A family of repetitive DNA sequences in the genome of the sawfly, Strongylogaster osmundae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) was characterized. The family consists of a tandemly arranged array whose basic repeat unit is 1.0 kb. According to the compositions and arrangements of bases, the basic repeat unit can be divided into three distinct domains. Three domains share nucleotide sequence homology of 88, 74 and 89%, respectively, between members in this family. Second domain which had lower homology with the other two domains was found characteristically rich With polypurine /polypyrimidine sequences.
Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were screened in two nearly isogenic lines (NILs) of tomato, one of which carried Tm-1 gene conferring resistance to tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) and the other carried its susceptible allele. Among 1030 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products generated by using 220 different 10-base oligonucleotide primers, 12 fragments were polymorphic between the NILs. Six markers arbitrarily chosen from these 12 fragments were examined whether they link to the Tm-1 in 125 BC1 plants. No recombinations were detected between the five markers and the Tm-1. The other one marker was also proved to link to the Tm-1, but their genetic distance was not determined due to some difficulty in distinguishing the RAPD band from the adjacent PCR products.
In order to investigate the intraspecific variation of Prunus yedoensis (Someiyoshino) and interspecific relationship among P. yedoensis, P. lannesiana (Oshimazakura) and P. pendula (Edohigan), DNA fingerprinting study was conducted by using two different kinds of probes, M13 repeat sequence and (GACA)4 synthetic oligonucleotide. In this study, 68 plants of P. yedoensis grown in 46 prefectures in Japan were investigated. All the P. yedoensis individuals investigated showed the completely same banding pattern, indicating their clonal origin from a single plant. On the other hand, each of P. lannesiana and P. pendula individuals investigated showed a unique banding pattern, suggesting a considerable amount of genetic variation in these two species. About 90% of bands in DNA fingerprints of P. yedoensis were detected in either P. lannesiana or P. pendula. This result supports the hypothesis that P. yedoensis is an interspecific hybrid between P. lannesiana and P. pendula. From those results, it is concluded that P. yedoensis was produced only once through hybridization between P. lannesiana and P. pendula, and that this particular hybrid plant has been spread vegetatively all over Japan.
Homozygous stocks for the second or the third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster with a single insertional plwB element were screened for high crossability with D. simulans. Reciprocal crosses between each of these stocks and D. simulans were made, and the insemination rate at two or three days was examined. From two cycles of screening of the original 575 stocks, one stock (# 687) which showed high insemination rate was selected and was backcrossed to a w strain to substitute the background. We obtained a stock which showed 10% insemination rate with D. simulans males (control was 0%). No stocks exhibiting a high crossability with D. simulans females were acquired. Revertant strains, from which the P element had been lost, were obtained from the backcrossed #687 stock. The insemination rates of 13 revertants to D. simulans males ranged from 1% to 33%. Seven of these 13 were not significantly different from the control line but were significantly different from the backcrossed #687 stock. It was concluded that the mutation showing high crossability with D. simulans males was caused by the P element transposition.
Five Drosophila melanogaster strains showing high interspecific crossability with D. simulans males, derived from the previous screening of a set of autosomal plwB transposants, were selected and the effect of the plwB insertion under the same genetic background (white strain) on the interspecific crossability was examined. This phenotype was recessive in the two strains but semidominant in the other three strains. Trans-heterozygotes, however, showed high interspecific crossability compared with the parental homozygotes, suggesting some epistatic interactions between them. In three strains, the effect of the plwB insertion region in different backgrounds (w1118 strain) on the crossability was also tested. Homozygotes of a strain (#687) showed high interspecific crossability comparable to the w background, while homozygotes of both #68 and #783 strains showed lower crossability than w1118. Although #783 heterozygotes showed intermediate values between #783 homozygotes and w1118, #68 heterozygotes showed a significantly higher insemination rate than w1118 and the #68 homozygotes. These results suggest that the region around the plwB insertion sites of #68 and #783 affects the interspecific crossability either positively or negatively depending on the genetic background. In all the stocks, positive correlation between interspecific crossability and the intraspecific mating speed was detected.
Hybrids from the cross between males of Drosophila melanogaster and females of its sibling species (D. simulans, D. mauritiana, or D. sechellia) are embryonic lethal when they carry the wild type allele of zygotic hybrid rescue (zhr) from D. melanogaster. The zhr gene has been mapped in the proximal region of the X heterochromatin slightly distal to the proximal breakpoint of In(1)sc8, the region rich in 1.688 g/cm3 satellite DNA. Since this satellite DNA does not exist in the sibling species, the satellite DNA was considered to be involved in the hybrid lethality. We examined the hypothesis molecular cytogenetically. The results are (1) three Df(1)zhr chromosomes carried this satellite DNA, and (2) hybrids were viable even if the amount of the satellite DNA in hybrids was increased by adding minichromosomes Dp(1;f)1205 and Dp(1;f)1187 into the genome. These results do not support the above hypothesis.
Some basic concepts of chiasma (including chiasma distribution, chiasma frequency, interstitial and terminal chiasmata, and chiasma interference) are reexamined theoretically in the light of gene shuffling, and a new method for chiasma analysis termed the chiasma graph is proposed. Chiasma graphs are developed for three mammals with greatly different chromosome numbers: Chinese hamster (with n=11), mice (n=20), and a dog (n=39). The results demonstrate that interstitial chiasmata can contribute both to gene shuffling and to the binding of bivalents, but that so-called terminal chiasmata are in fact mostly achiasmatic terminal associations, the main function of which is to bind bivalents. For this reason, terminal chiasmata should be excluded when chiasma frequency is estimated. It is also demonstrated that interstitial chiasmata distribute on bivalents randomly and uniformly, except at the centromere and telomere. Interference distance fluctuates almost randomly above a minimum value equivalent to about 1.8% of total bivalent length at diakinesis. These results indicate that chiasma formation in mammals is principally a random event. The demonstrated minimum interference distance seems consistent with the polymerization model for chiasma formation. Some cytological aspects of crossing-over are discussed with reference to the minimum interaction theory for eukaryotic chromosome evolution.
A simplified fluorescence plus giemsa method for demonstrating sister chromatid differentiation has been developed in conjunction with a C-banding method for the same barley metaphase chromosomal spread. By combining this method with imaging methods, the sites of sister chromatid exchanges could be exactly determined.
The tef-1 gene encoding translation elongation factor lα was cloned from the ascomycete fungus Neurospora crassa. The sequences of genomic DNA and cDNA clones showed that the tef-1 gene contained one ORF of 1380 bp length that is interrupted by three short introns. The deduced polypeptide contained 460 amino acid residues, and the sequence had a high similarity with those of EF-lα polypeptides from other species. The level of tef-1 mRNA was low in conidia but high in growing cells. When mycelia were transferred to poor nutrient media, the level of tef-1 gene mRNA decreased remarkably. The pattern of tef-1 expression was similar to the expression of genes for ribosomal proteins. The tef-1 gene was mapped between arg-3 and leu-4 loci on linkage group I by restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping. Southern blot analysis showed that Neurospora genomic DNA contained only one copy of the tef-1 gene in a genome.