Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
Online ISSN : 1880-358X
Print ISSN : 0013-7626
ISSN-L : 0013-7626
Volume 71 , Issue 3
Showing 1-27 articles out of 27 articles from the selected issue
  • Tatsuya Kubo, Takeshi Kihara, Toshio Hirabayashi
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 305-310
    Published: May 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of spraying lead arsenate on the activities of citrate synthase (CS ; EC 4.1.3.7), NAD-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-IDH ; EC 1.1.1.41), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC ; EC 4.1.1.31) in the juice sacs of fruit of 'Natsudaidai' (Citrus natsudaidai Hayata) were investigated. Citrate accumulation in the juice sacs was significantly inhibited from early September through January by spraying lead arsenate solutions over tree canopies on June 4 and July 2. Lead arsenate treatment enhanced CS activity during late July and November and NAD-IDH activity after early August, but it did not affect PEPC activity. These results suggest that lead arsenate accelerates TCA metabolic cycle but does not promote a substrate supply to the TCA cycle. This resulted in a reduction of citrate transport to the vacuole and in a repression of citrate accumulation.
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  • Kunihisa Morinaga
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 311-316
    Published: May 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The effects of long-term carbon-dioxide (CO2) enrichment on photosynthetic rate (Pn), ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCO) activity, chlorophyll content, and carbon accumulation in leaves were investigated in potted satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) trees with and without fruit load. The Pn of whole satsuma mandarin trees at 1, 000 μ1 CO2·liter-1 for the first 13 days increased significantly, up to about 200%, compared to that at a normal atmospheric CO2 (360μ1 CO2·liter-1). After that, Pn began to decrease gradually until it reached 170% on the 35th day. The Pn of the bearing trees remained higher than those of non-bearing trees. Although there was no difference in the chlorophyll content, the bearing trees had smaller specific leaf weight (SLW) and carbon content in the leaves. It seemed that the decrease in Pn during the long-term exposure to the elevated CO2 concentration was partly due to a decrease in RuBPCO activity and/or an accumulation of photoassimilates in the leaves. The sink capacity of fruit may be important for the maintenance of Pn in long-term exposure to an elevated CO2 concentration because the non-bearing trees had a particularly rapid decrease in Pn.
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  • Zhenghua Li, Sumiko Sugaya, Hiroshi Gemma, Shuichi Iwahori
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 317-321
    Published: May 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    To ascertain the mechanism of apple skin coloration, changes in the flavonoid biosynthesis and accumulations and related enzyme activities were investigated during fruit development in redskinned 'Fuji' and green-skinned 'Oorin' apples. In 'Fuji' anthocyanin accumulated from 139 days after full bloom (DFB) concurrent with fruit maturation. Proanthocyanidins and flavonols showed highest concentrations in very young fruit ; then decreased gradually afterwards and remained almost constant throughout fruit development in both cultivars. Changes in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity corresponded with these patterns, but they slightly increased in 'Fuji' 139 DFB. The changing pattern of chalcone isomerase (CHI) activity was similar to that of PAL until maturation when a slight increase in CHI activity was observed. CHI activity in 'Fuji' apple skin was higher than that of 'Oorin'. In the 'Fuji' apple skin, UDP-3-O-glycosyltransferase (UFGalT) activity markedly increased from 139 DFB, parallel with anthocyanin accumulation. Our results suggest that anthocyanin synthesis mainly occurs during coloration in 'Fuji'. PAL, CHI, and UFGalT enzymes are involved with antocyanin synthesis ; UFGalT seems to be the most important enzyme in red pigmentation of 'Fuji'.
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  • Sang Heon Han, Saneyuki Kawabata
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 322-327
    Published: May 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The concentration of a constituent in a fruit, which is often related to fruit quality, is caused by changes in the accumulation of a constituent, water, or both. In this study, changes in dry matter percentage and sugar concentration of 'Hayward' kiwifruits were analyzed with respect to the accumulation of dry matter, sugars, or water during growth in 1995 and 1996. Fruit growth curve by fresh weight and water content showed a clear double sigmoid curve, whereas that based on dry matter did not. Percentage of dry matter, which increased until the end of stage II, decreased immediately after the start of stage III, and then recovered gradually. The decrease in dry matter was accompanied by a rapid inflow of water into the fruit, which indicates that the increase in water import into fruits is responsible for the re-starting of rapid growth at the beginning of stage III. During the latter half of stage III, dry matter content increased without an increase in water content. Starch concentration increased during stages I and II to reach a plateau at the beginning of stage III. Toward the end of stage III, starch concentration decreased, and total sugar concentration increased rapidly. Since no change in water content occurred during this period, the increase in total sugar content reflected directly to the concentration.
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  • Mikio Shiraishi, Shinichi Shiraishi
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 328-334
    Published: May 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Free amino acids in the juice of four table grape cultivars ('Campbell Early', 'Kyoho', 'Muscat Bailey A', and 'Neo Muscat') grown in eight locations, primarily in the southwest part of Japan, were analyzed in 1992 and 1993. In each cultivar, total amino acids content ranged between 1.0 to 1.8 mM. To compare the similarity in the amino acid composition of berries produced in different years and locations, the pattern similarity index (PSI) was calculated. The PSI is defined as a cosine of the angle (θ) between the amino acid composition of environment A for vector OA (aAsp, aThr, …, aArg=a1, a2, …, an) and that of environment B for vector OB (bAsp, bThr, …, bArg=b1, b2, …, bn) in n dimensional space : [numerical formula] With regard to the amino acid composition (pattern), the PSI value consisted of the intuitive judgment of similarity on the pattern. As the number of significantly differentiated amino acids increased, the PSI correspondingly tended to be lower. Based on the PSI value, the criterion of classification for pattern similarity of amino acid composition was proposed as follows : over 0.980 as "more similar" ; below 0.979 as "less similar". The percentage frequencies of "more similar" patterns, with respect to PSI values, 'Campbell Early', 'Muscat Bailey A', 'Neo Muscat', and 'Kyoho' were 75, 73, 72, and 69%, accounting for about 70% of all pairwise comparisons (nC2). They suggest that the amino acid composition in grape berries is highly similar even if the years and/or locations are different. Each pattern of amino acid composition in the cultivars examined are visually different from each other. When mean concentrations of the individual amino acid were calcuated by averaging two years in Fukuoka, the PSI values were 0.959 in 'Kyoho', 0.899 in 'Muscat Bailey A', and 0.753 in 'Neo Muscat' in contrast with 'Campbell Early'. 'Kyoho' vs. 'Muscat Bailey A', 'Kyoho' vs. 'Neo Muscat' and 'Muscat Bailey A' vs. 'Neo Muscat' gave "less similar" patterns with the PSI vaules of 0.979, 0.882, and 0.933, respectively. These results indicate that the amino acid composition in grape berries is a useful marker for ampelographic work.
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  • Hino Motosugi, Ken Okudo, Daisuke Kataoka, Takasumi Naruo
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 335-341
    Published: May 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Autotetraploids of three grape rootstocks, 'Gloire de Montpellier'('Gloire', Vitis riparia Michx), 'Rupestris St. George'('St. George', V. rupestris Scheele), and 'Couderc 3309'('3309', V. riparia×V. rupestris), were induced by the colchicine treatment of micropropagated plantlets. Doubling of chromosomes in the selected colchicine-treated clones was confirmed by flow cytometric analysis of the immature leaves. The tetraploid leaves had larger stomata that were distributed at a lower density than those of the original diploid leaves. In the rooting culture, all tetraploids had much shorter root lengths than had the original diploids. Under rooting culture, tetraploid shoots of 'Gloire' and 'St. George' were shorter than those of diploids, but tetraploids of '3309' were not. In the acclimating stage in this experiment, the tetraploids, also had shorter shoots, internodes and roots than had the original diploid plants. In the greenhouse experiment, shoot of tetraploid rootstocks, likewise, made poorer growth than did those of the diploids, but they tended to have thicker stem diameters and the specific leaf weights (leaf dry weight/leaf area). The thicker and shorter roots of the tetraploid rootstocks made their root system more compact than the diploids.
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  • Yutaka Sawamura, Toshihiro Saito, Moriyuki Shoda, Toshiya Yamamoto, Yo ...
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 342-347
    Published: May 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    A nucleotide sequence of a new self-incompatible allele was identified in Japanese pear cultivars 'Shinsei' and 'Shinkou', designated as 'S9'. The obtained sequence was successfully translated into 167 deduced amino acids, in which both regions of 2 histidine residues, essential for RNase activity, and 6 cysteine residues having characteristics of S-RNase in Japanese pears, were conserved. An intron of about 1.1kbp was found within the S9 gene that was significantly homologous to the registered S genes from the pear and apple. The S9 was clustered with the S3 gene of apple on a dendrogram to suggest that they are closely related. Segregation analysis on the F1 progenies of 'Shinsei' x '282-12' indicated that the S9 was an allele on S locus and, hence, could act as S-RNase.
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  • Tsuneo Ogata, Tomoko Hirota, Shuji Shiozaki, Shosaku Horiuchi, Kenji K ...
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 348-354
    Published: May 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The effects of temperature and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), an ethylene synthesis inhibitor, on fruit set and growth of satsuma mandarins (Citrus unshiu Marc.), using 6- and 14- year-old potted trees in a temperature-controlled growth chamber and in a greenhouse, respectively, were studied. Trees, kept at 30°C in the daytime from bloom to the physiological fruit drop, resulted in severe fruit abscission more than did those kept at 25°C. Application of 200 ppm AVG at the start of blooming reduced ethylene production from flower and young fruit, and improved fruit set at 30°C. Fruit size, rind color, and juice characteristics indicated that high temperature and treatment with AVG advanced fruit growth and maturity, compared to temperatures presently used commercially. Therefore, the combination of AVG, which promotes fruit set, and heating to 30°C are useful management tools to accelerate fruit growth and quality.
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  • Yuichi Yoshida, Nobuhiro Koyama, Hirotoshi Tamura
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 355-361
    Published: May 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Changes in concentration and composition of anthocyanins during color development in fruit of strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch.) were determined, using a pelargonidin 3-malonyl-glucoside (PMG)-producing cultivar 'Nyoho'. Color parameters of fruit appearance (L* : lightness, H° : hue angle and C* : chroma) reached their minimum (L* and H°) or maximum (C*) levels at 41 days after anthesis, while the concentration of total anthocyanins continued to increase. Anthocyanins may accumulate in the inner part of a receptacle at a later stage of fruit maturation. Anthocyanins may accumulate in the inner part of a receptacle at a later stage of fruit maturation. Although the relative percentage of cyanidin 3-glucoside (CG) was high at the early stage of color development, the percentage of PMG was relatively constant throughout coloring period. The occurrence or absence of PMG in strawberry cultivars can be determined readily. A further analysis was conducted to determine the occurrence of PMG in 20 Japanese cultivars. Pelargonidin 3-glucoside (PG) was the predominant pigment (66-94% of total anthocyanins), while PMG (5-24% of total anthocyanins) was detected in 11 cultivars. However, there was no significant difference in color parameters and the concentration of total anthocyanins between the groups of PMG-producing and -lacking cultivars. There were significant linear relationships between the concentration of total anthocyanins, and L* and H°, and also between the relative percentage of CG and L*. Within cultivars lacking PMG, there was a negative relationship between the relative percentage of PG and H°, but a positive one within cultivars producing PMG. Therefore, the occurrence or absence of PMG may play a negligible role in color development, but a balance of three major anthocyanins may affect color appearance of strawberries.
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  • Toyohiko Ariga, Hitomi Kumagai, Masakiyo Yoshikawa, Hajime Kawakami, T ...
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 362-369
    Published: May 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    We tried to identify the unidentified Allium plant, 'Mushuu-ninniku', which resembles garlic (A. sativum L.) but has no garlic odor. 'Mushuu-ninniku' is much larger than a garlic. Its plant height and bulb weight are twice that of garlic. It develops many different sized cloves, inflorescences, and flowers, but no inflorescent bulbil. The chromosome number of 'Mushuu-ninniku' is 2n=32, similar to leek (A. ampeloprasum L.), but double that of garlic. In restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), 'Mushuu-ninniku' produced patterns similar to those of leek and quite unlike those of great-headed garlic (A. ampeloprasum L.), which usually has a prominent bulb similar to 'Mushuu-ninniku'. Isozyme analyses also showed some similarity between 'Mushuu-ninniku' and leek. Although the alliinase mRNA size (1.9 kb) of 'Mushuu-ninniku' was identical to those of other Allium plants examined, the N-terminal 25 amino acids sequence of 'Mushuu-ninniku' alliinase was different from those of other Allium plants examined except leek. From these results, we concluded that 'Mushuu-ninniku' belongs to Allium ampeloprasum.
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  • Yohichi Matsubara, Noriko Hasegawa, Hirokazu Fukui
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 370-374
    Published: May 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Seedlings of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L., cv. Mary Washington 500 W) were inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Glomus sp. R10) and grown in the presence of different soil amendments : carbonized chaff (CC), coconut charcoal (CO) and manure of coffee residue (MC) mixed with the soil in the ratio of 1 : 9 (v/v, 10% plot) or 3 : 7 (30% plot). Nine weeks later, the seedlings were exposed to fusarium root rot, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi (Foa) to test their tolerance. When asparagus seedlings were examined 13 weeks after Foa inoculation, incidence of fusarium root rot reached 90-100% in all the AM fungus-noninoculated plants, irrespective of the soil amendments. However, the incidences of root rot were 14.3% in the 30% CO and 20% in the 10% MC plots among the AM fungus-inoculated plants. In the non-AM inoculated plants, the disease indices reached 92.5 in the soil only plot and 48.9 in the 30% CC plot. As for AM-treated plants, the indices attained remarkably low values of 2.9 in the 30% CO and 4.0 in the 10% MC plots. More storage roots developed in the AM-treated plants than in the control, whether they were diseased or healthy. AM fungal infection levels were higher in the root systems of 10% and 30% CO and 10% MC plots than in the other plots ; little difference occurred among 10% and 30% CO and 10% MC plots. Furthermore, the infection area of the AM fungus in a root system was most extensive in the CO plots. These findings suggest that the addition of coconut charcoal or manure of coffee residue to bed soil is effective for increasing the tolerance to fusarium root rot in AM fungus-infected asparagus plants, though the effect differed with the quantity of the soil amendments.
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  • Ayano Michishita, Kenji Ureshino, Ikuo Miyajima
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 375-381
    Published: May 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    To confirm that unilateral cross-incompatibility exists between Rhododendron serpyllifolium, series Serpyllifolia, and six evergreen azaleas belonging to series Kaempferia, interspecific crosses were conducted. In crosses with R. serpyllifolium as seed parents, few seeds of the progenies germinated ; the survivors developed into plants with green leaves which PCR-RFLP analysis showed as having R. serpyllifolium type ptDNA. In the reciprocal crosses with R. serpyllifolium as pollen parents, many seeds germinated but many were non-viable albinos which had Kaempferia type ptDNA. In crosses between R. transiens (Accession 1)×R. serpyllifolium (Accession 1), however, relatively high frequency of green seedlings having R. serpyllifolium type ptDNA appeared. From these results, we conclude that it is better to use R. serpyllifolium as pollen parent for obtaining many seedlings, and that, in this case, R. transiens (Accession 1) is useful as bridge plants for overcoming plastome-genome incompatibility between R. serpyllifolium and series Kaempferia species.
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  • Takuya Tetsumura, Ryutaro Tao, Akira Sugiura
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 382-384
    Published: May 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The rooting ability of cuttings, collected from micropropagated and severely pruned stock plants of three Japanese persimmon cultivars, was investigated. The leaf-bud softwood cuttings from micropropagated stock plants of all three cultivars rooted well. The rooting percentages of the cuttings from micropropagated 'Jiro' and 'Nishimurawase' stock plants were as high as those from root suckers ; those of cuttings from 'Hiratanenashi' and 'Jiro' stock plants, grafted on seedlings and severely pruned, were low. Hardwood cuttings from the mounded micropropagated stock plants rooted well ; their rooting percentage was similar to that from the mounded root suckers of 'Nishimurawase'. However, cuttings from the mounded stock plants, grafted on seedlings, failed to root.
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  • Matsuzo Kato, Hiroko Shimizu, Tamotsu Hisamatsu, Takashi Onozaki, Nats ...
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 385-387
    Published: May 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The vase life of cut Campanula medium flowers in relation to ethylene production and its sensitivity to ethylene was investigated. Senescence of flowers was accelerated by exposure to ethylene at 2 μl·liter-1 for 48 hr, but not at 10 μl·liter-1 for 16 hr. Pollination markedly accelerated petal senescence of the cut flowers, but not by crushing the stigma or removing the stigma and style. Unpollinated flowers did not produce ethylene with flower senescence, whereas pollination markedly accelerated the climacteric increase in ethylene production from flowers, petals and pistil. Treatment with silver thiosulphate (STS), an ethylene action inhibitor, did not extend the vase life of unpollinated flowers, but markedly extended that of pollinated flowers. These results indicate that ethylene is involved in the senescence of pollinated flowers, but to a small degree in unpollinated flowers.
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  • Takayuki Sakamoto, Yasuyoshi Hayata, Hiroshi Kozuka, Koji Sakamoto, Os ...
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 388-390
    Published: May 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Sulfur-containing compounds in the aromatic volatiles of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Miyabi) and their characteristics were analyzed by using a sniffing-GC equipped with a flame photometer detector (FPD). Nine sulfur-containing compounds were present in melon 'Miyabi'; of the four compounds identified, 3-(methylthio) propyl acetate had the highest peak area ratio (PAR) of 19.47, followed by ethyl (methylthio) acetate, ethyl 3-(methylthio) propionate, and 2-(methylthio) ethyl acetate. 3-Methylthio-1-propanol was the least concentrated (PAR of 0.27) among the compounds identified. 3-(Methylthio) propyl acetate possessed a sweet grassy odor, while ethyl (methylthio) acetate had a grassy cucumber-like odor according to the sniffing panel. Although 2-(methylthio) ethyl acetate existed at a high concentration, it was not perceived by the sniffing panel. Ethyl 3-(methylthio) propionate possessed a fruity grassy odor, and it was perceived weakly. 3-Methylthio-1-propanol and other unidentified sulfur-containing compounds were, likewise, barely detectable. Thus, it is clear that 3-(methylthio) propyl acetate and ethyl (methylthio) acetate are the important compounds in imparting the grassy aroma to 'Miyabi'.
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  • Hirofumi Kurata, Rie Azuma, Kenichi Nakabayashi, Keishi Shimokawa, Mas ...
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 391-393
    Published: May 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Changes in levels of fluorescence substances (FS) in aqueous extracts of Citrus unshiu (C. unshiu) peels were measured by the 3-dimensional (3-D) fluorescence spectrophotometer. FS, extracted from C. unshiu peels, have characteristic fluorescence at excitation (Ex) 320-330 nm and emission (Em) 420-440 nm. Ex and Em of FS are very similar to those of lipofucsin-like-compounds known to accumulate in tissues during aging and fluorescent-chlorophyll-catabolites (FCC) appeared to be a product of oxidative cleavage of chlorophyll (Chl)-porphyrin. The amount of FS increased in yellow-green C. unshiu peels and decreased in yellow C. unshiu peels. In ethylene-treated C. unshiu peels, the amount of FS increased at the time of rapid disappearance of Chl, and decreased after that, whereas FS of non-treated C. unshiu peels did not change during incubation. A possible participation of FS in Chl catabolism is discussed.
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  • Mayumi Befu, Akira Kitajima, Kojiro Hasegawa
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 394-400
    Published: May 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Chromosomes were isolated enzymatically from young leaves of 'Tanikawa-Buntan' pummelo (an uncertain hybrid with Citrus grandis), 'Yoshida-Ponkan' mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco), 'Mukaku-Kishu' (C. kinokuni Hort. ex Tanaka), and sour orange (C. aurantium Linn.). The chromosomes were stained with Giemsa, chromomycin A3 (CMA), and quinacrine mustard (QM). In CMA staining, five characteristic banding patterns (types A, B, C, D and E) were observed. The chromosome compositions with different CMA banding patterns were 3A+2C+4D+9E for 'Tanikawa-Buntan', 1B+1C+9D+7E for 'Yoshida-Ponkan', 1C+8D+9E for 'Mukaku-Kishu', and 1B+2C+8D+7E for sour orange. The chromosome composition in 'Mukaku-Kishu' was identical with koji (C. leiocarpa Hort. ex Tanaka). The sour orange had a type C chromosome with an elongated second constriction. Some chromosomes classified as the same CMA type exhibited different relative sizes in the CMA (+) regions. Type D chromosomes, which were not classifiable on the basis of chromosome lengths were categorized into two groups in 'Mukaku-Kishu' and three groups in the sour orange based on the relative sizes of their CMA (+) regions. Therefore, the relative sizes of CMA (+) regions are useful as indices for chromosome classification so that the relationships within the genus Citrus could be established.
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  • Fumihiro Katoh, Atsushi Ooishi
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 401-404
    Published: May 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The relationship between tree age and the depth of leaf sinus of myrica seedling (Myrica rubra Sieb. et. Zucc.) was investigated. The leaf sinus of the seedlings become gradually but significantly shallow as the trees age from 0 to 10 years. The depth of leaf sinus in sprouts propagated by cuttings from yearling stock plants was nearly the same as that of the stock plants. However, in sprouts of cuttings from the 2, 3, 4 and 5-year-old seedlings, the depth of leaf sinus was significantly deeper than that of the stock plants. The sinus of the leaf of the sprouts derived from microcutting in vitro was obviously deeper than that of stock plants. Thus, depth of the leaf sinus can indicate the juvenile status of myrica plants.
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  • Shoko Tanaka, Tadashi Ito, Yasufumi Ochi, Yasukatsu Someya, Tetsuo Hir ...
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 405-410
    Published: May 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Cucumber plants were grown on nutrient solutions having different osmotic pressures and Ca concentrations to test their effects on the occurrence and development of downy mildew, Pseudo-peronospora cubensis (Berk. & Curt.) Rost. Exp.1. The leaf incidence of downy mildew per inoculated leaves of plants irrigated with 4 times strength of standard Enshi-shoho solution (H treatment) was lower than those irrigated with 1/8 strength solution (L treatment) in susceptible cultivar Pretty. There were no differences in the days to appearance of symptom and the number of lesions per leaf between these two treatments. Eleven days after inoculation, leaf osmotic pressure in H and L-H treatments (concentration was changed one day after inoculation) were higher than that in L treatment. The lesion area per spot in L treatment was significantly large, whereas those in H and L-H treatments remained unchanged. Exp.2. 'Pretty' and 'Poinsett' (resistant) were grown in nutrient solutions with different osmotic pressures based on total salt concentrations (1, 1.5 and 2 strength) or by adding CaCl2 to 1 strength solution (Ca 16, 24, 32 me·liter-1). The rate of lesion area per whole plant decreased with increasing osmotic pressure of petiole sap in both cultivars ; no relationship was found between rate of lesion area and mineral concentrations of petiole sap. In 'Pretty', many hyphae and sporangia were present in the lesions in all treatments, but the density of sporangia and density and lengths of hyphae in 2 strength and in Ca 32 me tend to be lower than those in the control. Although few hyphae were observed in 'Poinsett' lesion, the density of sporangia in double strength and in Ca 32 me tended to be lower than that in the control. These results suggest that high osmotic pressure in the plant was effective in suppressing lesion development, mainly by inhibiting hypha growth, regardless of the composition of nutrient solution. It seemed that 'Poinsett' has a stronger resistance to invasion of downy mildew than 'Pretty'.
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  • Yoichi Morinaka, Naoya Fukuda, Kenji Takayanagi
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 411-418
    Published: May 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Adsorptive column, packed with Porapak Q as the adsorbent, was used to concentrate volatile compounds in fresh perilla (Perilla frutescens) leaves prior to gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. The aroma concentrates prepared by this method yielded information related to the sensory evaluations of the sample. The GC tracing from 36 perilla leaf samples exhibited a total of 120 peaks ; the maximum number of peaks per sample was 67 while the minimum was 26, with an average of 45 peaks. The major component in 29 of 36 perilla leaf samples was perillaldehyde, whereas dillapiol, elsholt-ziaketone or perillaketone was the major one in the rest of the samples. The 36 leaf samples fell into 6 groups by cluster analysis of the GC data, which was not fully consistent with grouping on the basis of sensory evaluation. However, there was a certain correspondence between GC profiles and sensory profiles so that the aroma concentrates, prepared by the adsorptive column method, yielded significant information related to sensory evaluations of the sample.
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  • Masakazu Kasumi
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 419-423
    Published: May 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa 'Nyoho') calli, derived from anthers, were irradiated with gammaray at dosages from 100 to 1, 600 Gy (10 Gy·hr-1) and their effects on callus growth, plant regeneration, and somaclonal variation were analyzed. The growth of callus and percentage of plant regeneration from the callus were reduced slightly at dosages less than 200 Gy, moderately at 400 Gy, and markedly above 800 Gy. Fruit growth associated with seed fertility (>50%) was morphologically normal at less than 100 Gy, whereas achene formation was significantly inhibited above 200 Gy. The percentages of morphological variation in regenerants formed from the irradiated callus were : 13.7 (no irradiation), 18.6 (100 Gy), 66.0 (200 Gy), 75.7 (400 Gy), and 97.0 (800 Gy). Furthermore, higher dosages yielded wider variations, e.g., thick and small leaf, light leaf color, white flesh, and long fruit. In some regenerants, more than one morphological aberrations developed, some of which were transmissible to daughter plants. These results revealed that the irradiating strawberry callus with gamma-ray resulted in a higher degree and wider spectrum of somaclonal variation than did simple callus culture.
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  • Yoichi Morinaka, Naoya Fukuda, Kenji Takayanagi
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 424-433
    Published: May 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
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    The relationship between gas chromatic (GC) data and sensory evaluation was analyzed in 36 perilla leaf samples by multivariate analysis. Using the external vector model, the quantities of GC peaks were fitted as vectors with the sample configuration obtained by principal component analysis of sensory data. The degree of fitness of the concentration represented by the area under the GC peak with the sample configuration was generally better using the absolute values rather than the relative values. This analysis indicates that terpenoids are important contributors to the sensory attribute of perilla aroma. The finding also reveals that changes in relative quantities of lypoxygenase derivatives, such as (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and (E)-2-hexenal, following changes in absolute quantities of terpenoids, are important. The GC peaks whose degrees of fitness were statistically significant (P<0.05), show that the directions of vectors generally corresponded to their respective odor characters. Hence, we can conjecture on the influence that the constituents, represented by the GC peaks, have on the sensory properties of the perilla samples by this method. Based on stepwise multiple regression analysis, the absolute values yielded higher accuracy than did the relative values in the 1st principal component (PC), whereas the relative values gave higher accuracy in 2nd PC. The reasonable accuracy of estimation was observed in every multiple regression formula. These results indicate that there is a possibility for estimating the aroma property of fresh perilla leaves objectively by applying multiple regression formula and GC data without using a sensory evaluation.
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  • Xun Jin, Syoichi Ichihashi
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 434-440
    Published: May 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The release of major ions into deionized distilled water from fresh and used New Zealand sphagnum moss, Chinese sphagnum moss, New Zealand bark, coconut husk chips, and rock wool under aseptic and non-aseptic conditions were investigated to clarify the aspects of ion release. Absorption of major ions from a nutrient solution by potted Doritaenopsis plants with comparable materials and their growth was also studied. 1. Release of ions from 5 different potting materials differed both in aseptic and non-aseptic conditions. Major elements ions released from sphagnum moss and coconut husk chips were much more than those from the other potting materials. Release of ions from used materials was significantly less. 2. Doritaenopsis potted with sphagnum moss grew better than did those with New Zealand bark, coconut husk chips or rock wool ; growth differences among the 5 different potting materials seemed to be caused by their different water holding capacity and/or major ion release. 3. The ability to absorb major ions differed among potting materials. Doritaenopsis potted with sphagnum moss absorbed more major ions. The difference is attributed partially to the ions, which are released from the potting materials.
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  • Hirofumi Kurata, Rie Azuma, Keishi Shimokawa, Masaru Adachi
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 441-445
    Published: May 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effect of 2, 2'-bipyridyl on ethylene-enhanced degreening in Citrus unshiu fruit was investigated. In ethylene-treated fruit, 2, 2'-bipyridyl inhibited the enhanced degreening process and did not cause the accumulation of phytol-free catabolites, chlorophyllide a, and pheophorbide a, but on the contrary, induced the accumulation of chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, and pheophytin a, 2, 2'-Bipyridyl inhibited ethylene-enhanced chlorophyllase (Chlase) activity, but it had no effect on the enzyme in vitro. These results indicate that 2, 2'-bipyridyl inhibits the induction of Chlase, which is the key enzyme in the initial step of Chl catabolism and the degreening in ethylene-treated Citrus unshiu fruit.
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  • Michihito Deguchi, Hiroshi Saeki, Wataru Ohkawa, Koki Kanahama, Yoshin ...
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 446-448
    Published: May 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Effect of low temperature on sorbitol metabolism was investigated in peach (Prunus persica Batsch var. vulgaris Mixim.) leaves. Sorbitol content in leaf discs was increased after 16-hr incubation at 10/4°C whereas it remained constant at 18°C. The conversion of [14C] glucose to [14C] sorbitol was also hastened by the low temperature treatment. Northern blot analysis indicated that the level of mRNA encoding putative S6PDH was higher under low temperature than control. These results suggest that sorbitol accumulation is induced by low temperature and the accumulation is due to an increase in sorbitol biosynthesis from glucose that is related to the expression of the S6PDH gene.
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  • Hiroko Shimizu, Kazuo Ichimura
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 449-451
    Published: May 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of the ease of self-pollination on the vase life in cut Eustoma flowers were investigated by using 13 cultivars. The vase life of Eustoma florets was reduced by self-pollination in 10 out of 13 cultivars. The distance from the stigma to anther and the rate of natural self-pollination varied among the cultivars, such that the rate of pollinated flowers was negatively correlated with the distance from the stigma to anther (r=-0.86). This indicates that flowers are more apt to be pollinated if the distance is short. Hence, we conclude that the vase life of cut Eustoma florets is affected by the relative ease at which natural self-pollination occurs, which in turn, is a function of the distance between the stigma and the anthers.
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  • Hiroshi Hosoda, Yumiko Iwahashi
    2002 Volume 71 Issue 3 Pages 452-454
    Published: May 15, 2002
    Released: January 31, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effect of onion juice on the browning of slices and juice of apple was examined. The browning of apple slices was completely suppressed by dipping them in onion juice diluted with an equal volume of water for 10 minutes. The browning of apple juice was, likewise, inhibited when the 50% apple juice was prepared by the addition of an equal volume of onion juice. Though the polyphenol oxidase activity of the apple was inhibited about 80% by the onion juice, 20% of activity still remained. Because the reaction liquid does not change to yellow, even if the reaction progresses in this condition, it was suggested that the formation of the browning material had been inhibited by the onion juice reacting wich the product by 20% the remainder polyphenol oxidase activity.
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