Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
Online ISSN : 1880-358X
Print ISSN : 0013-7626
ISSN-L : 0013-7626
Volume 61 , Issue 4
Showing 1-26 articles out of 26 articles from the selected issue
  • Kojiro Hasegawa, Hirotoshi Nagata
    1993 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 747-755
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    At harvest, the occurrence of poorly-filled, imperfect (I) and well-filled, perfect (P) persim- mon seeds, their frequency and size in cvs. Jiro and Maekawa-Jiro were compared with sever- al other cultivars.
    1. Poorly-filled seeds of 'Jiro' and 'Maekawa-Jiro' became evident early in the growth period of the fruit; they were thinner than the well-filled normal appearing ones and parts of them became discolored (blackened) in late July. In September, they were almost entirely black.
    2. Imperfect seeds were most numerous in 'Jiro' and 'Maekawa-Jiro', moderate in 'Hanagosho' and 'Zenjimaru'; and the fewest in 'Saijo', 'Matsumotowase-Fuyu', and 'Fuyu'. They occurred in fruits with or without perfect seeds.
    3. At harvest the width and length of imperfect seeds were smaller or of equal size com- pared with those of perfect seeds. The average seed size in 'Jiro' and 'Maekawa-Jiro' was larger than those of other cvs. The thickness and fresh weight of imperfect seeds were al- ways less than those of perfect ones.
    4. In 'Jiro' and 'Maekawa-Jiro', 3040% of the imperfect seeds was embryoless, whereas 15% of the perfect seeds, which appeared normal, lacked an embryo.
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  • Masashi Yamamoto, Naomi Okudai, Ryoji Matsumoto, Yoshio Yamada
    1993 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 757-762
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In citrus, seedlessness is a desirable characteristic and. is one of the major breeding ob-jectives. One means of breeding new seedless or nearly seedless citrus cultivars is to produce male sterile hybrid seedlings. However, the relationship between male sterility and seed num-ber per fruit in hybrid plants has never been clear. Furthermore, the inheritance pattern for seed number has not been determined. Thus, the inheritance for seed number and the rela-tionship between seed number and pollen yield in 237 hybrid progenies resulting from 15 cross combinations were studied.
    I. A positive correlation (r=0.772**) was found between the mean seed number per fruit in the two parents and that in their progenies. A negative correlation (r = -0.687**) was found between percentage of seedless hybrid progenies (mean seed number per fruit less than 1.0) and the mean seed number per fruit of the parents.
    2. The mean seed number per fruit in progenies ranged 0.2 6.2, 1.421.8, and 4.518.6 in male sterile progenies, in progenies of poor yield of pollen, and in progenies of medium to good yield of pollen, respectively. In the same cross combination, the mean seed number per fruit was fewer in male sterile progenies than in male fertile progenies. The percentage of seedless hybrid progenies ranged 0.0100.0%, 0.075.0%, and 0.050.0% in male sterile progenies, in progenies of poor yield of pollen, and in progenies of medium to good yield of pollen, respectively. The percentage of seedless hybrid progenies was higher in male sterile progenies than in male fertile progenies in the same cross-combination except for one case.
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  • Haruyuki Kuroda, Shonosuke Sagisaka, Kazuhiko Chiba
    1993 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 763-771
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The relationship between peroxide metabolism and cold hardiness in flower buds of the apple, Malus pumila Mill., was studied during natural spring dehardening and under controlled dehardening conditions. During the natural spring dehardening, there was an increase, as cold hardiness decreased, in the activities of NADH-Cyt c reductase and Cyt c oxidase, enzymes involved in the electron-transport chains that are a major site of production of H2O2. By con-trast, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucosephosphate isomerase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase, enzymes associated with peroxide-scavenging systems that are coupled with the pentose phosphate cycle, varied as the development of flower buds proceeded. Under con-trolled dehardening conditions, the activities of NADH-Cyt c reductase and Cyt c oxidase in-creased while those of the enzymes associated with peroxide-scavenging systems that are coupled with the pentose phosphate cycle tended to decrease.
    Both under natural and artificial dehardening conditions, the ratio of the activity of NADH-Cyt c reductase to that of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and the ratio of the activity of Cyt c oxidase to that of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, indices of oxidizability, in-creased as cold hardiness decreased. Thus, there was a significant correlation between the cold hardiness and the values of the oxidizability index. These results suggest that vernal decreases in cold hardiness may be interpreted as a process wherein the cells become sus-ceptible to freezing injury due to oxidative stress.
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  • Hirokazu Fukui, Yasutaka Mizuno, Yoshiaki Wakayama, Mitsuo Nakamura
    1993 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 773-778
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Embryo sacs and seeds were histologically observed to clarify the cause of seed abortion in Japanese persimmon cv. Fuyu. The embryo sac mother cell (EMC) was differentiated 24 days before anthesis, but the abnormal ones degenerated about 4 days later. Sixteen days prior to anthesis the average percentage of degenerated EMC was about 23%. Tetrasporangia or the 4-celled embryo sac was observed 12 to 14 days before anthesis but 2.5% of them immediately degenerated. Among the multiple embryo sacs observed in an ovule, at least one had the ability to become fertilized. Therefore, this abnormality does not significantly affect seed abortion.
    During seed development, two types of abnormal seeds were observed: 1) In 23% of ovules, the endosperm either did not undergo free nuclear division or the process was delayed. This is attributed to a male gamete not uniting with the polar nuclei; and 2) the 3n endosperm is aborted in about 21% of the ovules; the frequency of this anomaly increases about 15 days after anthesis.
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  • Toshiro Ono, Ryuichi Hiramatsu, Naohiro Kubota, Seishi Yoda, Nobutomo ...
    1993 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 779-787
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Investigations were conducted to gain basic data for improving the berry coloration of seed-less 'Pione' grapes treated with gibberellic acid. Four mature 'Pione' vines each of two strains growing in the same vineyard were selected for this study. the strains bore well- and poor-ly colored berries annually. Shoot growth and berry development on each vine were inves-tigated throughout the growing season.
    No significant differences in shoot elongation, increment of leaf area per shoot, and changes in chlorophyll content of leaves between the two strains were observed. Yield per ground area was slightly higher in vines of superior berry coloration than in those of inferior ones. 'Veraison' in the latter was five days later than in the former, but no notable difference in berry size between the two strains was observed. Index of skin color based on color chart was higher in vines of superior berry coloration than in those of inferior one throughout the ripening stage; it increased significantly in the former two to three weeks after veraison. At harvest, anthocyanin content of berry skins in vines of superior berry coloration was about twice that of inferior ones. Changes in total soluble solids contents of berries closely accom-panied changes in color and/or anthocyanin level of the skins. Total sugars, glucose, and fruc-tose contents of the pulp were also higher in vines of superior berry coloration than in those of inferior one, but any differences in ratios of sugars between the two strains were not sig-nificant.
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  • Kazuyuki Abe, Akio Kurihara
    1993 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 789-794
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Differences in scab-resistance of Japanese, Chinese, and European pear cultivars were ex-amined by spraying with a conidial suspension (2 × 105 conidial•m1-1) of pear scab, Ventur-ia nashicola.
    The degree of scab resistance in Pyrus species or cultivars could be classified into four types: Highly Resistant (HR), no macroscopic evidence of infection on any leaves; Resistant (R), necrotic lesions on a few leaves but with no sporulation; Susceptible (S), sparsely sporulat-ing lesions on a few leaves; and Highly Susceptible (HS), abundance of sporulating lesions on several leaves.
    Differences in scab-resistance were observed among Pyrus species. All European pear cul-tivars (P. communis) were evaluated as HR; most Japanese pear cultivars and selected clones (P. pyrifolia) were rated as HS or S, although 'Kinchaku' and 'Okusankichi' were designat-ed as being HR and R, respectively. Pear cultivars classified as P. ussuriensis or P. pyrifo-lia which originated in China were evaluated as either HR or R. Cultivars of P. bretschneideri exhibited an entire range from HR to HS.
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  • Ping Leng, Hiroyuki Itamura, Hiroshi Yamamura
    1993 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 795-804
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The freezing resistances of three Diospyros species and three cultivars of D. kaki were evalu- ated by survival of twigs and electrolyte leakage from the tissues after freezing treatments. Dormant 1-year-old twigs were cooled from -5° to -5°- 30°C within 5 hr, maintained at each temperature for 5 hr and thawed gradually to 5°C for 5 hr. The twigs soaked in water were held for 20 days under 20°C to determine recovery.
    The hardiest species during the coldest period of the season was D. lotus followed by D. kaki, and the least hardy was D. taitoensis which is distributed in subtropical Taiwan. The critical low temperatures that did not injure the plants were -10°C for D. taitoensis, -15°C for D. kaki and -20°C for D. lotus; the temperatures at which half of the test twigs was killed (LT50) were - 12°, -20° and -25°C, respectively. Their electrolyte leakage at LT50 ranged from 25 to 28%.
    Among three cultivars of D. kaki, Eiratanenashi' which is native to the northern region of Japan, was most tolerant to freezing during mid-winter ("true freezing resistance"), however, it was the most sensitive to freezing before cold acclimation in early autumn and after cold acclimation in spring.
    Starch hydrolyzed to sugars in twigs of three cultivars of D. kaki under natural conditions during mid-winter. A close relation was found between the freezing resistance, evaluated by electrolyte leakage from twig cells, and anthocyanin in the cortical tissues. Anthocyanin con- tents in cortical tissues reached a maximum in mid-February; the pigment levels tended to increase when plants were exposed to -10°- 30°C which were below the ambient tem- perature. Moreover, anthocyanin contents in the cortex decreased, and the twigs became less hardy by the deacclimation treatment during the coldest part of the season. Conversely, twigs under the chilling treatment before cold acclimation in early autumn became hardy; the change was accompanied by an elevation of anthocyanin content.
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  • Hirofumi Terai
    1993 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 805-812
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The behavior of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and ACC synthase respon- sible for ethylene production was studied using three types of tomato fruits; 'Beiju' as a ripen- ing type, nor mutant as an intermediate ripening type and rin mutant as a non-ripening type. In 'Beiju' tomatoes, the rate of ethylene production, ACC synthase activity. and the amounts of ACC and 1- (malonylamino) cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (MACC) increased with ripen- ing. In nor tomatoes, a slight increase in ethylene production and ACC synthase activity was observed about 50 days after anthesis. ACC and MACC accumulated markedly during the late stage of fruit development. In rin tomatoes, on the other hand, the activity of ACC syn- thase and the amounts of ACC and MACC hardly changed at any stage and the rate of eth- ylene production also remained nearly constant. Wounding the pericarp tissue in Yin tomatoes induced ACC synthase activity, whereas the activity was scarcely observed in intact fruits. Wounding of 'Beiju' and nor tomatoes during fruit development accelerated ACC synthase activity markedly and the seasonal patterns of the activity in the wounded fruits were simi- lar to that in intact fruits.
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  • Takehiko Nakashima
    1993 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 813-820
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Young lettuce seedlings were exposed to 10 -?20 klx of light from a metal halide lamps for 10 or 12 hr photoperiod to simulate low light intensity in winter (control). As treatments, see- dlings were given 1 to 3 klx of (a) pulsed or (b) continuous supplementary light from glow lamps. Pulsed or continuous supplemental light treatments were applied only during the light period.
    1. Under 10 klx main light conditions for a 10 hr photoperiod, dry matter production was the highest with 2 klx pulsed for 6 min every 30 min. It was 2.4 times as high as that without supplemental illumination and 1.6 times with 2 klx continuous supplemental illumination. Un- der 20 klx main light conditions, the treatment with 2 Mx pulsed 1 min every 5 min and 6 min every 30 min was more effective than that without supplemental light or with 2 klx continuous light. On the other hand, 2 klx pulsed supplemental illumination applied for 6 sec every 30 sec was least effective.
    2. When the pulsed supplemental light was turned on, the temperature of the leaves and their photosynthetic rate increased rapidly. When pulsed supplemental light was turned off, leaf temperature fell immediately, but the leaves maintained higher photosynthetic rates for a few minutes compared with the leaves that was not exposed to supplemental illumination.
    3. At the early growth stages, active leaf elongation was not recognized during the latter half of the 12 hr photoperiod due to water deficiency. But under pulsed supplemental illu- mination, the period of active leaf elongation extended to the latter half of the 12 hr pho- toperiod due to the adequate supply of water and acceleration of photosynthesis.
    4. On the basis of these results, pulsed supplemental illumination (for 6 min every 30 min) contributed to the acceleration of the early growth rate of lettuce under limited light con- ditions.
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  • Harumi Takahashi, Tsutomu Matsumoto, Takatsugu Takai
    1993 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 821-826
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    In order to confirm the resistance of 'M16-AR 1, 2 and 3' to isolates of Alternaria alternata strawberry pathotype occurring in Tohoku and Hokkaido, 'M16-AR' lines were inoculated with 8 isolates of the pathogen collected from 8 municipalities in both districts.
    Conidia of these 8 isolates were morphologically undifferentiable. However, the isolates differed slightly in their cultural characters.
    As a result of inoculating each of 8 isolates into leaf blades of various test plants, black spot, a typical symptom of this disease was formed only on strawberry cvs. Morioka-16 and Robinson and the Japanese pear cvs. Nijisseiki and Shinsui. Thus, it was confirmed Ithat the host range of the isolates was not different from that of Alternaria alternata strawberry pathotype reported previously in Japan.
    'M16-AR' lines inoculated with the 8 isolates were found to be resistant. Furthermore, these lines cultured for three years (1989 to 1991) under field conditions were not affected by Alternaria black spot of strawberry. Consequently, it seems that selections of 'M16-AR' lines may be the preferred cultivars to plant instead of 'Morioka-16' for Tohoku and Hokkaido in Japan.
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  • Yoichi Araki
    1993 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 827-837
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Effects of environmental factors (Experiment I) and NPK fertilizers (Experiment II) on leaf water potential of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Momotaro) plants potted in 3 soil types: yellow, kuroboku, and sand were studied. In Exp. I, potted tomato plants were grown in a glasshouse and then transferred to a growth chamber. The environmental factors were: air and soil temperatures, relative humidity, light intensity, wind velocity, and soil moisture content. In Exp. II, the entire experiment was conducted in the glasshouse using similar materials; the experimental variable was the amount of NPK fertilizer applied. The results are:
    1. A rise in light intensity, air temperature and wind velocity caused a decrease in leaf water potential (ψl), whereas a rise in relative humidity increased ψl.
    2. An increase in soil water suction and in the amount of fertilizer applied resulted in a decrease in ψl, whereas a rise in soil temperature increased ψl. It is concluded from these results that ψl decreased under environmental conditions which promote transpiration and/or suppress water uptake by roots.
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  • Masaharu Masuda, Yoshihiro Shimada
    1993 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 839-845
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Tomato plants, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., were decapitated 5 cm above the ground at 1-hr intervals for 24 hr, to investigate the dynamics of mineral transport from root to shoot. Each xylem sap sample was taken for 1 hr after discarding a few initial drops.
    Exudation rates increased from dawn (7:00 A. M.), reached the maximum between 9:00 and 12:00, and then decreased gradually.
    The concentration of nitrate in the xylem exudate increased slightly from early morning. Phosphate concentration increased rapidly from evening, reached maximum around 10:00 P. M., and then decreased to a minimum at 10:00 A. M. In contrast to phosphate, potassium concentration reached maximum around 10:00 A. M., then fell to a minimum around 8:00 P. M. Calcium and magnesium concentrations tended to increase slightly at night.
    The exudation rate decreased for the plants covered with black cheesecloth which reduced light intensity by 70%. Mineral concentrations were slightly higher in the shaded plants than in the control at noon, 3 hr after the treatment. As time lapsed, however, the mineral concentrations except that of phosphate decreased in the shaded plants. Phosphate concentration was always higher in shaded plants than in the control ones.
    The concentrations of nitrate, phosphate, calcium and magnesium in the xylem exudate decreased as plants aged, whereas potassium concentration was unaffected by plant age.
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  • Naotaka Matsuzoe, Hiromi Nakamura, Hiroshi Okubo, Kunimitsu Fujieda
    1993 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 847-855
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Tomato scions (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Momotaro) were grafted on Solanum sisym-briifolium, S. torvum and S. toxicarium which are resistant to soil-born disease, and their graft compatibility, fruit yield and temperature effect on the growth of grafted plants were compared with tomato grafted on its own roots, a tomato/tomato, scion/rootstock combination.
    Graft compatibility between tomato (scion) and three Solanum (rootstock) was excellent, achieving a success rate of 100%.
    The growth of the tomato grafted on S. sisymbriifolium was almost equal to that of tomato/tomato. Tomato/S. torvum and tomato/S. toxicarium grew slowly after grafting until the main shoot was pinched: they grew vigorously thereafter, suggesting a high symbiotic graft affinity.
    Fruit yield of tomato/S. sisymbriifolium was almost equal to that of tomato/tomato. Fruits of tomato/S. torvum were small and the yield smallest compared with the other scion/rootstock combinations. In tomato/S. toxicarium, fruit yield was about 80% of that of tomato/tomato in the spring crop, whereas their yields were nearly equal in the fall crop with the standard fertilizer application. Over- and under-application of fertilizer, however, caused lower yield in tomato/S. toxicarium than in tomato/tomato. Difficulties in adjusting the amount of fertilizer for the tomato/S. toxicarium were encountered.
    Photosynthesis rate was higher in tomato/S. sisymbriifolium than in tomato/tomato, indicating the wide range of tolerance to temperature in the former scion/rootstock combination. In tomato/S. toxicarium, photosynthesis rate was slower than in tomato/tomato. Tomato/S. toxicarium grew well at a narrow range of temperature, and, therefore, its vegetative growth was extremely poor at low winter temperatures.
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  • Masami Morishita, Tatsuya Mochizuki, Osamu Yamakawa
    1993 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 857-864
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A method for the selection of early flowering strawberry hybrids from a segregating population in the nursing was developed by exposing to a minimum number of cycles of 8 hr (SD) photoperiod and 12°C (low temperature) at night. The effect of sowing time, size of seedling, and size of the pot on flower induction was examined. In the process, the relationship between sensitivity to SD/low night temperature and earliness of seedling was established.
    1. Seedlings induced flower by the SD/low night temperature treatment emerged flower bud 28 to 30 days after the treatment ended, whereas the uninduced seedlings required an average 86 days to emerge flower bud. The percentages of seedlings induced flower increased with an increasing number of SD/low night temperature cycles as follows: 21.6% at 10-cycles; 57.5% at 15-cycles; and over 90% at after 20 cycles.
    2. Rate of seedlings induced flower in the July treatment was lower than that in the August treatment. This indicates that the natural daylength and temperature before the treatment or the natural temperature during the treatment affected on the sensitivity of seedlings to SD/low night temperature treatment.
    3. The sensitivity of seedlings to SD/low night temperature increased proportionally with the increased number of true leaves and crown diameter. But seedlings with less than about 9 true leaves and smaller than 2.5 mm crown diameter were too small to almost be induced flower by the treatment. Our data indicate that sensible true leaf number and crown diameter were more than 11 leaves, including mono and di-foliate ones, and larger than 3 mm crown diameter.
    4. The number of seedlings induced flower became higher as the size of pot was increased.
    5. Among seedlings induced flower by the SD/low night temperature, those which emerged flower bud earlier than 'Toyonoka' consisted of 89.2% after a 20-day cycle when the experiment was begun on 20 July; 73.5% after a 10-day cycle and 92.4% after a 15-day cycle was initiated on 10 August. The sensitivity of seedlings to the SD/low night temperature was closely related to the earliness of flowering.
    6. We conclude that exposure of strawberry seedlings to an 8 hr photoperiod / 12°C night temperature cycles for 10 to 15 days in the nursery is an effective means to select for early flowering types. We found that the best results were obtained if the seeds are sown in pots larger than 9 cm diam. in late March and exposed to SD/low night temperature from about 10 August.
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  • Naotaka Matsuzoe, Hiroshi Okubo, Kunimitsu Fuiieda
    1993 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 865-872
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Resistance of tomato plants cvs. Momotaro and Kyouryokubeiju grafted onto three root-stocks: Solanum sisymbriifolium, S. torvum and S. toxicarium to Pseudomonas solanacearum and Meloidogyne incognita was investigated.
    Own-rooted 'Momotaro' plants are highly susceptible to all of the five strains (I to V) of Pseudomonas solanacearum, whereas own-rooted S. toxicarium is completely resistant to all five strains. This resistance persists when S. toxicarium is grafted with scions of 'Momotaro'. Seedlings of S. sisymbriifolium on its own roots are resistant to strain HI, whereas those of S. torvum are resistant to strains I, II and V. When S. torvum is used as a rootstock, the combination, 'Momotaro'/S. torvum becomes susceptible to strain V. S. sisymbriifolium and S. torvum are susceptible to other strains but they become even more susceptible when used as rootstocks for 'Momotaro'. However, the strain-specific resistance of these three species to bacterial wilt is not affected by the susceptible factors of the tomato scion.
    'Kyouryokubeiju' and 'LS-89' are highly susceptible to M. incognita, whereas S. toxicarium and S. torvum are resistant. Small nodules were observed on roots of S. sisymbriifolium but nematode maturation and egg production was not observed. High resistance of these Solanum species to M. incognita persisted when they were used as rootstocks of 'Kyouryokubeiju'.
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  • Takahiro Tanigawa, Masaaki Nagaoka, Hiroshi Ikeda, Akemi Shimizu
    1993 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 873-878
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To assess the effect of CO2 enrichment on growth of greenhouse chrysanthemum, the plants were cultivated in the phytotron with 300, 600 and 1, 200 ppm CO2.
    1. CO2 enriched plants showed a significant increase in stem length, number of leaves, leaf area, and fresh and dry weights. The greatest rate of increase after 60 days of CO2 enrichment was observed in the dry weight of roots (39%). Flower bud formation was delayed 3 days under CO2 enriched condition.
    2. No difference in photosynthetic rates of whole plants measured in 400 and 800 ppm CO2 was observed among those grown under high CO2 (600 or 1, 200 ppm) and those grown in ambient air (300 ppm). After 60 days of exposure to ambient and high CO2, the photosynthetic rate measured in 800 ppm CO2 declined markedly compared to the rate at the beginning of the treatment.
    3. TTC (2, 3, 5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) reductive activity of roots decreased under CO2 enriched atmosphere, but it increased on a per plant basis because fresh weight of the roots increased. There was a high positive correlation between TTC reduction per plant and the fresh weight of the top (aerial part).
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  • Atsushi Kano, Kiyoshi Ohkawa, Yoko Kishimoto, Akira Nukaya
    1993 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 879-884
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Three experiments were conducted to test the effects of air temperature and day length on the differentiation and development of flower buds of Stephanotis floribunda Brongn.
    1. Flower bud differentiation was stimulated at 23°/18°C (air temperature, day/night) but inhibited at 33°/28°C. Day length did not seem to have any effect on the course of floral differentiation.
    2. Independent of the day length, air temperature of 33°/28°C hastened the development of flower buds. Under normal greenhouse temperature condition (temperature ranged between 18° and 30°C), the development of flower buds and anthesis were obsereved when the night cycle was interrupted by four hours of light. Under short day photoperiod, flower bud development was slow, and no flowering was seen during the experimental period.
    3. Besides ambient temperature, internal conditions, such as nutritional status of the plant and maturity of the buds, as well as irradiance during the shoot growth may affect floral initiation and/or development of flower buds.
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  • Masanori Goi, Zhigang Guo, Michio Tanaka, Toshiaki Chujo
    1993 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 885-893
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    The bud formation of six-year-old plants in Camellia wabisuke 'Tosauraku', was investigated with a stereoscopic binocular microscope and a scanning electronic microscope (SEM).
    1. Terminal buds and upper axillary buds develop into vegetative buds, whereas, the lower axillary buds remain undifferentiated and dormant. Flower buds are the axillary buds of outer bracts and prophylls of vegetative buds.
    2. The terminal buds are composed of: a) two bracts which are initiated as hypsophylls just before budbreak: b) five outer scales which differentiate between May and June: c) four inner scales which are differentiated between June and July: and d) seven leaf primordia which become visible and continue to differentiate from October through February. Some terminal buds, which form no outer scales, four inner scales and six leaf primordia from June through July, develop into summer shoots in August. The terminal buds of the summer shoots formed between August through March show structures similar to those of spring shoots.
    3. Axillary bud primordia are initiated, beginning in November, the various organs continue to differentiate in the axil of a developing leaf primordia through March. Two prophylls are formed by March, the axillary buds continue to develop after April, but some of them remain undifferentiated after outer scale formation.
    4. No further development of vegetative buds accompanied with a flower bud occurred after October.
    5. Axillary buds, initiated in the axils of outer bracts of terminal buds in March and in the prophylls of distal axillary buds on a current shoot in April, develop into floral buds. Floral buds consist of: a) six to seven bracts which differentiate from May to June: b) five to six sepals, and c) five petals which were initiated in July and continued to develop through August. Numerous stamens and a pistil consisting of three fused carpels defferentiate beginning in September. Pollen and ovules differentiated in October. The flowers bloom from February through March.
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  • Yoshihiro Kageyama, Yuichi Nakagawa, Kuniyoshi Konishi
    1993 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 895-900
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The relationship between growth of chrysanthemum cv. Seiun and their potassium (K) up-take capacity from hydroponic solutions of various K concentrations was investigated. From the results the optimum K application level for cut flower production was derived.
    1. In Experiment 1, the growth rates of plants grown at 30, 75, 150 and 300 ppm K were similar up to the flower budding stage. At 30, 75 and 150 ppm K, the chrysanthemum plants absorbed the same amount of K; at 300 ppm K, plants absorbed 1.2 times more K.
    2. In Experiment 2, which began on 3 May and ended on 28 June, there were six plots: one was adjusted weekly to 150 ppm K; the other five plots were supplied 2, 000, 1, 500, 1, 000, 500 and 100 mg K per plant at the beginning of the experiment. Plants supplied 2, 000, 1, 500 and 1, 000 mg K produced the good quality cut flowers; those supplied 500 mg K had small upper leaves, whereas middle and lower leaves of plants given 100 mg K exhibited necrosis and/or chlorosis, typical K deficiency symptoms. Plants grown at a constant 150 ppm K level had excessively large leaves and short flower stalks.
    3. Potassium contents in leaves and roots increased with increasing K concentration in the culture solution. Even when 2, 000 mg per plant were absorbed, excess K symptom was not observed. When leaf K content decreased below 4.0% on a dry matter basis, leaf Ca and Mg contents increased inversely.
    Based on our results, we recommend that 25 to 30 kg of potassium fertilizer (as K2O) is applied to produce 40, 000 cut chrysanthemum flowers per 1, 000m2 of green house space.
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  • Joseph G. Dubouzet, Ken-ichi Arisumi, Tetsuo Yoshitake, Takeomi Etoh, ...
    1993 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 901-910
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The horticultural and breeding performances of some A. thunbergii G. Don and A. chinense G. Don clones, their hybrids and backcross progenies, and their pollen compatibility with A. tuberosum Rottl. ex Spreng. 'Tender-Pole' were evaluated. The A. chinese × A. thunbergii hybrids showed outstanding adaptation to Kagoshima conditions. They produced purple colored globular inflorescences from late October to November. However, except for A. tuberosum 'Tender-Pole', the entries produced thin and weak flower scapes, which disqualified them for immediate use as cut flowers. A hexaploid progency of A. chinense × A. thunbergii, 87C28, produced the strongest flower scape. Data on percent emergence and vigor underline the superiority of the A. chinense × A. thunbergii hybrids in comparison with clones of the parental species.
    Results from an incomplete diallel cross indicate a) the cross combinations which may benefit from embryo rescue for better survival and b) unproductive parental materials. Comparison of progeny vigor 7 months after germination revealed several parents which produced superior hybrid progenies relative to the corresponding selfed ones. Of the eleven pairs of reciprocal hybrids, seven showed clear differences in vigor. A putative hybrid seedling from a 87C28 (A. chinense × A. thunbergii) × A. tuberosum 'Tender-Pole' cross is now being grown to verify its hybridity.
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  • Zhigang Guo, Masanori Goi, Michio Tanaka, Seiichi Fukai
    1993 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 911-918
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Vegetative and flower bud formations in Camellia wabisuke 'Tosauraku' exposed to 15°, 20°, and 25°C and photoperiod of 10 and 16 hr were compared with those of plants exposed to ambient temperatures in a glasshouse and natural daylength (control) from 1 April 1990 to 1 April 1991.
    1. The vegetative bud developed earlier at 20°C in the initial stage of formation, but growth in longitudinal diameter was faster at 15°C after August. The sizes of vegetative buds at 25°C and natural temperature were half of those at 15°C on 1 November.
    2. From 15° to 25°C, the number of outer scales increased with the increasing temperatures, while the number of leaf primordia decreased with the increasing temperatures. The number of inner-scales was not affected by temperature.
    3. Terminal and axillary buds of plants kept at 15°C sprouted after 1 November (after a 7-month treatment) ; those kept at 20°C began to sprout after 1 February (after 10-month- treatment). No plant kept at 25°C sprouted by 1 April 1991 (after one-year-treatment).
    4. The rate of formation of flower buds at 25°C was hastened by mid-June (after 45-day- treatment), but the development of flower buds at 20°C was the fastest after August; it was slowest at 15°C and under natural conditions.
    5. Flower buds at 20° and 15°C began blooming in mid-October (after 6.5-month-treatment) and in early November (after 7-month-treatment), respectively, but those on plants kept at 25°C became necrotic during November and December.
    6. The number of bracts and sepals constituting a flower bud was not affected by temperature. The number of petals per flower at 15°C was two more than that at 20° and 25°C.
    7. The number of outer scales and inner-scales in vegetative buds was not affected by photoperiod, but the number of leaf primordia was somewhat larger under the short-day. Moreover, the time of flower bud initiation was unaffected by photoperiod, but plants under the short-day bloomed 20 days earlier than did those under the long-day.
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  • Nyoyen J. L. Roxas, Yosuke Tashiro, Sadami Miyazaki, Akito Takeshita, ...
    1993 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 919-924
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase, phospho-gluco isomerase, and peroxidase in Higo chrysanthemum were electrophoretically analyzed in order to provide information for cultivar identification.
    In all the 3 enzymes of the 29 cultivars used, a high degree of polymorphisms in isozymes were observed and each cultivar showed different zymogram from every other cultivar. In some cultivars zymograms exhibited the same numbers and positions of bands but had different staining intensities. Therefore, isozyme analysis of these 3 enzymes is available to identify the cultivars. It will be pratically useful for the advancement of the preservation, propagation, and breeding of Higo chrysanthemum cultivars.
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  • Yusuke Sakata, Ikuo Miyajima, Ken-ichi Arisumi
    1993 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 925-932
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Rhododendron kaempferi Planch., at the foot of the Kirishima mountain mass, exhibited narrow range of variations in flower colour and petal blotch expression, producing vermilion shaded flowers with prominent blotches, except for the flower size showing a wide range of variation. Petal chemical pigmentation also showed a narrow range of variation. Anthocyanin of the cyanidin series was only observed. In addition, at the summit of the mountain mass, R. kiusianum Makino occurred with narrow range of variations, producing small, exclusively purple and almost blotchless flowers. Variations in chemical pigmentation were rarely observed. Anthocyanins of the delphinidin series and 5-methylated flavonols occurred in all individuals.
    On the other hand, azaleas on the slopes of the mountain mass showed wide phenotypic characteristics. The flower colour ranged from vermilion through pink to purple, the flower size ranged in diameter from 16 to 60 mm and the petal blotch expression was diverse. As regards chemical pigmentation, a wide range of variation was apparent. Moreover, phenotypic and pigmental characteristics of these azaleas varied according to the altitude of their habitats. The lower the altitude, the more the azaleas became similar to R. kaempferi, while the higher the altitude, the azaleas came to resemble R. kiusianum more closely.
    In view of the extremely wide phenotypic and pigmental characteristics, and the changes in the characteristics from those of R. kaempferi through the intermediate forms to those of R. kiusianum as altitude increased, azaleas on the slopes of the mountain seemed to be the result of natural hybridization between R. kaempferi and R. kiusianum.
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  • Tadaaki Fukushima, Hideki Murayama, Chiaki Katoh
    1993 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 933-939
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The rapidity of post-harvest chlorophyll degradation in three Japanese radish cvs. Hayabutori-tokinashi, Houryou and Soubutori-miyashige was studied. Seeds were sown on 10 May and the first harvest occurred on 19 June when half of the 'Soubutori-miyashige' plants had bolted. The bolted plants and the non-bolted plants of 'Hayabutori-tokinashi' and 'Houryou' were harvested and kept at 20°C. On 4 July when half of the 'Houryou' plants began to bolt, both the bolted and non-bolted plants and non-bolted 'Hayabutori-tokinashi' plants were harvested and stored at 20°C. At harvest and 3 days later, leaves at different positions were analyzed for chlorophyll content.
    1. Leaf chlorophyll level decreased more rapidity 3 days after storage in plants harvested on 4 July than it did in those harvested on 19 June. The degradation took place more rapidly in lower than it did in upper leaves; the pace was accelerated on bolted plants.
    2. The respiration rate of bolted plants in the dark was slightly higher than that from non-bolted ones. The rate of ethylene evolution of 'Hayabutori-tokinashi' plants was the fastest. There is no correlation between the rates of ethylene evolution and chlorophyll degradation.
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  • Yuko Ishikawa(Takano), Yoshinori Ikoma, Katsuyoshi Kaneko
    1993 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 941-950
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Seasonal changes in the physical properties and chemical constituents of fruits during the maturing stage were examined in 5 strains of very early ripening mutants of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. var praecox Tanaka) with special reference to the limonoid compounds.
    The fruit size showed no significance during harvests performed 5 times successively. The proportion of peel of 'Hashimoto wase' was higher than other strains and peel-puffing was occurred. The Brix value increased in almost all the strains during fruit maturation and the sucrose contents mainly increased among the sugar constituents. Organic acid contents decreased, in particular citric acid as in the case of Wase satsuma mandarin. Both contents of limonin and nomilin were reduced with fruit maturation, but the rate of decrease of nomilin was faster than that of limonin. In the fruits harvested late, juice processing was optimal in terms of chemical components except for 'Hashimoto wase'.
    Since the correlation coefficients between the Brix value, citric acid or rind color a-value and limonoid compounds were very high, bitterness due to the presence of limonoids in the juice products could be predicted from several parameters. Based on the principal component analysis of the juice characteristics, 'Hashimoto wase' displayed different properties compared with the other strains. Based on this statistical method, it may become possible to develop a new classification of very early ripening mutants of Satsuma mandarin.
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  • Jie Yu Chen, Mitsuru Miyazato, Etsuji Ishiguro, Naohiko Nanba
    1993 Volume 61 Issue 4 Pages 951-956
    Published: 1993
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The impact forces of the sample struck by hammer of a rigid sphere were studied as means for nondestructive determination of firmness. Impact forces were predicted with a simple elasticity model. Model results showed that the shape characteristic k (peak force/impulsion6/5) of the impact force solutions can be used to predict firmness. Because it was sensitive to changes in elasticity of sample and completely insensitive to the speed at contact and variations in size of samples.
    On experimental apparatus with intact pumpkins and Sakurajima radishes, the correlation coefficients between the impact characteristic K, and flesh firmness of pumpkins and Sakurajima radishes measured by a penetrometer were 0.93, and 0.92 respectively and hence, these results showed that the method was suitable for determining firmness of pumpkins and Sakurajima radishes.
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