Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
Online ISSN : 1880-358X
Print ISSN : 0013-7626
ISSN-L : 0013-7626
Volume 73 , Issue 1
Showing 1-17 articles out of 17 articles from the selected issue
  • Yoshihiko Sekozawa, Sumiko Sugaya, Hiroshi Gemma
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 1-6
    Published: January 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Ice formation and propagation in the flower and young fruit of Japanese pear 'Kosui' were investigated with infrared (IR) video thermography imaging system. The changes of thermal response (exotherm) in freezing events could be detected using the infrared thermography camera with exotherm rise of 2-5 °C accompanied by a marked color change in the tissues. With first bloom flowers, the temperature of peduncles decreased faster than that of the receptacle; the initial ice nucleation occurred primarily in petals, sepals and/or receptacle. Subsequently, ice was propagated along the peduncle. The temperature of receptacles was above that of peduncles during the freezing test at full bloom; the sepals and/or receptacle were initially frozen, then ice nucleation was extended to the petals along the peduncle. These results suggest that the sepals and/or receptacle where the initial nucleation occurred may be an intrinsic or extrinsic source of high ice nucleation activity in flowers of the Japanese pear 'Kosui'. In contrast with first bloom and full bloom stage, the exotherms during freezing could not be detected clearly in young fruits. However, cold injury appeared as a spotty stain on the skin of young fruits immediately upon being subjected to chilling.
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  • Akihiko Sato, Masahiko Yamada, Hiroshi Iwanami, Nobuhito Mitani
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 7-11
    Published: January 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To compare the texture of GA3-treated and untreated berries, the deformation at the first major peak (DFP), an indicator of sensory difficulty of breakdown in mastication and the maximum force (MF), an indicator of firmness in a series of puncture tests, were measured using 14 genotypes of American grapes (Vitis labruscana Bailey), European (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes and interspecific hybrids (V. labruscana × V. vinifera). GA3 was applied to clusters of each cultivar at full bloom and 10-16 days after full bloom. While the effect of the GA3 treatment was insignificant for the DFP, GA3-treated berries had a significantly higher MF than the control, indicating that GA3 treatment increased flesh firmness. The genotype × treatment interaction for both DFP and MF was significant, suggesting that the response to the application of GA3 varied, depending on the genotypes. It was possible that GA3 treatment to a cultivar with soft flesh results in a change to crisp flesh (2.5 mm ≥ for DFP and 0.9 N ≤ for MF), which is a desirable texture for table grapes. Soluble solid concentration and titratable acidity in GA3-treated berries were not different from those in untreated berries. Therefore, the effect of GA3 on flesh firmness was suggested to be direct and not the result of a delay in berry ripening.
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  • Masami Yamaguchi, Isao Sato, Kouichi Takase, Akira Watanabe, Makoto Is ...
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 12-18
    Published: January 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To characterize factors determining the varietal difference of the fruit size in sweet cherries, we studied the relationships among fruit weight, number of mesocarp cells and radial cell lengths in 56 cultivars and selections of sweet cherries and related species. In addition, the effect of flower thinning on the number of mesocarp cells and the dependence of cell number on young fruit weight were analyzed. A high correlation coefficient was obtained between fruit thickness and mesocarp thickness versus fruit weights. All parameters measured showed large varietal differences. The correlation coefficient between mesocarp cell number and length to the differences in fruit weight varied yearly from 0.611 to 0.706, and from 0.488 to 0.599, respectively. The contribution of the cell number to fruit weight was larger than that of cell length in every year tested. The yearly correlation coefficients were 0.869-0.931 for the fruit weight, 0.826- 0.852 for the number of mesocarp cells, and 0.482-0.674 for the radial cell length. Fruit weights of the wild species were considerably lighter than those of the commercial cultivars. The numbers of mesocarp cells and cell lengths of the former were about half those of the latter. From these results, we conclude that both the mesocarp cell numbers and their lengths affect the varietal differences in the fruit weight. However, the cell number has a larger contribution and is a more stable parameter. Young fruit size and flower thinning had almost no effect on mesocarp cell number. Therefore, we conclude that cell number determination in mesocarp is a useful method for estimating varietal differences in fruit weight of sweet cherry.
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  • Manabu Watanabe, Akira Suzuki, Sadao Komori, Hideo Bessho
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 19-24
    Published: January 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Seasonal changes of endogenous IAA and cytokinin concentrations in shoots of two columnar type cultivars, 'Maypole' and 'Tuscan', and a normal type apple tree, 'McIntosh', were compared by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM).The IAA concentrations in both types were higher in June, when shoot growth was vigorous, than in July. However, distinct differences in the IAA concentrations between columnar and normal types were not found. Cytokinin concentrations, particularly zeatin riboside (ZR), in shoots were higher in columnar type trees than in the normal type during the whole growing season in June. These results suggest that the concentration of cytokinins, particularly ZR, in shoots may be related to the growth characteristics of columnar type trees.
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  • Shi-mao Cui, Kimi Sadayoshi, Yohei Ogawa, Naosuke Nii
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 25-30
    Published: January 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of water stress on sorbitol content in the leaves and roots of young 'Ohatsumomo' peach seedlings, as well as anatomical changes to nuclei and starch accumulation in the cells of the leaves were investigated. The degree of water stress was graded into four levels: unstressed plots (control), weakly stressed plots (w-plots), mildly stressed plots (m-plots) and severely stressed plots (s-plots). The degree of water stress was judged by the extent of the leaves wilted and was estimated by the water saturation deficiency (WSD) of the leaves. Water stress increased sorbitol content in leaves but not in roots. Although the WSD of the leaves increased significantly with increasing water stress, drought treatment caused only slight differences in sorbitol content in the leaves. One day after watering, the sorbitol content of the treatments decreased to the levels similar to those of unstressed trees. Few leaves of w-plots and m-plots abscised after watering; but leaves of s-plots abscised severely, and some trees died. Starch accumulation in the mesophyll parenchyma decreased with increasing water stress. After recovery from water stress, starch grains accumulated again in the leaves. Nuclear degradation in the mesophyll parenchyma was observed only in s-plots but not in the w- and m-plots.
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  • Yuichi Ohtsuka, Hiroyuki Kibe, Naotoshi Hakoda, Isao Shimura, Isao Ogi ...
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 31-35
    Published: January 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The heritability values of sugar contents in strawberry fruit were estimated from the parent-offspring regression of seven F1 populations, obtained from a common pollen parent 'Toyonoka'. The estimated heritability values for total sugar, hexose (fructose plus glucose) and sucrose contents were 0.568, 1.153 and 0.004, respectively; high additive genetic effects were found in total sugar and hexose contents. Therefore, an optimum method for breeding strawberry cultivars that contain large amounts of sugar and hexose may be to use parental lines with high total sugar and hexose contents, and to select F1 individuals with high sugar contents. The low heritability of sucrose content in this experiment may be attributable to the cultural practices and environmental factors because harvesting strawberry fruits took a long time.
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  • Kazuya Sasaki, Motonobu Endo, Ikuko Inada
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 36-41
    Published: January 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The effects of the sampling season of explants and the growth stage of mother plants on the regenerative capacity and growth characteristics of regenerants in the shoot apex culture of chrysanthemums were investigated. Shoot apices from two edible cultivars of the autumn-flowering type, 'Abokyu' and 'Enmeiraku', were cultured for three months on a modified Shizuoka Agricultural Experiment Station medium supplemented with NAA (1 mg·liter-1). Every two or three weeks from April to September 1991, shoot apices were collected from the terminal and axillary buds of non-pinching plants and cultured. The regeneration rate varied with the cultivars used and the sampling season. When the terminal buds of primary lateral shoots that developed after pinching were cultured, high percentages of regenerants were obtained from vigorously growing mother plants in both cultivars. Even in the early reproductive growth phase (involucre- formation stage), the explants maintained some regenerative capacity. The growth characteristics of regenerants differed with the cultivars used and the growth stages of the mother plants.
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  • Motonobu Endo, Hiroko Hashimoto, Jung-Shim Kim, Jishuang Yang, Ikuko I ...
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 42-50
    Published: January 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To elucidate the usefulness of the small-flowered chrysanthemum, 'YS', which has the smallest chromosome number (2n=36) among parental breeding materials, the characteristics of progenies derived from 'YS' crosses with hexaploid (2n=54) cultivars were investigated. Our histological observations on the developmental process of the anther showed that the tapetum did not dehisce at the mature pollen stage. Therefore, we regard 'YS' as one example of male sterility. Cross pollinations between 'YS' or its polyploid (2n=72) with three hexaploid cultivars (2n=54) yielded a number of seeds per inflorescence, but their percentage of germination differed with cross combinations. Examinations of the F1 progenies revealed that most progenies grew vigorously, and their mean height exceeded the intermediate value of their parents. Flower types that were classified according to the morphology of the capitulum showed that the progenies between 'YS' (petaloidy-type) × three cultivars (nonpetaloidy-type) were characteristic of the male parent type. The diameters of inflorescences in the progenies derived from 'YS' (small-type) × three cultivars (medium-type) were about 10% smaller than the intermediate value of their parents, whereas their pollen fertilities were: 'YS' (5.3%), its polyploid (43%), and the three cultivars (78.6- 83.1%), similar to their male parents. The progenies derived from 'YS' (male-sterile) × three cultivars (male-fertile) were all male-fertile. The chromosome numbers in the progenies between 'YS' (2n=36) × three cultivars (2n=54) were most frequently pentaploid (2n=45), intermediate between the parents. The stability of the heritable characteristics of progenies over four years showed that although it differed between years and crosses, variable characteristics were plant height, plant form and flowering times, whereas the stable characteristics were their growth appearance, diameter of inflorescence and flower types. The most stable characteristic was flower color. From this study, we considered that 'YS' poses no problem to use as a female parent in crosses between cultivars whose chromosome numbers differ significantly.
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  • Seiko Ito, Yasushi Mitsuishi, Toshikatsu Okuno, Yoji Kato
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 51-56
    Published: January 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Cell-wall materials (80% methanol-insoluble fraction) of 'Starking Delicious' apple fruit obtained at different developmental stages were separated into water-soluble and water-insoluble polysaccharide fractions. Crude xyloglucans, prepared from both polysaccharide fractions, were hydrolyzed with Geotrichm sp. M128 xyloglucanase. The xyloglucanase- hydrolyzates were subjected to high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection before and after digestion with Eupenicillium sp. M9 isoprimeverose-producing oligoxyloglucan hydrolase. Both xyloglucan preparations were composed mainly of XXG, XXXG, XXLG, XLXG, XXFG, XLLG and XLFG [where each (1→4)-β-linked D-glucosyl residue in the backbone is given a one-letter code according to its substituents: G=β-D-Glc; X=α-D-Xyl-(1→6)-β-D-Glc; L=β-D-Gal-(1→2)-α-D-Xyl-(1→6)-β-D-Glc; F=α-L-Fuc-(1→2)-β-D-Gal-(1→2)-α-D-Xyl-(1→6)-β-D-Glc]. The ratios of fucose-containing oligosaccharide units (XXFG and XLFG) to fucose-noncontaining oligosaccharide units (XXG, XXXG, XXLG, XLXG and XLLG) in the water-insoluble xyloglucan molecules decreased with fruit development. The molar ratio of a pentasaccharide, XXG, in the water-soluble and -insoluble xyloglucan molecules increased with fruit development.
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  • Akira Tateishi, Taikai Nakayama, Katsunori Isobe, Kazunari Nomura, Kei ...
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 57-59
    Published: January 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Sugar accumulation and sugar metabolism enzyme activities were measured in two distinct pumpkin cultivars, 'Miyako' (C. maxima) and 'Hayato' (C. moschata) during fruit development. Sugar accumulation levels in the fruits were different between these cultivars. At the harvesting stage, more glucose and fructose were accumulated in 'Hayato' than in 'Miyako'. Sucrose content was low in young fruit when its catabolic enzyme activities were highest. The accumulation of sucrose with fruit development in both cultivars coincided with increasing sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity and decreasing catabolic enzyme activities. The amount of sucrose content was indistinguishable in both cultivars, whereas, higher SPS activity was observed in 'Hayato', SPS contributes to sucrose accumulation in the late stage of pumpkin fruit development, but the amount of accumulated sucrose could not be explained solely on SPS activity.
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  • Hiroshi Uchiyama, Ai Hasegawa, Kenji Aoki, Kazunari Nomura, Kazuo Yone ...
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 60-62
    Published: January 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Chromosome numbers of six species and four hybids of Odontoglossum (Odm.), four hybrids of Odontioda (Oda.), and one hybrid of Odontonia (Odtna.) were counted in root tip cells using the aceto-orcein squash method. The chromosome numbers (2n) are as follows: Odm. grande, 44; Odm. williamsianum, 44; Odm. bictoniense, 56; Odm. harryanum, 56; Odm. nobile, ca.84; Odm. crispum, ca.112; Odm. 'Rawdon Jester', 44; Odm. 'Augres', ca.88; Odm. 'Lemonade', ca.88; Odm. 'Nichirei Strotordo', 56; Oda. 'Picasso', 56; Oda. 'Nationhood', ca.112; Oda. 'Nichirei Sunrise', ca.112; Oda. 'Peter Timoney', ca.112; Odtna. 'Moliere', ca.88.
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  • Phuong Tao Nguyen Thi, Yukio Ozaki, Hiroshi Okubo
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 63-65
    Published: January 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A procedure for chromosome duplication of Alocasia × amazonica (2n=28) was established by using colchicine and oryzalin treatments to shoot tips of in vitro grown plants. Regenerated plants were screened by flow cytometry and their chromosome number was verified by cytological analysis of root tips. In total, 53 of 654 plants regenerated after the treatments appeared to be tetraploids and 144 plants were mixoploids. The treatments with colchicine and oryzalin produced 9.0 and 7.3 % and tetraploids, respectively. A maximum of 20 % tetraploid was obtained by the treatment with 0.05 % colchicine for 72 hr. Leaves of tetraploids have the tendency to be rounder, broader and thicker.
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  • Katsumi Ohta, Shinya Morishita, Kohei Suda, Nobuo Kobayashi, Takashi H ...
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 66-68
    Published: January 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of 1.0% chitosan [poly-(1→4)-β-D-glucosamine]soil mixture and water soluble inorganic fertilizer in soils containing the same amount of nitrogen on the growth and flowering date were investigated on eight species : (Torenia fournieri Linden ex E. Fourn., Exacum affine Balf., Begonia hiemalis Fotsch., Sinningia speciosa (Lodd., Lobelia erinus L., Mimulus hybridus hort. ex A. Siebert et Voss, Calceolaria herbeohybrida Voss and Campanula fragilis L.). Chitosan treatment significantly promoted seedling growth compared to the unfertilized controls and fertilized soil plots containing an equal amount of nitrogen as in chitosan by 6 to 13 weeks after sowing. The first flowering date in chitosan-treated Torenia fournieri Linden ex E. Fourn., Exacum affine Balf., Begonia hiemalis Fotsch., Sinningia speciosa (Lodd., Lobelia erinus L., Mimulus hybridus hort. ex A. Siebert et Voss were significantly earlier than with the other treatments, but not in Calceolaria herbeohybrida Voss and Campanula fragilis L. Thus, chitosan may have an elicitor effect changing the microbiota in soil, according to our preliminary test, or chitosan may be absorbed directly roots and utilized by the plants.
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  • Nobuo Kobayashi, Juan Carlos Hagiwara, Ikuo Miyajima, Gabriela Facciut ...
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 69-71
    Published: January 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    A new cultivar of Tecoma, originating in South America. was selected from among the interspecific hybrid progenies between T. stans and T. garrocha. The selected interspecific hybrid has an orange corolla, intermediate in color and size between T. stans (orange-yellow) and T. garrocha (orange-red). Although T. stans required uniconazole treatment to induce blossom formation, the selected interspecific hybrid did not. The newly selected hybrid is expected to be of horticultural value and interest in the Japanese flower markets.
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  • Toshihiko Sugiura, Masayuki Yokozawa
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 72-78
    Published: January 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study was undertaken to assess the impact of global warming on the production in Japan of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshu Marc.).The annual mean temperature was used to simulate possible changes in favorable regions for the cultivation of apple and satsuma mandarin. The temperature ranges assumed to be appropriate for fruit production were 6-14 °C and 7-13 °C for apples and 15-18 °C for satsuma mandarins, respectively. The database of "Climate Change Mesh Data (Japan)" was used to calculate annual mean temperatures under the climate change scenario, derived from four Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCM) at all 10 × 10 km mesh. It was predicted that the favorable regions to cultivate apples and satsuma mandarins will gradually move northward. In 2060's the plains of central Tohoku will be unfavorable for apple cultivation, while most of Hokkaido will be suitable. The plains of northern Tohoku are predicted to attain the annual mean temperatures higher than those of the current main producing districts. By 2060's, the favorable areas for satsuma mandarin production will possibly move from the southern coastal sites to inland areas of western and southern Japan, the plains of Kanto and the littoral zones of the Japan Sea in the central and western Japan and in southern Tohoku. Therefore, global warming will greatly affect the cultivation environment of apples and satsuma mandarins in Japan by the middle of the 21st century.
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  • Masahiro Takegawa, Yoichi Yamato, Megumi Hamano, Hiroko Yamazaki, Hiro ...
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 79-81
    Published: January 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The growth rate of plug seedlings at various transplant ages of cabbage or chingensai after transplanting was investigated. Twenty-five-day seedlings had enough shaped root balls, while 15-day or 20-day seedlings did not. They could not be taken out of plug trays with their root ball intact. From this point, it seemed better for seedlings to be nursed for 25 days. But relative growth rate of estimated leaf area (ELA) was larger and ELA enlargement was faster in 15-day or 20-day seedlings than in 25-day seedlings after transplanting. Thus 25-day seedlings that appeared to be ready for transplanting already got growth retardation because of their root ball formation.
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  • Hideki Yamamoto, Shin-ichi Fuji, Yukio Asari
    2004 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 82-84
    Published: January 15, 2004
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Most Chinese artichoke plants cultivated in Akita, Fukui and Yamagata Prefectures, Japan, were found to be infected with viruses. In this study, we produced virus-free plants through shoot tip culture of axillary buds. Shoot tips formed multiple shoots on MS medium containing 0.5 mg·liter-1 BA, or formed callus that subsequently developed adventitious shoots on MS medium with 0.5 mg·liter-1 BA. When these shoots were excised and transferred to hormone-free MS medium, they developed roots. Inoculation tests, RT-PCR assays and visual observations of rooted plantlets that readily acclimatized in a greenhouse, indicated that three were virus-free.
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