L'auteur, d'après son expérimentation, a déduit que la conception“régénérescence”ne soit pas adaptable à l'enracinement de la tige et au bourgeonnement de la racine et il insiste que ces changements doit être reconnues comme transmutations. D'après ses résultats on pent savoir qu'entre le naturel originaire et celui transmuté, il existe une marche neutre non différenciée qui n'est ni tige ni racine. Sous l'influence de la lumière solaire notamment sous les ondes courtes le tissu cicatriciel obtient le caractère de tige (quand l'humidité n'est pas grande) et sous celle de l'obscurité (quand l'humidité est grande) il devient racine. Le rayon ultra-violet empêche la naissance de la racine même en cas de forte humidité. Des tiges mises dans l'obscurité humide commence d'abord à gonfler les cellules de liber mou qui perdent rapidement leurs membranes cellulosiques et bientôt se divisent énergiquement. Le tissu cicatriciel y est alors formé et se différencie comme racine. Les troncs du poirier japonais changent la disposition de leurs liber et bois en forme de rayon et perdent de la chlorophylle un an après l'ensevelissement sous terre etceux qui furent exposés à la lumière soloire la changent en forme depolycercle et forment de la chlorophylle deux ans après être déterrés.Les pièces de la racines de ce poirier d'un centimètre de diamètre fixéesde leur base dans le sol et exposées de leur moitié supérieure pousent endehors de la terre des bourgeons adventifs auprès de leur extrémité apicale après la même phase que celle danslaquelle marchent les tiges mises dans l'obscurité hunide.
The vegetative and reproductive responses to the removal of all pistillate flowers at or just prior to anthesis in the cucumber were studied with the variety Taisen No. 1, and obtained the following results. 1. The vegetative growth was invigorated remarkably by the removal of pistillate flowers. 2. The removal of pistillate flowers increased both male and femalenodes but latter were increased more than former and reduced the ratio of male to female nodes at least 32 per cent. 3. The influence of removing pistillate flowers upon the production of flowers and sex ratios was not exhibited on the main stem. It was displayed on the laterals. 4. The reversal of the effect of removing pistillate flowers on the sex ratio occurred in the last period of growing season.
In the autumn of 1935, the writer carried out an experiment to determine the effect of the preliminary treatment of low temperature on forcing the blooming of the broad bean. Using two varieties, ten experimental plots were set out as follow: Plot 1. Seeds of the Zairai variety first soaked in water for 12 hours were placed in the refrigelator at 10°C for a period of 21 days, before they were sown in the field. Plot 2. Seeds of the Zairai variety treated as above were cooled at 10°C for 18 days before sown in field. Plot 3. Soaked seeds of the Zairai variety, were cooled at 10°C for 16 days, before sown in field. Plot 4. Seeds of the Zairai variety, so treated were cooled by 5°C during 16 days, before sown in field. Plot 5. Soaked seeds of the Zairai variety were cooled at 10°C for 10 days, before sown in field. Plot 6. Soaked seeds of the Zairai variety were cooled by 5°C during 10 days, before sown in field. Plot 7. Soaked seeds of the Zairai variety were cooled at 10°C for 3 days, before sown in field. Plot 8. Seeds of the Zairai variety were soaked in water for 12 hours before sown in field. No cooling was practised. Plot 9. Dry seeds of the Zairai variety were used without any preliminary treatment. Plot 10. Dry seeds of the Gokuwase (Extra Early) variety were usedwithout any preliminary treatment. Seeds of each plot were sown in the experimental field on Sep. 23. Good care was given throughout the season before they come to the blooming stage. As shown in table 1, plant received preliminary low temperature befor sowing, showed a remarkable shortening of flowering time. The maximum shortening was obtained in plot 1, which received 21 days exposure at a low temperature of 10°C, days required for blooming being shortened to nearly one third of standard. Those plants treated by low temperature always had short node and uniform flowering. From these facts it can be clearly said that the broad bean is very sensitive to low temperature at the germinating stage, being functionally stimulated to reduce the time required for blooming. If a mass treatment is conducted with the broad been seed on a commercial scale, the time of cropping can be brought very early giving a large profit to the grower. It is believed that the similar response will be expected with some other vegetables, and the idea that the earliness of vegetable crops can be attained by the other means than selecting early variety, will be introduced. This will lead to a great change in the future prospect of vegetable forcing when vernalization practice becomes greatly popularized.
This investigation was attempted in order to compare the effects of self-pollination with those of cross-pollination on the fertility of the Japanese radish. Three leading varieties Shogoin, Shiroagari, and Miyashige were used as material, and five different modes of pollination wereapplied, viz.: (a) Flowers were merely bagged, but not pollinated artificially. (b) Pollination within the same flower (self-pollination). (c) Pollination between different flowers on the same individual (neighbor-pollination). (d) Pollination between different individuals in the same variety. (cross-pollination). (e) Pollnation under natural conditions as control (natural-pollination). The results obtained are summarized as follows: The cross-pollination (d) exhibited the highest percentage of fertility of all, and about 80-90 per cent. of the flowers treated produced normal pods. In three kinds of pollination within the same individual, (a), (b), and (c), they gave approximately similar results, and produced about 15-25 per cent. of normal pods. But the fertility of the (a) was somewhat lower than that of the other two. The fertility of the natural pollination (e) was about 70 per cent. The tendencies mentioned above were alsoobserved in the size of pods, the number and weight of seeds obtained. It has often been advocated that in some self-incompatible plants the fertility of self-pollination is lower than that of neighbor-pollination. The author attempted an experiment with the variety Shogoin to ascertain this fact, but no apparent difference existed between them. Consequently it may be said that the Japanese radish is a self-incompatible plant as already known, and that the different modes of pollination have no effect on fertility, when the pollen used is from the same individual. In the groups in which the flowers were treated with pollen from the same individual, the individual variations in the grade of self-incompatibility exhibited a very wide range from complete self-compatibility to complete self-incompatibility. This suggests that there are some self-compatible individuals in the self-incompatible groups. The self-compatible individuals were selfed and tested for the fertility in subsequent generations. It seems probable that they do not breed true to self-compatibility, but segregate into two groups-self-compatible and -incompatibible. Only further studies can fully elucidate the exact nature of the phenomenon.