenagriidae (Zygoptera-Odonata) obtained from several localities of Japan are given in Table 1. (2) Without exception, there is present an unpaired X-chromosome in all species investigated. It is always divided into equal halves in the first division, while in the second division it migrates to one pole without separation. The size of the X is rather variable among the species. In Agriocnemis selenion, the X is represented by the largest element in the complex, while in the other species it is the smallest chromosome in the garniture except the m-chromosome. (3) The seven species herein studied always contain the so-called m-chromosome of minute size, which shows a considerable variation in size from species to species. It is interesting to find that the m-chromosome of Lestes sponsa shows individual variation in size (see Figs. 4-5). (4) The following four species belonging to the Coenagriidae, viz., Agrion(Coenagrion) hieroglyphicum, Ischnura senegalensis, Agriocnemis selenion and Copera annulata, possess spermatocyte chromosomes of a huge size, while in the members of the Lestidae the chromosomes are not so great in magnitude.