By means of agar gel electrophoresis, acid phosphatase in various organs of the Japanese quail was separated into two polymorphic regions (Acp-1 and Acp-2), and it was found that there existed AA, AB and BB phenotypes in the slow mobility region (Acp-2) on the anode side. These phenotypes in Acp-2 region were shown to be controlled by two autosomal codominant alleles: Acp-2Aand Acp-2B. Gene frequencies in the total population were: Acp-2A, 0.42; Acp-2B, 0.58. Acid phosphatase activity of embryo is detectable from 5th day of incubation and increases as the days of incubation increase. From crossing experiment, it was recognized that gene controlling acid phosphatase of embryo is the same gene that controls acid phosphatase in various organs of adult (Acp-2).
No obvious difference was noted in the composition of pteridine granule membrane proteins among several oily larval mutants. The protein content of the membranes was 61-68%, the lipid content 29-33%, and the carbohydrate content 0.2-1.1%. The amino acid composition of the membrane structural protein obtained from normal larvae was very similar to that from oily larval mutants. SDS-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the SDS-urea-treated granule membrane proteins obtained from several oily larval mutants revealed multiple protein bands, unlike that of the granule membrane protein from normal larvae. Moreover, these electrophoretic patterns showed significant differences among several oily larval mutants. The cause of this electrophoretic variation of the membrane proteins (as well as lipid and carbohydrate) from oily larval mutants is discussed. An ultracentrifugal examination of granule membrane protein obtained from the woh mutant demonstrated its heterogeneity. Immunological differences found among granule membrane proteins of w3, wa and wb by the Ouchterlony double diffusion test suggest that the variation is due to some genetic changes in the primary structure of the membrane protein. It is therefore proposed that the structural gene for the membrane protein subunit of pteridine granules may be located at the w3 locus on the 10th chromosome.
The experiment was performed using the melting temperature of DNA as an indicator to study the genetic variability in the family Salmonidae living in freshwater in Japan. Fish used in this experiment were 8 species from 3 genera and 4 combinations of intergeneric hybrid. The melting temperature of each purified DNA extracted from liver was measured in 0.1×SSC. The values of the melting temperature were very reproducible and the statistical tests showed significant differences at least 5% level except a few cases. The most wide range of the value was observed in the genus Oncorhynchus and the narrowest range was in the genus Salvelinus. In the case of intergeneric hybrids, most of them showed the middle value of their parents, and none of them fell on outside of their parental values.
Teissier has demonstrated biometrically that Japanese and French Drosophilamelanogaster form two different geographic races. A study of the mating behavior of these races was undertaken to demonstrate an eventual incipient isolation. The experiments were performed by direct observation, a technique originally devised by Elens and Wattiaux. Homogamic, selective and panmictic matings were demonstrated in each of the two races as well as between the races. In no case, were homogamic or selective tendencies very pronounced. The morphological differentiation of the geographic races does not result in a change of behavior. This may be explained by the distance between the two races which prevented hybridization; indeed the elimination of hybrids would have reinforced the homogamic tendency.
High sterility of the hybrid Avena longiglumis×A. strigosa is caused by irregular and multiple associations of meiotic chromosomes. By free pollination, however, it gave 22 F2 seedlings with 14, 15 and 16 somatic chromosomes. Of them 15 plants (2n=14 and 15) survived to maturity. Based on the results of cytological and morphological observations a few plants seemed to recover almost similar chromosome component to that of the parents. The others clearly exhibited mixed traits of both parents as ever. Seed fertility of the F2 plants appears to be much dependent on the number of ring bivalents.
By recurrent backcrossing continued up to the B20 generation, isogenic lines with earliness genes were established. A pure line of a rice variety, Taichung 65 (abridged as T65, Japonica type, insensitive to photoperiod) was exclusively used as the recurrent parent; two early maturing cultivars from northern China (A) and northern Japan (B) and two radiation-induced early-maturing mutant lines of T65 were each used as the donor parent. The results of crossing experiments with those isogenic lines demonstrated that the earliness genes from different donor parents were at the same locus on the 8th chromosome (symbolized E), and similarly moved up the time of floral initiation about 7 days and shortened the period from floral initiation to heading by about 3 days. However, when the lines with different E alleles were compared in more detail, they showed significant differences. Evidence was produced showing that the E locus would be a region containing several recombinationary separable subloci and when the “suballeles” were combined in cis form, complementation would restore the function of an E allele. There could also be an element suppressing the function of the whole region and making the recessive allele, e, carried by T65; its mutation may result in induction of dominant E alleles. Slight but significant changes in the effect of E alleles were observed when the isogenic lines were “purified” by backcrossing. Further, isogenic lines having a modifier gene at an independent locus, m, were investigated. The m gene intensified the effect of E alleles, the magnitude of the epistatic effect differing according to E alleles. When combined with e, the m gene had no effect in summer, but promoted heading several days in the winter season. There can be other modifier genes than m exerting a buffering effect when recombined. A summary of earlier papers on these earliness genes was presented in addition.