1) The external genital organs of hermaphroditic goats are of various types of abnormality. In most of them, the clitoris project prominently and resemble the glans penis, while the scrotum and body of penis are not present. In some animals, the clitoris are developed so conspicuously as the penis, and the scrotums are found, but they are malformed, while in others the external genital organ is of female type. 2) By anatomical observation, in all animals examined, there exist both Mullerian and Wolffian ducts, and their grades of development and differentiation are in accordance with those of the gonads and the other secondary sexual characters. The gonads in them are ovotestis in female type and testis-like in others. Between these two, there are numerous histological deviations. Based on these morphological observation, it can be decided that the hermaphroditic goats are true hermaphroditisms. 3) To determine the genetical sex of the intersex, sex-ratio and the frequency of occurrence in litters are calculated. The observed data agree well with the fact that the intersexual goats are female genetically and the frequency of occurrence of intersexual kids between carrier×carrier mating must be 12.5%. Based on these facts, it is concluded that the gene of intersexuality is an autosomal and acts in female only when homozygous.
1. Zu dem bisher von G. S. Dow und C. I. Poynter berichteten einzigen Fall von rezessiv-geschlechtsgebundener Taubstummheit wind hier ein weiteres Beispiel beschrieben. 2. Wir vermuten, dass sick dieser Biotypus auch in seiner phänotypischen Manifestierung von der einfachen rezessiven unterscheidet, indem sich bei allen taubstummen Personen der vorliegenden Familie deutlich Störungen der Labyrinthfunktion festsellen lassen. 3. Es wurde der Versuch gemacht, unter den Mitgliedern der Sippe den möglichen Ursprung der Mutation des betr. Gens festzustellen.
1. Feulgen-positive bodies were found in the cytoplasm through all the stages of microsporogenesis in Allium odorum. 2. The extranuclear bodies (“e” bodies) mentioned above are round or ring-shaped, and their number within a single cell varies from one to seven. The average diameter is about 3.9μ. The average frequency of occurrence of cells having an “e” body or bodies in all stages, discounting the stages of one- and two-nucleated pollen grains, is 6.7%. 3. During the development of pollen grains the “e” bodies exist as the centre of micropollen grains isolated from the mother cell. 4. The occurrence of the “e” bodies is independent of meiotic irregularities. 5. The frequency and kinds of chromosome aberrations in this species were observed. In the anthers which contain synchronized and non-synchronized pollen mother cells of the division phases, the frequency of occurrence of the cells accompanied by chromosome breakage is an average of 5.3% and 1.1% respectively, while that of other irregularities (mainly, lagging chromosome) is an average of 0.7% and 7.9% respectively. From these results, it is concluded that chromosome breakage and non-pairing seem to result respectively from separate mechanisms, independent of each other. In conclusion the author wishes to express his sincere thanks to Professor T. Shimamura for his kind criticism and valuable advice. Thanks also due to Dr. M. Kumazawa and Dr. I. Harada for their helpful suggestion.
1) Induced polyploidy in Sesamum indicum L. by the colchicine method is described; two different methods, namely the immersion and dropping, were used, the latter proving more effective than the former. 2) As the characteristics of autopolyploidy, the tetraploid plants were extremely robust, with much thicker stems, larger leaves, stomata, flowers, and seeds than the diploids. 3) The fertilities of pollen grains and seeds per capsule from the tetraploids were comparatively high with averages of 74.10% and 77.74% respectively. But the yield of seeds per plant of the tetraploids was unfavorable. 4) Details of meiosis in diploid and tetraploid S. indicum, especially on secondary pairing, have been recorded. On the nature of secondary polyploidy in S. indicum was discussed.
Root-tips of Allium cepa L. were pretreated with 0.5 per cent aqueous solution of chloralhydrate, fixed with La Cour 2BE, stained by Feulgen's technique and squashed in 45% acetic acid. The chromosome number is found to be 2n=16, of which 2(S1S1 type, Fig, 1a) or 3 chromosomes (S1S1S2 type, Fig. 2a) being nucleolar. The former type is one reported repeatedly by the previous workers. The latter is found newly by the present study. These two types showed maximum number of nucleoli 2 and 3 (Figs. 1b, 2b) respectively according to the number of nucleolar chromosomes contained. Both size of satellite and length of connecting filament showed a considerable variation between indivduals, between cells of one and the same individual (Fig. 3b) or even between homologues within a cell (Figs. 1a, 3a). Among 50 bulbs studied, 10 revealed to be S1S1S2 type, 36 to be S1S1 type and the remaining 4 were not identified as to this point. The new type nucleolar chromosomes, S, is suggested to originate from some structural rearrangement or from some alteration in the balance of nucleolar-forming capacities between the chromosomes in the nucleus.
Seizo Katsunuma (1948) described that some congenital abnormalities such as pseudencephaly, spina bifida, anophthalmia, harelip, heart abnormalities etc. were occasionally found in rodents embryos whose mother animals had been injected intravenously with some vital staining dyes, namely lithioncarmin, trypanred or trypanblue etc. He presumed that such congenital abnormalities might be caused either by the abnormal permeability of the placenta with vitally stained syncytium cells or by the toxic effects of these staining agents. Having succeeded his experiments the author studied the critical period of these abnormalities and various conditions for their manifestation. Methods: Female mice on the 9th-11th day of pregnancy were injected with 2.5-4.0% lithioncarmin solution intravenously once every day for 3 or 4 days. Results: 306 embryos of the 14-16th foetal days were obtained from 42 mother animals by vivisection. Among these embryos abnormalities as follows were found, 2 pseudencephalies, 3 slight oxycephalies (one of them with r-cerebrum hypoplasia), 2 with back blisters … myelencephalic blebs? … (one of them furthermore with blood-blister on the back of the left fore feet) (and these above mentioned embryos were all alived), 1 spina bifida, 1 severe oxycephaly, 3 microcephalies (these died on the 12-13th foetal days), 32 small chorions and 7 placentas without embryos (partial sterility). Among 266 control individuals obtained from 37 normal mother animals no marked abnormality was seen except some small chorions. The author presumes therefore the critical period of manifestation of these abnormalities to be in the 9th-11th foetal days, namely in the period in which from one to several primitive segments are formed. It is not yet decided whether the appearance of these abnormalities should be ascribed to the abnormal permeability of the vitally stained placenta or to the toxic effects of the vital staining dyes. The experiments will be continued.