Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
Online ISSN : 1880-358X
Print ISSN : 0013-7626
ISSN-L : 0013-7626
Volume 48 , Issue 4
Showing 1-20 articles out of 20 articles from the selected issue
  • Mikio NAKANO, Eiji YUDA, Shoichi NAKAGAWA
    1980 Volume 48 Issue 4 Pages 385-394
    Published: 1980
    Released: July 05, 2007
    Activities of plant hormones were investigated with intact vines grown in vineyards or the hardwood cuttings of ‘Delaware’ grapevines during propagation.
    Monitoring the changes in oxygen uptake through the cutting was not used to determine the time of differentiation of adventitious roots, because an increase in O2 uptake was followed by rooting at the base of the cuttings.
    Though accelerated ethylene evolution from a whole cutting was corresponding to rooting of the cutting, it was not cleared whether ethylene could be a rooting factor or not.
    A low level of GA3-like activity was detected in newly bursting buds of grapevine grown in a vineyard, but scarcely in the bursting buds or basal portions of the cuttings during propagation. The relationship between rooting and GA activity in the cuttings was not clear, but such a low level of GA might not affect rooting. This was cofirmed by the result of exogenously applied GA3 to the cuttings.
    Higher cytokinin activities were detected in growing buds of both intact vines and cuttings by callus culture bioassay. More than three kinds of cytokinin were present and total activities of them had a peak at bud break, but the chromatographic patterns of active substances in the buds of intact vines were different from those of the cuttings. They might not promote directly rooting of the cuttings, but play a role on rooting by promoting bud break.
    Since auxin activity at the base of the cuttings diminished during propagation, and the activity in the well-rooted cuttings was lower than that in the unrooted cuttings, auxin might have been consumed for root differentiation. Auxin activity in the vine decreased gradually from fall to winter, and increased again in spring.
    Contrary to auxin, ABA activity in the vine was high in fall, but decreased sharply after leaf fall.
    These changes in auxin and ABA activities in the vine from fall to spring should be corresponding to difference in rooting ability of the hardwood cuttings. Since exogenously applied ABA had been known to promote rooting of the cuttings, it was very interesting to relate the role and level of this substance, and the quantitative balance with auxin to rooting.
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  • Kazuo IWASAKI
    1980 Volume 48 Issue 4 Pages 395-398
    Published: 1980
    Released: July 05, 2007
    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of bud scale removal and application of supernatant of calcium cyanamide (CaCN2) at 20%, gibberellic acid (GA3) at 100ppm, and ethephon at 500 and 1, 000ppm on the termination of bud rest in single eye cuttings of ‘Muscat of Alexandria’ grape (Vitis vinifera L.). Bud scale removal greatly reduced the rest of cutting buds during the collection period from August 30, 1977, to February 28, 1978. In buds treated with CaCN2, termination of rest was hastened during the period from August 30 to November 1, and then delayed gradually until December 27. The bud rest was broken naturally around January 30. Bud rest was markedly prolonged by GA3 application during the collection period. Ethephon applied on November 30, when buds remained in a profound dormant condition, delayed termination of bud rest. These treatments were given to mature grapevines grown in a glasshouse. Appreciable increase in emergence rate was observed in the spring in both scale-removed and CaCN2-applied buds.
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  • Atsushi OOISHI, Hideo MACHIDA, Torazo HOSOI, Yoshiko SHIOBARA
    1980 Volume 48 Issue 4 Pages 399-404
    Published: 1980
    Released: July 05, 2007
    In order to clarify the role of photosynthesis on rooting of hardwood cuttings of grapevines (cv. Delaware), changes in the rate of apparent photosynthesis during propagation in relation to their rooting and shoot growth were investigated under various environmental conditions.
    1.In the cuttings grown outdoors under a sheet of cheesecloth, the commencement of apparent photosynthesis was shown more than 10 days after the appearance of their roots.
    2. Comparing the cuttings grown under 20°C, 25°C and 30°C, both rooting and shoot growth were superior with rising temperature at the earlier stage of propagation. At that stage, the change in the rate of apparent photosynthesis expressed on either a cutting basis or a leaf area basis was in agreement with the trend of their rooting. However, at the later stage of propagation, the rooting was best under 20°C, followed by 25°C and 30°C. When expressed on a leaf area basis, the respective peaks of the apparent photosynthesis were shown 30 and 40 days after planting under 30°C and 25°C, but not shown under 20°C. The rates expressed on a cutting basis continued to increase throughout the propagation period under every temperature.
    3. Among the cuttings grown under different light intensities by shading with the various layers of cheesecloth, rooting was best under two sheets at the end of the propagation period, though both rooting and shoot growth initiated earlier at higher light intensities. Changes in the rate, measured under the proportional light intensities of each treatment, were not always in agreement with the rooting. In the cuttings grown under darkness, the roots were produced in average number of 2.0 per cuttings.
    4. These results indicated that rooting of hardwood cuttings of grapevines was hardly affected by photosynthesis at an early stage of propagation, however, the cuttings grown under various light intensities developed a greater number of roots than those grown in darkness. It is logical to assume that this imbalance of root numbers, in favor of the light treated cuttings, was due to the affects of photosynthesis and it′s related factors.
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  • Hiroyuki MATSUI, Eiji YUDA, Shoichi NAKAGAWA, Keizo YONEMORI
    1980 Volume 48 Issue 4 Pages 405-412
    Published: 1980
    Released: July 05, 2007
    Effect of shading to Delaware grape clusters with different materials was investigated in respect to sugar accumulation and free acid decrease in the berries during their development. Sugar accumulation as affected by abscisic acid (ABA) application to the cluster, and changes in 14CO2 fixation by the berries under light and dark conditions were also studied.
    (1) In the Stage I, the concentration of reducing sugar was little affected by different light intensity, while that of free acid in 50% of light intensity was significantly less than that in 0%, 10%, 20% and 100% during the period of free acid accumulation in the berries. Higher light intensity in the Stage III resulted in higher reducing sugar content at harvest if it did not exceed 50% of light intensity. But, free acid content was little affected. When the dark treatment of the clusters was intercepted during Stage III, the concentration of reducing sugar in the berries increased very rapidly.
    (2) Application of 50% ethanol solution of ABA (1, 000ppm) to the cluster at late Stage I accelerated the accumulation of reducing sugar in the berries. Although anthocyanin content of the berries was increased by such a ABA application to the cluster under dark, the reducing sugar content was not affected.
    (3) Assimilation of carbon dioxide brought by the berries themselves was found both under the light and dark conditions. In the light, a rapid increase in photosynthetic fixation of carbon dioxide was observed in the beginning of stage I, and the beginning and middle of Stage III. 14C activity at the former stage was found relatively uniform in sugar, organic acid and amino acid fractions. But, it was 90% or more urder sugar fraction at the latter stage. Most of 14C activity in the dark fixation was found in organic acid and amino acid fractions at any stages of berry development. However, the amount of 14C activity incorporated in the dark fixation was much lower than that in the light fixation.
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  • Akiyoshi MATSUMOTO, Shin-ichi SHIRAISHI
    1980 Volume 48 Issue 4 Pages 413-417
    Published: 1980
    Released: July 05, 2007
    Effects of soils on the process and mechanism of organic acid formation in satsuma mandarin fruit were investigated.
    1. Citric acid concentration of the pulp was higher in fruit from the Tertiary rock soil than in fruit from the granite soil through the maturation period except late August. On the other hand, malic acid concentration of the pulp of Tertiary soil fruit was higher than that of granite soil fruit at an early stage of fruit growth. The concentrations of the fruits from both types of soils, however, became similar thereafter.
    As to the concentrations of the other minor organic acids, no effects of soils were found at any stage of the fruit maturation.
    2. The total amount of citric acid per fruit of the pulp of Tertiary soil fruits were higher than that of granite soil fruits. The stages at which the citric acid content was maximum were earlier in the granite soil fruits than in the Tertiary soil fruit. This finding shows that the granite soil brings about earlier fruit maturation. Malic acid content did not show any differences between the fruits from both types of soils at early stages of fruit development. No differences due to soil types were found for minor acid content.
    3. From the above results, it was concluded that the changes in the concentration and content of total organic acids in the pulp were due mainly to the change of citric acid. Thus, the effects of dilution due to fruit enlargement and also of the total amount of citric acid per fruit of the pulp on the concentration of citric acid were examined. As a result, the following two conclusions were obtained. (1) In July, when acid synthesis is most active, the daily increase in citric acid concentration due to the increase in synthesis of this acid is 30% higher in fruits from the Tertiary rock soil than in fruits from the granite soil. (2) In September, when the conversion of organic acid metabolism occurs, the total amount of citric acid per fruit of the pulp still increases in the Tertiary soil fruits, so that the daily decrease in citric acid concentration is smaller in Tertiary soil fruits than in the fruits from the granite soil. These two features may be the causes of the fact that the concentration of citric acid or the total amount of organic acids per fruit of the pulp remains high in the Tertiary soil fruit compared to that of granite soil fruit.
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  • Isao IWAGAKI, Kazuyoshi HIROSE
    1980 Volume 48 Issue 4 Pages 418-425
    Published: 1980
    Released: July 05, 2007
    Fruit development of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) and the juice constituents were investigated throughout the growing season to elucidate the factors which determine the quality of fruit with special interest in the relationships between the time of flowering and the acid content of the fruit. In 1978, 8 trees growing in the experiment orchard of Okitsu Branch, Fruit Tree Resarch Station, were investigated. Leafy flowers, each floral branch bearing one flower and 2 to 4 new leaves, were classified into three groups according to the time of flowering-early flowers (5 days before full-bloom), intermediate flowers (full-bloom) and late flowers (5 days after full-bloom). The date of full-bloom of investigated trees was May 24.
    1. The earlier the flowering time the earlier the commencement of physiological fruit drop, but there was no distinct difference in the date of peak of the drop among the three groups of flowers. Intermediate-flower-fruits completed the drop first. Intermediate-flower-fruits dropped about 50 percent of their fruit which was about 15 percent less than the drop of early or late-flower-fruits.
    2. The rate of increment in fruit diameter was the highest on late-flower-fruits and the lowest on early-flower-fruits. It appears that the late-flower-fruits grow faster and recover the delay in relative growth. This is apparent on the longitudinal diameter of fruit as compared to the transverse diameter. Consequently, the shape index of late-flower-fruits went low very rapidly during the period from flowering to 60 days after flowering.
    3. The later the flowering time the fewer the number of juice sacs per 100g pulp, and accordingly, the size of the juice sacs of late-flower-fruits was larger.
    4. There was no difference in Brix of fruit among the three groups of flowers until late October. After that period there was a slight tendency for higher Brix in the fruits from earlier flowers. Coloring of rind commenced in late October and the fruit from earlier flowers showed advanced coloration.
    5. Early-flower-fruits began to decline in free acid concentration first. Five days delay in flowering resulted in five days delay in the decrease of free acid. The difference in free acid concentration among the group of flowers was maintained through most of the growing season. Citric acid showed the same transition pattern as free acid. It was concluded that the acidity of mature fruit was determined principally in rather a short period before or after flowering.
    6. Concentration of malic acid declined until mid-September and stayed stable thereafter. The rate of malic acid showed the lowest value in late September and there was no difference in the date among the groups of flowers.
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  • Toru KATO, Akihisa SOOEN
    1980 Volume 48 Issue 4 Pages 426-434
    Published: 1980
    Released: July 05, 2007
    1. At the beginning of head formation the effect of removal of small head including the terminal bud followed by application of 0.1% hormone paste to the stem stump on the nasty movement of wrapper leaves was investigated with cabbage grown in vinyl house.
    When the terminal bud was removed, inner wrapper leaves assumed an elevated position, but outer ones did not.
    The application of both NAA and BA to the stem of decapitated plants induced a downward movement of inner wrapper leaves, while the application of both GA and ABA induced an upward movement more remarkable than that in the lanolin paste control.
    2. The effect of hormone application as a foliar spray before head formation on the nasty movement of wrapper leaves in relation to the head formation posture was investigated. Both NAA and BA induced a downward movement, while both GA and TIBA induced an upward movement. Especially the head formation posture was promoted by GA application showing the embrace posture due to both hyponasty of leaf petiole and cupping of leaf blade.
    Nasty movement was not affected by BCB as in the control.
    3. NAA spray induced the inhibition of leaf growth, followed by a decrease in leaf area, and also showed the increase of leaf shape index due to the inhibition of width growth more than length growth. On the contrary, TIBA, one of antiauxins, increased leaf area of inner leaves due to the promotion of length and width growth.
    GA spray inhibited the width growth more than length growth in inner wrapper leaves, while promoted both the length and width growth in inner leaves, which resulted in an increase in leaf area.
    BCB, an antigibberellin, showed no significant effect on the growth of length and width.
    The growth of length and width, and especially of the latter was promoted by BA spray. Consequently both an increase in leaf area and a decrease in leaf shape index were found.
    4. The effects of root pruning, decapitation and hormone treatment on the nasty movement were ascertained with seedlings having a pair of leaves roughly opposite to each other and grown in light and dark conditions.
    (1) The heavier the root pruning, the more a pair of leaves curved upward. And the hyponasty movement was accelerated by the addition of decapitation both in the light and in the dark.
    (2) NAA, BA, and Ethrel spray after decapitation promoted the downward movement in contrast to the upward movement by GA spray. TIBA and BCB showed little or no effect on nasty movement.
    (3) When applied to the stem stump as 0.5% lanolin paste, NAA, BA, and Ethrel induced a downward movement, but on the contrary GA and ABA induced an upward movement.
    5. The foregoing results suggested that the leaf petiolar epinasty was controlled by the hormone balance in apical region of the stem and the leaf shape might be controlled by the ratio of GA to BA.
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  • Hideo IKEDA, Takaya OSAWA
    1980 Volume 48 Issue 4 Pages 435-442
    Published: 1980
    Released: July 05, 2007
    Lettuce, spinach, cabbage, chinese cabbage (pe-tsai), celery, seri (Oenanthe javanica DC.), garland chrysanthemum, and japanese honewort (Cryptotaenia japonica Hassk.) were grown in solution culture in order to compare their growth and accumulation of ammonium-and nitrate-nitrogen, using NO3, NO3+NH4 (1:1), NH4, NO3+NO2 (1:1), and NO2 as nitrogen sources. The experiment consisted of 4 kinds of treatment conditions where 2 levels of nitrogen concn (2meq/l designated as low-N and 12meq/l as high-N) and 2 levels of solution pH (5 and 7) were combined. Plants were grown under different treatments for about 3 weeks.
    1. When plants were supplied with NO3, the growth of vegetables, in general, was excellent and plants showed normal appearance with healthy leaves except seri which showed somewhat yellowish-green color leaves.
    2. In general, leaf vegetables fertilized with NO3+NH4 grew well under all treatment conditions. Plant growth of the NO3+NH4 treatment was almost equal to, or better than that of the NO3 treatment. In seri, especially, the growth of NO3+NH4 treated plants was sometimes 30 to 40% better than that of NO3 treated plants.
    3. In comparison with NO3, the growth of spinach and chinese cabbage was most markedly inhibited with NH4, and cabbage also showed restricted growth in NH4. However, the growth inhibition in seri and lettuce was little. When plants were cultured with NH4, a relatively close relationship was observed between growth response and leaf NH4-N concn, i.e., low NH4-N concn was detected in leaves of healthy plants, and high NH4-N concn was detected in leaves of injured plants.
    4. Under NO3+NO2 or NO2 nutrition, seri and lettuce showed the most marked growth reduction of all the leaf vegetables. But the tolerance of garland chrysanthemum and celery to NO2 seemed to be relatively high. They showed about 80% of the growth of the NO3 plants under low-N treatment.
    5. When plants were cultured with NO3 nutrition, concn of NO3-N in leaves of tested plants varied with plant species. Even under low-N treatment, concn of NO3-N in leaves of seri, celery, lettuce, and chinese cabbage was higher than 1.0% on a dry weight basis. Under high-N treatment, concn of NO3-N in leaves of tested plants was also high and, in general, was higher than 1.2%. In particular, that of celery and chinese cabbage was over 2.0% on a dry weight basis.
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  • Shunichiro NAKAMURA, Noriyuki ENOHARA
    1980 Volume 48 Issue 4 Pages 443-452
    Published: 1980
    Released: July 05, 2007
    Effects of invigoration with polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) on the germination of seeds of eggplant, Cryptotaenia japonica and carrot were investigated. Each seeds were invigorated on blotting paper moistened with PEG solution of -7.5, -10.0, -11.8 and -17.7 bars. Treatment temperatures were 15°, 20° and 25°C. Treatment periods were 7 days and 14 days.
    1. Germination of seeds of eggplant, Cryptotaenia japonica and carrot were all accelerated by PEG invigoration. Especially, germination of eggplant seeds was much improved at low temperature of 15°C in both germination percentage and germination speed.
    2. Treatment temperature of 25°C was most effective for eggplant seeds among three temperatures tested. For Cryptotaenia japonica and carrot seeds, no difference was shown among three treatment temperatures.
    3. Fourteen day treatment period was more effective than 7 day period in eggplant and Cryptotaenia japonica seeds. In carrot seeds, it was oobserved only small difference between 7 day and 14 day treatment periods.
    4. Addition of 50ppm or 100ppm of gibberellin to the PEG solution much increased the effectiveness of invigoration in eggplant seeds.
    5. Dry stored seeds after invigoration showed no decrease of effectiveness after 7 days or 14 days of storage in eggplant and Cryptotaenia japonica when germinated on blotting paper. In carrot seeds, a little decrease was found in effectiveness after dry storage.
    6. In eggplant seeds, effect of invigoration was shown a little smaller in the sand test than in the blotting paper test, especially after dry storage, though effect of invigoration was significant.
    7. In eggplant, there was found as same the difference of growing days yet at the stage of four leaves as at the germination stage.
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  • Tadahiko HIROSE, Yukihiro FUJIME
    1980 Volume 48 Issue 4 Pages 453-458
    Published: 1980
    Released: July 05, 2007
    The morphology and the mode of inheritance of a new genie male sterility found in a Korean native pungent cultivar were studied.
    There were no significant differences in germination rate, size and shape of cotyledon and true leaf, plant height, number of leaves to the first flower and the days to the first flowering after seeding between normal and the male sterile plants. Significant differences in floral organs were not detected in size and shape of flower and pistil and number of stamens of both plants, except for the size of anthers. Width of anthers of the male sterile plants were smaller than those of normal plants, but not in length. Pollen grain was not observed in the male sterile anthers. Normal fruit was well borne on male sterile plants by pollination with normal pollen. Size of fruit and number of seeds per fruit were almost the same as compared with the fruit of normal plants. Based on the segregation of the progenies, it appears that this new male sterility is controlled by a pair of recessive genes, and not by cytoplasm. This new genie male sterility appears to be more useful than cytoplasmic-genie type reported previously, because every cultivar can be used as pollen parents to this type.
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    1980 Volume 48 Issue 4 Pages 459-467
    Published: 1980
    Released: July 05, 2007
    1) Effects of the partial and the whole plant spray of naphthoquinone plant growth regulator, 2-benzimidoyl-3-hydroxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone (bendroquinone) to the tomato plant on the growth were investigated.
    2) The total yield per plant (cv. Fukuju Ni-Go, in the plastic greenhouse) was higher when bendroquinone was sprayed on and around the clusters at the rates of 100, 200 and 300ppm as compared with the cluster spray of 4 CPA at 15ppm. Particularly, the yields of the second and the third clusters were increased markedly by bendroquinone. The phytotoxicity of bendroquinone scarcely arose at the rate of 100ppm. However, at the rates of 200 and 300ppm, the leaves partially shrank. Phytotoxicity arose sharply from 4 CPA spray.
    3) When bendroquinone was sprayed on the whole plant every week, every other week or 10 days before planting and at the flowering time of each cluster (cv. Beiju, in the plastic greenhouse), the yield of the first cluster was low but the total yield per plant was nearly equal to that by the cluster spray of HCPA or 4 CPA.
    4) After 200ppm HCPA or 30ppm 4 CPA was sprayed on the first cluster at the flowering time, 50 or 100ppm bendroquinone was sprayed on the whole plant at the flowering time of the second and third clusters (cv. Beiju). The yield of the first cluster and the total yield per plant were higher than those by the cluster spray of HCPA or 4 CPA.
    5) In the case of field grown tomatoes for commercial processing, the harvesting time of fruits was controlled by the whole plant sprays of 200 or 300ppm bendroquinone at the flowering time of the first and the second clusters of the first lateral shoots (cv. Wasedarum). 200 or 400ppm bendroquinone was sprayed on the whole plant at each developmental stage of the first, the second and the third lateral shoots (cv. Chico). The elongation of the lateral shoots was inhibited from 3 to 5 weeks after spraying and then promoted. The number of colored fruits and the yield per plant were increased by the spray at the developmental stage of the third lateral shoots.
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  • Akira NUKAYA, Masao MASUI, Akira ISHIDA
    1980 Volume 48 Issue 4 Pages 468-474
    Published: 1980
    Released: July 05, 2007
    Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of diluted sea water on the growth and fruit quality of muskmelons grown in different salinity soils. Two kinds of soil were used as a soil medium, one, a new soil, which was a virgin paddy soil, and the other, a used soil, salinized at different levels in which tomatoes had been cultured. The plant height, leaf dry weight, fruit fresh weight, and soluble solids were markedly decreased at 1, 000ppm Cl in new soil, whereas they gradually decreased in used soil as sea water concentrations were increased from 0 to 1, 000ppm Cl. The visual salt injury, such as necrosis on the leaves and wilting of leaf margins, appeared at 1, 000ppm Cl in new soil, and from 250 to 1, 000ppm Cl in used soil. The Na, Ca, Mg and Cl content in leaves tended to increase in both new and used soils with increasing sea water concentrations. The Cl in fruit increased from 250 to 1, 000ppm Cl in new soil, and from 0 to 1, 000ppm Cl in used soil with increasing sea water concentrations. The Cl, exchangeable Na, K and Mg, and EC value in the soil increased as sea water concentrations increased, although Cl and exchangeable K content in the new soil from 0 to 250ppm Cl was not significantly different.
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  • Shunpei UEMOTO, Takayuki TANAKA, Kunimitsu FUJIEDA
    1980 Volume 48 Issue 4 Pages 475-482
    Published: 1980
    Released: July 05, 2007
    In Hirado island, which is situated at the north-western part of Kyushu in Japan, both species of C. japonica and C. sasanqua are distributed together. Recently, certain new forms were found there by Kumazawa and Oda (21), suggesting that some of them could be regarded as varieties of C. vernalis originating in Hirado as natural hybrids between C. sasanqua and C. japonica. In order to approve such a consideration, the authors carried out morphological and cytological surveys in C. vernalis comparing it with C. sasanqua and with C. japonica.
    As a result, the authors could recognize one tetraploid and two triploid forms originating in Hirado. The tetraploid form was considered to be the primary hybrid between C. sasanqua (hexaploid) and C. japonica (diploid). One triploid form was considered to be the secondary hybrid between the tetraploid variety and C. japonica, and the other triploid one was supposed to be an auto-triploid form of C. japonica.
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  • Eisuke MATSUO, Ken-ichi ARISUMI, Norio GARAN
    1980 Volume 48 Issue 4 Pages 483-487
    Published: 1980
    Released: July 05, 2007
    This study was designed to determine the relationship between scale position and ratio of dry to fresh weight (D/F ratio) of scales in Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb. cv. ‘Hinomoto’) and also its changes during bulb storage.
    Easter lily bulbs produced in Okino-erabu Island were transferred to the Kagoshima University and stored in the dark under room conditions until the beginning of the experiment. Scales were weighed before and after forced-air drying at 110°C for 10 days for the calculation of D/F ratios. Measurements were conducted at intervals of one and a half months from August 3, 1977, and terminated on February 4, 1978.
    When determined on August 3, 1977, the D/F ratio of scales was greatest in the middle of the bulb and decreased to both the inner and outer directions. Extention of storage periods increased the D/F ratio of inner scales while it decreased that of outer scales. During bulb storage, weights of both lily bulbs and outer scales appreciably decreased along with the reduction in number of scales usable for propagation. These facts indicate the translocation of some nutritive substances from the outer scales to the inner ones in the lily bulb.
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  • Masakatsu MORITA, Shigeharu IWAMOTO, Haruzo HIGUCHI
    1980 Volume 48 Issue 4 Pages 488-494
    Published: 1980
    Released: July 05, 2007
    Modification of growth resulting from photoperiodic responses to temperature treatment in Hydrangea was studied.
    1. Interrelated effects of winter chilling, temperature, and day-length during the growing period on growth were investigated. (1) Day-length did not affect the growth of any plots transferred to a greenhouse with a constant night temperature of 10°C. (2) When plants were transferred on December 15 to a greenhouse with a night temperature of 18°C, new shoot length, leaf length and inflorescence diameter were longer, and flowering time was earlier, under short-day rather than long-day conditions. However, in plants which were transferred on January 1, growth was promoted and flowering time was earlier under long day conditions. Day-length did not affect the growth of any plots except those with transfer dates of December 15 and January 1. (3) Under the 25°C treatment, growth was promoted under long-day conditions only when plants were transferred to the green house after January 15. Flowering time was earlier under long-day conditions independent of the transfer date.
    2 When cutting of Hydrangea was done in February, flower bud differentiation was induced in May and flowering occurred in August. Day-length had no effect on any of the flower development processes. However, when cutting was done in March, day length affected flower bud differentiation and flowering markedly, and there were more plants which initiated buds and flowered normally under short-day conditions than long-day conditions.
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  • Tadashi YANAGAWA, Yoshihiro SAKANISHI
    1980 Volume 48 Issue 4 Pages 495-502
    Published: 1980
    Released: July 05, 2007
    Bulb tissue segments excised from 12 species in the Amaryllidaceae and the Liliaceae were cultured aseptically on a nutrient agar without growth substances at 25°C in the dark.
    Basal plate segments of all the species induced neither bulblet nor callus, and segments of scale base attached to basal plate tissue produced bulblets at a high rate without intervening callus regardless of species. No clear dependences on the time of isolation and on the age of individual scales were shown.
    In the species belonging to the Liliaceae, not only the scale base segments but also the segments from the middle and the apical portions of the scale induced bulblets. In contrast to that, bulblet regeneration in the Amaryllidaceae was confined to the segments from the portion near scale base.
    Though the bulblets were always formed in the proximal end of the segments, the manifestation of dorsiventral polarity of regeneration differed with the families. Namely, the regenerative capacity of the segments from the species in the Liliaceae and the Amaryllidaceae was high on the adaxial and the abaxial side, respectively. Orientation of the segments in relation to culture medium had some effect on the polarity of the regeneration.
    In a circular scale, the leaf-blade extended side is thicker than the opposite side. When single scale segments were cultured, no difference in the regenerative capacity was shown between the thick segments and the thin ones. In double scale segments, containing two scale pieces attached to basal plate tissue, bulblets developed at a higher rate and more rapidly from the position between the two scale pieces than from either of the scale-surface exposed sides. When the double scale segments were composed of thick portion of a scale and thin portion of its neighbour scale, the surface exposed sides of the thicker scale pieces showed higher regenerative capacity than those of the thinner ones in the case of the Liliaceae and the opposite situation existed in the Amaryllidaceae. This indicates that there is some gradient in regenerative power around a circle of scale base and the position showing the highest regenerative potential varies with the family.
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  • Mamoru KUSUMOTO
    1980 Volume 48 Issue 4 Pages 503-509
    Published: 1980
    Released: July 05, 2007
    Shoot apexes were aseptically excised out of the mother Cymbidium plant and preliminarily cultured with Knudson′s C medium. The Protocorms formed on the cultures were cut into pieces of appropriate size and the cut pieces were subcultured 12 times. At each time, cutting and selection of pieces were made to assure the cultures of uniform quality from the morphological and physiological viewpoints. After the preliminary subculture, the cultures obtained were excised again to prepare uniform propagules of 1.5mm in size. The propagules were cultured in vitro with tentative media which were supplemented with coconut milk, agar, or sucrose, and otherwise adjusted to differential pH values.
    (1) In the Knudson′s C basal solution containing 15g/l agar, protocorms proliferated best when 10 to 25% coconut milk was added; and highest increase in fresh weight was attained when 10% coconut milk was added.
    (2) On the solid culture medium, protocorms proliferated best in the lots of 0.8 and 1.2% agar, and highest increase was obtained in the lot of 1.2% agar.
    (3) In both Knudson′s C and Kyoto solutions, the addition of 2% sucrose caused highest increases in fresh weight. As a basal medium, Kyoto solution seemed somewhat better than Knudson′s C solution.
    (4) Increase in fresh weight was highest at pH 5.0 and 5.5 in Kyoto solution.
    (5) It can be inferred that there are appreciable differences between preferable culture conditions for both protocorm proliferation and formation of shoot and root primordia in the protocorm.
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  • Mamoru KUSUMOTO
    1980 Volume 48 Issue 4 Pages 510-518
    Published: 1980
    Released: July 05, 2007
    New shoot apexes of Cymbidium were excised by aseptic surgery and cultured in vitro. The protocorms thus formed were cut into pieces and sub-cultured repeatedly under severely controlled conditions to get physiologically and morphologically uniform experimental materials. These materials were cultured in vitro, and then the characteristics of their reproduction and organogenesis, and the influence of growth regulating substances on them were studied.
    1. The processes of the organogenesis out of protocorm-pieces were studied with 47 forma of Cymbidium which were classified into 8 types.
    2. It was pointed out that, according to the type of organogenesis and also to the purpose of proliferation, specific media should be used for respective cases.
    3. With the material of type 2, research was done with respect to the effects of growth regulating substances on the proliferation of protocorms and on the formation and growth of shoots and roots. In addition, effective substances to be added to culture medi and their proper concentrations were recommended. It was proved that the effects of growth regulating substances were different between liquid and solid media, even when the same amounts of medium were added.
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  • Masatoshi MANABE, Hisayoshi KAMIKAWA, Takayuki TARUTANI
    1980 Volume 48 Issue 4 Pages 519-524
    Published: 1980
    Released: July 05, 2007
    The disappearance of astringency during drying of peeled persimmon fruits (Diospyros Kaki L., Hiratanenashi and Yokono cvs.) was observed at temperatures from 5°C to 50°C. The astringency was removed faster as the temperature rose, and the removal was complete after about 20 days at 5°C and 10°C, 10 days at 30°C, and 3 days at 40°C and 50°C.
    In the course of drying, the amount of oxygen intake and carbon dioxide production by drying fruits increased as the temperature rose. In temperatures over 15 °C, respiration pattern similar to that of the fruit with climacteric rise appeared in the drying peeled fruit but not in the non-peeled fruit at any temperature.
    During drying, the amount of alcohol and acetaldehyde produced in the fruits increased as the drying temperature rose, and the alcohol content was about eight or more times that of acetaldehyde at all stages. The formation of the two volatiles was parallel at any temperature.
    From these results, removal of astringency from persimmon fruits during drying from 5°C to 50°C seemed mainly due to the action of acetaldehyde which was produced by anaerobic respiration.
    The same results were obtained using Japanese persimmon fruits harvested in 1976 and 1977.
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  • Kouichi AKIMOTO, Fumiko ITO, Suketoshi KURODA
    1980 Volume 48 Issue 4 Pages 525-534
    Published: 1980
    Released: July 05, 2007
    For the rationalization of the distribution process of agricultural products, adequate standardizations of these products has been required. The present standards for fruits and vegetables are established by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry without sufficient investigations into the buying behavior of consumers. For further improvement in the standards for fruits and vegetables, it is of prime importance to promote the rationalization of every process of production, distribution, and consumption. In this paper, the buying behavior of consumers of Kaki (Diospyros Kaki L. cv. Fuyu), the principal product of Gifu Prefecture, was investigated, and the consumers′ tendencies of preference and recommendations for standardization of the fruit for consumers were reported. The results are as follows:
    1. Although the fruit is graded for shipping into 24 categories based on its size and quality at packing houses in the production districts, it seems possible to reduce the groups into the following three categories for the benefit of consumers: (1) large fruits of high quality, suitable for gifts; (2) medium-sized fruits of high quality; and (3) small fruits with relatively low quality.
    2. Most consumers thought that the relationship between selling methods in a retail store and the quality of the fruit should be as follows: selling piece-meal was suitable for high grade, sale by pile for low grade, and sale by weight for all grades.
    3. Consumer estimates of price, expressing the values of the merchandise to the consumer, were considerably influenced by the size, surface color and hardness of the fruit. However, there was disagreement among consumers about how these factors should affect prices. Two primary groups were found: one which thought that pricing per gr. was most important, and a second which thought factors other than unit weight (e. g. size) should be most important. Fruit with a surface color of more than 1.2 as determined by Hunter′s color system (corresponding to No. 7 on the Color chart for Kaki as given by the Fruit Tree Exp. Sta.), was rated as high quality by consumers, and the quality estimated increased with the value of the surface color. Consumers preferred hard fruits to the soft ones.
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