Experiments were carried out in order to investigate the effects of NaCl content in he culture solution on the vegetative growth and on the uptake of nutrient elements on ome vegetables in solution and sand culture under the greenhouse condition. For he solution culture of strawberry in the spring of 1951, KASUGAI'S solution was sed as control and various concentrations of NaCl from 500 to 3, 000ppm were added, and or the sand culture of welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) and Taisai (Brassica hinensis L.) in the autumn of 1952, HOAGLAND solution was used as control and arious concentrations of NaCl from 2, 000 to 10, 000ppm were added. The strawberry seemed to be the most sensitive showing fairly severe leaf scorch, blackish brown root and poor growth in solution containing 3, 000ppm of NaCl. The welsh onion showed no specific symptoms of injury except dwarfing, while in the case of Taisal, dark green and curled leaves were observed in the NaCl treatments. Growth of these three vegetables was reduced according to the increasing amounts of salt in the culture solution and growth depression curves showed no evidence of an brupt point at which the effect of increasing concentration of NaCl became pronounced. Total sugar contents of each crop were measured and the results suggested that xcessive amounts of chloride interfere with carbohydrate metabolism. Leaves of each crop were analysed for their inorganic constituents and the following esults were obtained as the concentrations of NaCl increased. The contents of Na and Cl of any crop were almost in proportion to the amounts of salt in the substrate, but hese crops seemed to accumulate Cl larger than Na. In the strawberry, N, P, K, Ca, Mg tc. decreased in the treatments containing high concentrations of NaCl, and in the elsh onion, these elements showed rather small increase, while in the Taisai, P and specially K. Ca, Mg decreased except N which showed the tendency of increase.
To find out the proper seasons for lettuce growing in the regions of different altitudes, two varieties, New York No. 12 and Great Lakes, were planted successively at Nagano and Sugadaira in 1951 and 1952. Factors affecting flower bud differentiation and its development, favorable temperature range for vegetative growth, and damages to diseases were also examined. It was revealed that Great Lakes, a slow bolting variety, could be grown even in midsummer in the region of 800-900m high above the sea level. In the regions of lower altitudes, lettuce should be sown early in the spring so as the compact head would be formed before the hot season came in or should be grown late enough the head be formed in the cool period of the fall. Flower bud differentiation was induced in the lettuce when heat summation above 5°C attained to about 1, 700°C for Great Lakes or to about 1, 500 °C for New York No. 12. Bolting was accelerated by high temperature and were checked by low temperature below 15°C. There was no difference between the two varieties in the speed of seed stalk development, but the time of flower bud differentiation was later in Great Lakes, a slow bolting variety, than New York No. 12, an early bolting variety. Length of photoperiod seemed to have no effect on the time of flower bud differentiation or its development. In the early stage of growth (about 75 days after germination) lettuce was rather insensitive to temperature or diseases, but in the late stage of growth when it grew vigorously and formed head, it became sensitive to temperature and susceptible to bottom rot and tipburn. Most favorable growing temperature range for the lettuce in its late growing stage was proved to be 18-21°C in daily mean.
1. Studies were conducted to clarify the ecological characters of spinach in relation to its favorable growing temperature range, flower stalk differentiation and development. Two varieties, Virofley and Japanese Spine, were successively sown at the different altitudes during summer season. They were also grown under controlled temperature and photoperiod. 2. It was found that the most favorable temperature range was 15-20°C. for spinach vegetative growth. 3. Flower stalk differentiated when daylength summation after emergene had reached 450-500 hours, though there were slight variations in relation to variety and sex. 4. Seed stalk did not developed if photoperiod was less than 12 hours after flower cluster had differentiated. 5. Consequently, the critical time after which summer-sown spinach does not develop seed stalk, is logically middle August at the hilly region of Nagano Prefecture (N 36°). But practically, summer spinach may be sown after middle July without serious losses due to premature seed stalk development.
In the previous paper, the authors reported that the mature seeds of leaf mustards except Negarashi had a kind of dormancy which was gradually broken in 2 or 3 months in dry storage after harvesting, or could be easily broken by the low temperature (0-5°C) treatment extending only three days even when the dormancy was deepest. Besides the low temperature treatment, several other methods or reagents effective in breaking dormancy were investigated, and the following results were obtained. 1) The seed coats were observed to be permeable to water, and the radicles started their growth immediately when the swollen seed coats were removed carefully. The germination was also made possible by injuring seed coats, but was slower and less uniform. 2) Katsuona seeds at the middle stage of dormancy germinated well when washed by the running water for 6 hours or more, but could not germinate when merely soaked in water for 20 hours or more. 3) Germination of dormant seeds was not obtained by increasing concentration of oxygen, or of both oxygen and carbon dioxide simultaneously. 4) Thiourea, which is known to break dormancy of lettuce seeds and potato tubers, was also effective in leaf mustard seeds, and its effective cocentration in our method was 0.5 to 1% at the middle stage of dormancy. Urea was almost as effective as thiourea and its effective concentration was wider, that is, 0.01 to 1%, but 0.1% was less effective than the higher and lower concentrations. 5) The effect of thiocyanates was not decisive, while some amino compounds, such as alanine and arginine were as effective as urea in 0.02 to 0.5% concentrations, and ammonia was also effective in 0.005 to 0.5% concentrations. Nitrates and ammonium salts had no decisive effect. The possibility that amino compounds were effective through ammonia produced in their hydrolysis was seemed to be scarce. 6) The mechanism of the dormancy was discussed. There seemed to be much possiblity that there is any inhibiting substance in the seed coats, though it cannot be known whether it affects physical properties of seed coats or affects embryo directly. The physical properties of the seed coats are difficult to measure and their direct participation in the mechanism of dormancy cannot be denied by our simple experiments.
1. Twelve typical varieties of carrots were sown in fall, and their ramifications were investigated in each flowering time with a view of application to the seed producing technique according to their characteristics. 2. The forms of the branching were different with the varieties. On one hand, the Oriental varieties in general showed an erect form ; the main stems grew long and thick, and their flower balls were large in contrast with the slender, short and scanty lateral stems, and on the other hand, all the European varieties, regardless of the shapes of their roots or bolting behaviour, showed a spreading form on the whole, and also many lateral stems which were developed so well and large as the main stems, bore large flower balls no less than those of the latter. 3. It seems to the writer that the slow bolting European carrots showed the spreading form and the early bolting Oriental carrots showed the erect form as stated above, must be due to the fact that the lateral buds of the former tend to sprout easily, whereas on the latter they are rather inactive of their budding. 4. In order to produce the seeds of superior quality and to make harvesting and selection of them more efficiently, it is necessary to plant the seeds with a uniform flowering time which will bear flower balls of uniform size and shape. From this point of view, it is advisable that the Oriental varieties should be planted closely, their lateral stems be pruned, and the seeds be gathered from the main flower balls, while the European varieties should be planted apart, their main stems be pruned and the seed be gathered from the lateral stems. 5. It is generally considerd that the seeds of “Kintoki” carrot, a Oriental variety, has poor germination, but the author presumes this has been mainly caused by gathering the seeds from not only main balls but also the under-grown flower balls of th“”e lateral stems on non-pruned plants.
1. We have collected many kinds of cultivated turnips in Japan and United States of America and studied on them morphologically and ecologically, and as to their seeds, anatomically. 2. On the anatomical observation of seeds, there are A type which is charaterized by distinct feature of cells, swelling when they absorbe water, and B type in which the feature of epidermal layer is seen only membranous, posessing indistinct feature. And in either A type or B type there is Ac type or Bc type in which pigment layers can be observed distinctly. (Fig. 1) 3. We classified the turnip varieties cultivated in Japan as the following, from the view point of the type of the epidermal layer in seeds taking regard to other characters. Brassica Rapa L. in Japan A The Western European Group B The Intermediate Group C The Japanese Group (Afghanian Type)
It has long been known that cherries are very liable to crack when it is rainy during their harvest time. And, in the case of that they are injured so severely, their unpleasant appearance, poor taste and increased susceptibility to fungus infection render them almost worthless for sale. It has been a matter of common observation among growers of sweet cherries while its prevention methods were not found in their practices. Then, present experiments were carried out in order to find the prevention methods of cracking of cherries on the Horticultural Branch of Yamanashi Agr. Exp. Sta. during 1950 to 1952. The results were as follows: 1. In the adjuvants immersion tests in the laboratory in 1950 and 1951, it was found that Ca-caseinate decreased the percentages of cracking in sweet cherries and in response to more and more increase its concentrations. 2. Sprayings of 2.5 and 5% Ca-caseinate solution* on the cherry fruits 8 to 14 days before the harvest time for Napoleon and 15 days for Rockport Bigarreau greatly decreased the percentages of cracking of cherries. And it is the promising material as regards to not leave the spray residue on the surface of fruit, in reducing the percentage of cracked fruit on the trees. Bordeaux mixture seems to decrease the percentages in some degrees. 3. In sprayings of Rino and Ester adjuvants, it showed harmful results in worthless for sale, the former injured on fruit surface and the latter both on fruit surface and leaf in some degrees. * For the prevention of spray residue, we used Ca-caseinate solution which was compound with casein and upper clear solution of CaO dissolved in water.
Effects of fractional application of nitrogenous fertilizer (ammonium sulfate 150 lbs. per acre) on potato growth and yield were tested in 1953. Ammonium and nitrate nitrogen contents in the soil, and nitrogen contend in the plant were periodically analyzed. The variety used was Irish Cobbler. Experimantal plots were ramdomized and every treatment was replicated four times. The highest yield of potato tuber was obtained in the treatment where total amount of the fertilizer was applied at the time of planting, and the lowest was in the treatment where every tenth were applied in ten times at a week intervals. Yields in the treatments where the fertilizer was fractionally applied in two or five times were intermediate between the above two treatments. Ammonium and nitrate nitrogen contents in the soil were maintained at relatively higher level in the treatment where the total amount of the fertilizer was applied at one time until the later part of the growing season. In the treatment where the fertilizer was fractionally applied, nitrogen level in the soil were not high enough to maintain the vigorous growth of the plants, especially in the early part of the growing season.
1. Expriments were conducted with 17 varieties of fall-flowering chrysanthemum on their sensitivity to photoperiod and temperature in 1952. They were grown in the two localities (Nagano, 360m and Osamura, 850m above the sea-level) having different temperature conditions, and under short day of 10 hours for 20 or 30 days, or under natural day-length. 2. Three out of 19 varieties tested, Tatsunami, Shinanogawa and Hakuba, differentiated flower bud at the same time irrespective of photoperiod. Another 14 varieties differentiated flower bud when day length had been reduced to 14.5 hours. Time of flower bud differentiation in Shintoa, Pinktoa, Shingetsuyu and Minori, was somewhat earlier than that of the other varieties. 3. Development of flower bud in the three varieties, Tatsunami, Shinaogawa, and Hakuba, was not affected by photoperiod, but only by temperature ; temperature the cooler, flowering the later. In another 14 varieties, development of flower bud was affected by photoperiod and temperature. Flower bud developed when daylength had been reduced to 13.5 hours. In the four varieties, Shintoa, Pinktoa, Shingetsuyu and Minori, bud development was not retarded by higher temperature, while in other ten varieties, Okayamaheiwa, Ruster, H. Koido, Shirasagi, Murakumo, Tamaorihime, Kuninohikari, Benishio, Beniaki and Hatsugasumi, it was retarded by higher temperature even under short day condition. 4. In 20 days' treatment of shading (10 hours photoperiod), there appeared many crown bud resulting from imperfect flower bud development. No variety formed perfect flower by such a short treatment. In 30 days' treatment, stages of flower bud development affected the appearence of crown bud, which was influenced by both factors. 5. Earliness of flowering was determined only by the temperature conditions in the varieties of temperature sensitive type. With the varieties, which were sensitive to both temperature and photoperiod, earliness of flowering was determined by the length of time from bud differentiation to flowering. In practical shade culture it should be recommended to use the varieties which need relatively short period from the start of treatment to flowering. 6. Chrysanthemum varieties tested were classified in the following groups in relation to their responses to temperature and photoperiod. a. Flowering was influenced only by temperature: Tatsunami, Shinanogawa, Hakuba. b. Flowering was influenced mainly by daylength (flower bud differentiated when daylength had been reduced to 14.5 hours, flower bud developed when daylength had been reduced to 13.5 hours). i. Flowering was forced by rather higher temperature; Shintoa, Pinktoa, Minori, Shingetsuyu. ii. Flowering was retarded by higher temperature: Okayamaheiwa, Ruster, H. Koido, Shirasagi, Murakumo, Hatsugasumi, Tamaorihime, Kuninohikari, Benishio, Beniaki.