Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
Online ISSN : 1880-358X
Print ISSN : 0013-7626
ISSN-L : 0013-7626
Volume 69 , Issue 4
Showing 1-24 articles out of 24 articles from the selected issue
  • Jiro Aikawa, Takaaki Ishii, Makoto Kuramoto, Kazuomi Kadoya
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages 385-389
    Published: July 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The isolation and identification of growth stimulants for vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi in the 25% methanol (MeOH) extracts of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) pomace extracts were carried out. Three compounds were isolated from the eluates by using a high pressure liquid chromatograph (HPLC). When the effect of the three compounds was tested on the in vitro hyphal growth of a VAM fungus, Gigaspora margarita, two compounds had a stimulatory effect. The two stimulants were identified as hesperidin (hesperetin-7-β-rutinoside) and narirutin (naringenin-7-β-rutinoside). Narirutin at 1 to 30 ppm and hesperidin at 1 to 10 ppm significantly stimulated the hyphal growth of G. margarita.
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  • Akihiko Teragishi, Yoshio Kanbara, Hiroshi Ono
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages 390-395
    Published: July 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Cuttings of fig cv. Masui-Dauphine were imbedded into rockwool cube on May 30 and rooted in Hoagland II solution of EC 2.4 dS·m-1. The rooted cuttings were transplanted onto a noncirculating closed hydro-culture system in the greenhouse on July 13. These trees formed the first fruit at the 11th node on August 11 and bore 16 fruits per plant. Trees were sprayed with 1500ppm choline chloride solution or water (control) on October 9, November 6 and 27. Of fruits harvested from October 27 to December 27, the sprayed fruits were heavier than those of control until November 16, but subsequently, no difference in fresh weight was detected between the treatment and the control fruits. The total fruit weights per tree were 910g and 790g in the sprayed and control, respectively. The photosynthetic rate decreased with the decline in photosynthetic photon flux density ; it was temporarily increased with choline chloride treatment on October 9 and November 6.
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  • Kenichiro Yamashita, Rumi Noda, Yosuke Tashiro
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages 396-402
    Published: July 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Two methods for distinguishing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) among two cultivated species, Allium fistulosum and A. cepa, and four wild species, A. altaicum, A. galanthum, A. oschaninii and A. vavilovii, in section Cepa of Allium were compared. One method was the RFLP analysis using probes developed from mtDNA of A. cepa and the other was the PCR-RFLP analysis of two mtDNA regions, V7 region of small ribosomal subunit RNA (srRNA) gene and subunit 3 of NADH dehydrogenase (nad3)-ribosomal protein S12 (rps12) region. The same results were obtained in hybridization of probes with mtDNA and total DNA, so that the latter was used for distinguishing the mtDNA in the first method. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms were detected in all species combinations by RFLP analysis by using the probes. Polymorphisms were also detected in several species combinations by PCR-RFLP analysis of the V7 region of srRNA gene although they were not detected in any species combinations by analyzing the nad3-rps12 region. The two methods were effective in identifying mtDNA of reciprocal F1 hybrids between A. galanthum and A. fistulosum. In this study, effective combinations of probes and restriction enzymes and those of primers and restriction enzymes to distinguish mtDNA were successfully established for every species combination. Our results can be applied for confirmation of cytoplasmic substitution between two cultivated and four wild species in section Cepa.
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  • Satoshi Kubota, Tokuko Yamato, Tamotsu Hisamatsu, Sadayuki Esaki, Ryu ...
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages 403-409
    Published: July 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The effects of Red-and Far-red-rich spectral (R-and FR-rich) treatments on the growth, development, and morphological changes of Petunia were investigated under diurnal temperature alternations (DIF). The light spectrum treatments were created by using plastic films containing photo-selective dye compounds. The R-rich treatment inhibited elongation of the main stem compared to the control and the FR-rich treatments. Positive DIF (high day / low night temperatures, P-DIF) promoted the main stem elongation, whereas negative DIF (low day / high night temperatures, N-DIF) inhibited it and flowering compared to the control. Inhibition of the main stem elongation by the R-rich treatment under P-DIF and zero DIF (0-DIF) was comparable to N-DIF ; however, flowering was not delayed by the R-rich treatment. The R-rich treatment under P-DIF further improved plant morphology by increasing the size and number of lateral shoots, growth of lateral shoots, and the number of flowers on these lateral shoots. Therefore, by creating a R-rich environment with a photo-selective plastic film, one can produce compact Petunia plants, i.e., a short, main stem but more lateral shoots without interrupting the flowering process.
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  • Yukio Ijiro, Ryosuke Ogata
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages 410-415
    Published: July 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Effects of day and night temperatures on the growth and the tuber formation of Sandersonia aurantiaca plants were investigated. Seedlings with 1 or 2 leaves were transferred to growth chambers, controlled at day/night temperatures of 17/12°C, 24/17°C, and 30/24°C under natural daylength. On plants kept at 30/24°C, the unfolding of leaves, stem elongation, and the branching from the main stem were enhanced, whereas those at 17/12°C were retarded. At 24/17°C, intermediate vegetative growth and optimum growth for flower stalk elongation and flowering were educed. At the time of shoot die back, the fresh and dry weights of new tubers were greatest at 24/17°C, moderate at 30/24°C, and smallest at 17/12°C. At 17/12°C and 24/17°C, normal fingerlike or fork shaped tubers developed, while at 30/24°C, secondary tubers formed and developed. These results indicate that 24/17°C is optimum for tuber and flower development of sandersonia plants.
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  • Hae Suk Yoon, Tanjuro Goto, Yoshihiro Kageyama
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages 416-422
    Published: July 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Spray chrysanthemums 'Talk' (autumn-flowering type) were grown in a hydroponic system with N supply maintained at high levels. The plant growth, N uptake, and cut flower quality were subsequently evaluated in relation to 3 different planting dates. Fresh plant weight and N uptake increased throughout the growing period but at a decreasing rate towards harvest. Shoot lengths and weights ranged from 92∿112cm and 85∿97g, respectively. Comparison revealed that the cut flowers were longer and heavier than a standard of best grade in the market. Based on N uptake and plant growth, a down-regulated N application curve (NAC) was developed for producing economically marketable cut flowers. To produce a plant having two shoots of 70g, which is probably suitable for the market, 954∿1142mg N fertilizer was computed to be appropriate. Using the NAC, spray chrysanthemum 'Talk' was grown in Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) system. Under 0.8 and 1.0 strengths of NAC, the mean shoot lengths and weights were≩94.2cm and ≩65.6g, respectively, yielding more than 64% of best grade cut flowers. At NAC 0.8 and 1.0 strengths, 90∿100% N, 90∿98% P and K of applied amounts were consumed, thus confirming an efficient uptake of these nutrients. Consequently, the nutrient application based on 0.8∿1.0 strengths of NAC could produce economically marketable autumn-flowering spray chrysanthemums.
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  • Kazuo Ichimura, Rie Goto
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages 423-427
    Published: July 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Effect of gibberellin A3 (GA3) on the leaf yellowing and vase life of cut flowers of Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis was examined. Chlorophyll contents of the leaves in the cut spikes or cut leaves were measured with a SPAD meter or spectrophotometer. Continuous and pulse treatments (20 hr) of the cut leaves with GA3, especially at 100μM, delayed the degradation of chlorophyll. In cut spikes, the yellowing of leaves was delayed by the treatment with GA3 at 12°C and 23°C, but the effect was greater at 12°C. Both continuous and pulse treatments extended the vase life of the flowers at 23°C, but only continuous treatment did so at 12°C. The treatment with GA3 did not promote the elongation of cut leaves and peduncles. In conclusion, the treatment with GA3 will be useful for improving the vase life of cut N. tazetta var. chinensis flowers.
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  • Fumio Hashimoto, Mika Tanaka, Hiroko Maeda, Keiichi Shimizu, Yusuke Sa ...
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages 428-434
    Published: July 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Sepal coloration and pigmentation were identified on 21 Delphinium individuals. A significant reciprocal relationship has been found between brightness and lightness on a CIELAB (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) diagram in which flower color ranges from very pale to vivid. Chromatic components a and b also showed a significant correlation by which cultivars were classified into three color groups ; white-pink, purple-light purple and blue-light blue flowered individuals. The types and concentrations of anthocyanins are important factors in flower coloration ; the composition of such pigments, as non-acylated delphinidin glycosides, violdelphin (two p-hydroxybenzoates) and cyanodelphin (four p-hydroxybenzoates) produced in the calyx immediately reflect on perceived color. As being corresponded to the respective color groups, thus subsequently develop bluishness in accordance with accumulation of acylation.
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  • Deepak Raj Rai, Michihiko Saito, Ryoichi Masuda
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages 435-439
    Published: July 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The effects of modified atmosphere (MA) packaging on the qualitative parameters, i.e. the maintenance of glutathione (an antioxidant), retardation of cap development, and the suppression of disease and mycelial growth during post harvest storage of hiratake mushroom at 15°C using microperforated OPP film, PVC film overwrapped tray, and ordinary OPP film packages were studied. During the first experiment, low O2 (1.0 to 1.6%) and high CO2 (17 to 18%) resulted in maintenance of glutathione and other qualitative parameters of hiratake mushroom. During the second experiment, the MA of 15.5 to 16.5% O2 and 4.5 to 5.5% CO2 inside microperforated OPP film and that inside the ordinary OPP film packages were beneficial for the post harvest preservation of hiratake mushroom, compared to the control packages. Cap development was slower for hiratake mushroom packaged in tray and OPP film packages. Among the different packaging treatments, mushrooms packaged in microperforated OPP film had the highest amount of condensation within the packages during their storage.
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  • Yukio Ozaki, Tomoko Tashiro, Hiroshi Okubo
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages 440-442
    Published: July 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Linkage relationships among allozyme loci in asparagus were investigated to establish the basis for constructing a combined high density genetic map. Linkage assignments provided evidence for the existence of three pairs of linked gene loci, Aat-1/Mdh-1 (recombination fraction, R=0.22±0.04), Aat-3/Idh-1(R=0.17±0.05) and Pgm-1/Skdh-1 (R=0.06±0.04). The remaining nine of 12 pairs of loci were independent of each other.
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  • Toshihito Tabuchi, Shinji Ito, Noriko Arai
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages 443-445
    Published: July 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The abscission zone development in the pedicels of Galapagos wild tomatoes with j-2in gene was investigated anatomically by comparing it with that of a normal pedicel that forms the complete abscission zone. In normal pedicel, cells of the abscission zone formed initially when sepals were differentiating during flower bud development ; in j-2in pedicel, they were formed at a later stage. In a normal pedicel at anthesis, the cells of the abscission zone were small, diskshaped, and the epidermal tissue adjacent to the abscission zone was concave significantly toward the inner cortex. In contrast, in j-2in pedicel at anthesis, cells of the abscission zone were composed of isodiametric cells and the epidermal tissue was slightly concave. These results suggest that the j-2in gene delays abscission zone formation and development.
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  • Kaori Kikuchi, Yoshinori Kanayama, Yukari Wakamoto, Koki Kanahama
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages 446-448
    Published: July 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    To examine the effect of seedling age on bolting and inflorescence quality in Delphinium × cultorum (dwarf pacific type), seedlings with 2 to 3, 4 to 5, or 6 to 7 expanded leaves were grown in a greenhouse under 8- and 24-hr photoperiods. Concurrently, the interaction between photoperiod and temperature on the development and quality of inflorescences was investigated. 1. Seedling age did not significantly affect bolting response, although a 24-hr photoperiod accelerated bolting compared with a 12-hr photoperiod. Under the long days, seedlings with 2 to 3 expanded leaves produced only 22 florets, whereas under the 12-hr photoperiod, the seedlings with the same number of leaves produced good spikes with almost 40 florets. 2. Seedlings grown in growth chambers under 12- to 24- hr photoperiods with temperature regimes of 17/12 and 24/19°C (day/night) for 18 weeks, the days to flowering and the number of leaves at bolting were increased under shorter daylength under both temperature treatments. These photoperiodic responses were more significant at 17/12°C. All plants tested at 24/19°C bolted under a 16-hr or longer photoperiods. At 17/12°C, only 50% of plants under a 16-hr photoperiod bolted, whereas all plants bolted under the 20- and 24- hr photoperiods. Under the 16- to 20- hr photoperiods, more florets were initiated at 17/12°C than at 24/19°C.
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  • Sadao Komori, Junichi Soejima, Kazuyuki Abe, Nobuhiro Kotoda, Yuji Ito ...
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages 449-459
    Published: July 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Because some inexplicable phenomena were uncovered in a series of our apple S-allele genotype analyses, the S-allele genotypes were reanalyzed in an attempt to explain the phenomena. The results of the reanalysis revealed that the inconsistency stemmed from the pedigree of 'Kinsei'. The pollen parent of 'Kinsei' was not 'Ralls Janet'. S-genotypes of following apple cultivars and strains were corrected and the following S-genotypes were established : (SJa, SJc)='Fukutami', 'Megumi', Tohoku6, 'Kinsei', 'Redgold', Karo Fumei, Rero 18 (SJa, SJd)=Tohoku 5, I-172 (SJa, SJe)='Orei' (SJa, SJe)='Ralls Janet' : Cultivar or strain in which S-genotype was corrected. : Cultivar or strain in which S-genotype was newly determined.
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  • Naohiro Kubota, Kenichi Uehara
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages 460-465
    Published: July 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The effect of long-day treatment with five lamps of different spectral characteristics on shoot growth of one-year-old own-rooted 'Pione' grapevines was investigated. Photon flux density (PFD) in each wavelength of physiologically active radiation (300-800 nm), red light (R, 600-700 nm), and far-red light (FR, 700-800 nm) emitted from the following five lamps : silica, blue-light, white-light, homolux (for plant growing) and red-light were determined. All lamps were lit just before sunset and daylength was prolonged to 16 hr for 11 weeks as from mid- August. Shoot elongation, number of nodes and leaf area per shoot, were significantly larger in vines exposed to lamps of homolux, red-light and silica as compared to the control vines, which were grown under natural daylength. Shoot growth of vines exposed to the white-light lamp was intermediate between those exposed to homolux and natural daylength, whereas in vines exposed to the blue-light lamp grew almost as well as the control vines. PFD (μmol·m-2·s-1) within the wavelength of red light of homolux, red-light and silica lamps were 0.157, 0.506 and 0.703, respectively. Nevertheless, these 3 lamps promoted shoot growth. PFD of red light emitted from the white-light and homolux lamps was almost the same, but white-light lamp had no peak at 660nm. R/FR (600-700 nm/700-800 nm) photon flux ratios also differed among the lamps, ranging from 0.50 to 19.46. Based on the results, the relationship between shoot growth of grapevines and spectral characteristics of each lamp is discussed in Japanese.
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  • Tadashi Fujioka, Masayoshi Fujita, Yoshiki Miyamoto
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages 466-471
    Published: July 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    In breeding pea (Pisum sativum L.) with short stature, a rapid method of selecting progenies with short internodes is desirable. Insofar as parentage, light quality and light intensity affect internode lengths, pea cultivars of varying internode lengths derived from seeds, ovules and plumules grown in vitro were compared with those grown in the greenhouse. 1. Pea cultivars with diminishing internode lengths under greenhouse culture were : 'Yatawaseusui', 'Kishu-usui', 'Oranda', 'Misasa', 'Kishu-saya 2' and 'Tiny Peace'. 2. Varietal differences in stem internode lengths of plants which were derived from seed, ovule (pod) and plumule grown in vitro corresponded to those grown in the greenhouse. Hence, internode lengths of cultivars could be evaluated in vitro during their period of accelerated growth. 3. The varietal difference in stem internode lengths of shoots regenerated from callus was less than that derived from plumules. 4. The longest internode length of pea cultivars grown in vitro was about twice that of the mean. Furthermore, cultivars with the shortest internodes also had the shortest mean length. Hence, internode length of progenies grown in vitro may offer a good index for selecting plants of short stature. 5. The varietal differences in internode lengths of plants grown in vitro under white lights became even larger under yellow fluorescent lights. 6. The internode lengths of cultivars grew proportionately longer at 100-500 lx than at 3, 000 lx.
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  • Yasunori Yoshida, Harumi Takahashi, Hiroomi Kanda, Koki Kanahama
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages 472-476
    Published: July 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Interaction between photoperiod and seed tuber weight on the development of the main shoot, spikes, and new tubers in Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb. cv. Ichoimo) plants were investigated. Growth of the main shoot was promoted by a 24-hr photoperiod (continuous light) in combination with a large seed tuber weight, but inhibited by an 8-hr photoperiod in combination with a small seed tuber weight. Cessation of shoot elongation was advanced by the short photoperiod in combination with light seed tubers. Flowering spikes were initiated on plants with seed tuber weighing 25 g or more under both 8- and 24-hr photoperiods. The proportion of plants developing spikes increased with tubers weighing in excess of 25 g. The node positon of the first spike was shorter under the 8-hr photoperiod than that under the 24-hr photoperiod. The date of flower bud emergence under the 8-hr photoperiod was earlier than that in the 24-hr photoperiod. The large tubers produced more spikes under a 24-hr photoperiod than with an 8-hr photoperiod. Early development of aerial and new tubers was promoted by an 8-hr photoperiod when the tubers weighed between 10 and 50 g, but they were inhibited under both 8- and 24-hr photoperiods if the tuber weighed 100g. The large final fresh weights of aerial and new tubers under the 24-hr photoperiod is attributed to the extensive shoot growth. However, dry weight ratios of total tubers to leaves were high in plants derived from small seed tubers under 8- and 24-hr photoperiods. These results indicate that the early development of aerial and new tubers is promoted by a small seed tuber weight.
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  • Hatsue Oyama, Yutaka Shinohara, Tadashi Ito
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages 477-482
    Published: July 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    To produce spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) plants with high quality and β-carotene, they were grown hydroponically in a glasshouse and analyzed at various times of the day and periodically during the growing season. Leaves weighing up to 2 g of fresh weight (FW), tended to be richer in β-carotene in March to April than September to October. In those weighing over 2 g FW, the β-carotene concentration did not differ significantly between seasons. The difference in FW of the leaf blade and petiole influenced β-carotene content of the whole leaf (Exp.1). β-carotene concentrations significantly decreased shortly after daybreak, then increased and remained relatively high until dusk. The high concentration during the day period reflects the accumulation of dry matter. The diurnal fluctuations at 15/10 °C and 20/15 °C were closely parallel (Exp.2). Based on these data, we recommend that spinach is not harvested when β-carotene level decreases in the morning.
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  • Isao Kemmochi, Itsuro Kobayashi, Minoru Tsuchiya, Hiroshi Sakai, Masao ...
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages 483-491
    Published: July 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Japanese cultivars of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) were screened for their resistance to Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium longisporum syn. V. dahliae Klebahn. No immune cultivar was found in a screening test of 51 F1 hybrids in a severely infected field, but some progenies of Kandama type (summer sowing type) such as 'Shutoku', 'YR Ranpo', 'YR Bibo', 'Kusabue 2', and Harukei type (fall sowing type) such as 'Kinkei 201' and 'YR 506' showed little or no symptoms. Thus, they possess enough resistance for commercial usage. Most Kandama type with resistance originated from crossing with the old Japanese cv. Kawasaki or Aichinatsumaki, some of the Harukei type with resistance originated from open-pollinated cultivars within the Nakanowase group. The susceptible cultivars of F1 hybrids which are derived from the Nakanowase and Copenhagen Market groups such as 'Natsuyama', 'Early Ball', 'Teruyoshi' and 'Reiho 1' characteristically masked the diseased symptoms on the leaf. When we inoculated 41 open-pollinated cultivars, some resistant cultivars were discovered in the Aichinatsumaki and Nakanowase groups. These results indicate that cultivars within Aichinatsumaki and Nakanowase groups possess resistance genes to this disease. By raising these progenies from these crosses, we have succeeded in isolating Verticillium wilt-resistant cabbages. Our data reveals that the resistance is controlled by dominant inheritance with some genes.
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  • Akira Uda, Masahito Yamanaka, Akira Yoshino, Keiichi Kawae, Suguru Tad ...
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages 492-496
    Published: July 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Cut carnations were subjected to simulated wet transport with their stem bases in a pickle containing a gelling agent with 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8mM silver thiosulfate (STS) solution for 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hr at 25°C in the dark to examine the retention of freshness and prolongation of vase life. The amount of water absorbed by cut carnation flowers from the pickle was about 20-30% less than that taken up from deionized water. However, the fresh weight of both groups of cut flowers increased by almost the same amount during transportation. Flowers transported in the pickle maintained their freshness as much as the flowers transported in deionized water but those transported in a dry condition lost moisture and wilted. Vase life of cut carnations transported in the pickle with STS solution lasted longer than that of the flowers transported in the pickle without STS or those transported dry. The data reveal that cut carnation flowers absorb Ag from the pickle with STS solution. The vase life of cut flowers treated with the pickle with STS solution or STS solution alone was affected by the quantity of Ag absorption, and not by the means of absorbing Ag. We recommended that STS concentration be added to a pickle to extend vase life, was 0.2 mM, when the transportation period was 6-12 hr.
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  • Yasumasa Miura, Kazuyuki Sekijima, Tadayoshi Hirai, Daizou Igarashi, T ...
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages 497-504
    Published: July 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Cut flowers of the spray type carnation 'Light Pink Barbara' graded as : high(H), middle(M) and the low(L) in a flower market were investigated with respect to their vase life, fresh weight, and water and sugar contents in the floral organs. 1. Total fresh weight, percent water content and water absorption were highest in H and lowest in L throughout the experiment. 2. Buds of H and M opened normally within 10 days, whereas those of L blasted ; vase life in H and L were 15 and 10 days, respectively. 3. Petals of H and M conteined 11 to 13 mg/100mg dry weight (DW) of glucose and fructose, respectively, at the beginning of the experiment ; the concentration in H decreased to about 8 mg/100g DW within four days and sustained this level, whereas in M, they decreased to about 4 and 6 mg/100g DW by the end of the experiment. Petals of L contained 4 and 6 mg/100g of glucose and fructose, respectively, throughout the experiment. 4. Sucrose contents of leaves were 10 mg/100mg in H, 12 mg/100mg in M and about 2 mg/100mg in L ; fructose and glucose contents were about 1 mg/100mg in the grades. These levels persisted throughout the experiment in leaves of all grades. 5. Sucrose contents in stem of the three grades ranged between 4 to 6 mg/100mg DW throughout the experiment ; glucose content decreased from 2 mg to 0.5 mg/100mg during the same period. 6. When cut flowers were treated with silver thiosulphate, a substantial amount of silver was detected in petals, indicating that a significant uptake of the solution occurred. These results indicate the high water content percent of the cut flower with high fructose and glucose contents in the petals contribute to long vase life in spray carnation treated with silver.
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  • Katsuhiko Inamoto, Takanori Hase, Motoaki Doi, Hideo Imanishi
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages 505-511
    Published: July 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Bulbs of Tulipa gesneriana L. 'Gander', chilled at 2°C for 12, 18 or 30 weeks were grown hydroponically at 12, 16 or 20°C under a 12-hr photoperiod to force them into growth. With increasing the forcing temperature, the dry matter accumulated in new organs, i.e. shoots and daughter bulbs at anthesis decreased and dry matter remained in mother bulbs increased. In bulbs chilled at 2°C for 30 weeks, more dry matter stored in the mother bulbs was partitioned to the daughter bulbs rather than to the shoots at anthesis, compared to bulbs chilled for 12 or 18 weeks. Irrespective of chilling durations (tc), apparent activation energy (Ea) of reciprocal of days from planting to anthesis (1/tpa), which was calculated by Arrhenius' law, was larger than Ea of relative growth rate (Rpa) of shoots and daughter bulbs. This finding indicates that the change in tpa has greater impact on the final accumulation of dry matter in new organs than that in Rpa of individual organs. The relative values (Ir ; 1 at 20°C of forcing temperature) of tpa and Rpa of shoots and daughter bulbs were calculated for each chilling duration. The change in Ir of tpa and Rpa with forcing temperature was exponential. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that bulb chilling duration has little impact on Ir.
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  • Hiroshi Hosoda, Yumiko Iwahashi, KohIchi Yoza
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages 512-516
    Published: July 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The effect of Allium juice on browning of shredded lettuce was evaluated as hue angle, using a color meter. When shredded lettuce was dipped for 3-min. in Allium juice, browning of shredded lettuce stored at 5 or 10°C was significantly reduced compared to the water-dipped, control sample. Juice of onion or garlic had the strongest activity among tested Alliums. Among 11 onion cultivars, the juice of 'Kitamomiji 86' had the strongest activity. The inhibitory activity was ubiquitous in juices from all edible parts but that from the middle part of the bulb was stronger than the outer part. The inhibitory activity decreased slightly when the onion juice was heated in boiling water ; it almost ceased when the raw onion was microwaved, homogenized, then squeezed to obtain the juice. The results indicate that the inhibitory component is formed by heat labile enzyme reaction during the raw bulb is cut and homogenized.
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  • Motoaki Doi, Yuxiao Hu, Hideo Imanishi
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages 517-519
    Published: July 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    'Bridal Pink' roses (Rosa hybrida L.), with their cut stems in deionized water, were held at 20°C in a glass tank in which the vapor pressure was maintained at 2.3 kPa (high vapor pressure : HVP) or 1.4 kPa (intermediate vapor pressure : IVP). Large, heavy cut roses with high initial water potentials retained water longer in HVP than in IVP. Transpiration and water uptake rates of cut roses placed in HVP were markedly lower than those in IVP. Transpiration and water uptake rates of individual organs, and defoliated, disbudded, and intact cut roses revealed that water losses from leaves and/or flower buds were closely correlated to water uptake by intact cut roses. The low water potential of flower buds, which occurred earlier and severer in IVP than in HVP, is attributed to : 1) the initial increase in petal volume ; 2) the following decrease in water uptake capacity of leaves and flower buds, and 3) competition for water between leaves and a flower bud.
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  • Keiko Ohta, Kazuo Harada
    2000 Volume 69 Issue 4 Pages 520-522
    Published: July 15, 2000
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Cut rose, (Rosa hybrida L.) flowers were placed in half-strength of electrolyzed anode water (EAW ; pH 2.9, 26 mg·liter-1 available chlorine) to test the effect of EAW on the vase life. EAW was generated by electrolysis of an aqueous KCl solution. The flowers were placed in EAW under the lighting condition, its effect was larger than or similar to those by several commercially available preservatives. The half-strength EAW adjusted to pH 5 or 6 extended the vase life of the roses as much as that with aqueous HCl solutions (pH 2 or 3). Three days after treatment, no bacteria were detected in these test solutions. These results suggest that the effect of EAW on the vase life of cut roses is due to sterilized action by low pH and chlorine compounds such as hypochlorous acid.
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