Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
Online ISSN : 1880-358X
Print ISSN : 0013-7626
ISSN-L : 0013-7626
Volume 60 , Issue 1
Showing 1-29 articles out of 29 articles from the selected issue
  • Shousaku Horiuchi, Hirosi Kurooka, Tetsuo Furuta
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 1-7
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    To clarify the phenomenon of embryo dormancy in grape, histological observations of embryogenesis, germinability of embryos at different stage of development, and the onset of embryo dormancy in various grape cultivars were made and/or tested.
    1. The growth curve of 'Koushu' grape berries exhibits a double sigmoidal curve. Eachfertilized egg divided itself into 2 to 7 cells at 3 to 4 weeks after full bloom (WAFB), then developed into a globular embryo a week to two weeks later; it became heart-shaped at 7 WAFB. The embryo acquired a torpedo-shape at 7 to 8 WAFB; and finally attained full size of about 2 mm in dia. at 10 WAFB, which, time-wise, corresponds to the end of the first growth stage.
    2. Embryo rescue culture was conducted on an agar medium (0.7%) prepared by adding vitamins, sucrose (3%), and malt extract (500 ppm) to the MS medium. In 'Koushu' grape, the % germination of globular immature embryos on the agar medium at 6 WAFB was low and the subsequent seedling growth in vitro was poor. Excised torpedo-shaped embryos ger-minated readily and gave rise to normal seedlings. Full-sized embryos at 12 WAFB and there-after did not germinate.
    3. The onset of embryo dormancy, as indicated by the failure of embryo to germinate in aseptic culture, occurred soon after the veraison stage in all cultivars tested, and it was earlier in early maturing cultivars (e.g.'Campbell Early') and much later in late maturing cultivars (e.g.'Koushu'). There was a close relationship between berry maturity and seed (embryo) dormancy.
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  • Kojiro Hasegawa, Kazuma Imafuji, Yoshikazu Nakajima
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 9-18
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Japanese persimmon fruits are borne laterally on current season's growth arising from mixed buds. The flower buds differentiate during the previous summer month like these of most other deciduous fruit trees. To promote branching and to direct shoot growth, unbranched (spring branch) and branched limbs resulting from the second flush of growth in summer (summer branch) on young persimmon trees are headed back during the dormant season. In this study, the influence of such pruning practices on flowering and fruit development during the following season was examined for cvs. Saijo, Izu and Matsumotowase-Fuyu.
    1. More, and superior quality flower buds were formed on the distal five or six mixed buds on current season's growth derived from summer branches than were formed on comparable laterals from spring branches of short and moderate lengths.
    2. Heading back of long branches in February forced new shoots below the pruning cuts which were fruitful the following year, whereas heading back short shoots to their mid-point resulted in rapidly growing, vigorous laterals on which the percent fruit set during the following season was low.
    3. Laterals, arising from summer branches (summer cycle), which were allowed to elongate intact the previous season, set more fruits than did laterals derived from short intact spring branches. But because the fruit set was higher on laterals from summer branches, the mean fruit size was smaller than was that on laterals originating from spring branches. Although the fruits on summer branches were smaller, they attained the same degree of skin coloring and contained an equal amount of percent soluble solids content as the fruits did on spring branches.
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  • Kojiro Hasegawa, Norihito Kuge, Tetsuyuki Mimura, Yoshikazu Nakajima
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 19-29
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Effect of N-2-chloro-4-pyridyl-N '-phenylurea (Exp-code-KT-30) on the fruit set and the growth of Japanese persimmon cvs. Saijo and Hiratanenashi was investigated.
    1. Applications of 10 to 20 ppm of KT-30 to flowers or to young fruitlets 10 days after full bloom significantly increased fruit set.
    2. Treatment of immature fruits 10 days after full bloom promoted the growth of fruits moreso in length than in diameter. The effect of KT-30 on fruit enlargement was significant in cv.Hiratanenashi, but insignificant in pollinated fruit of cv. Saijo. In cv. Hiratanenashi, the fruit weight at harvest was increased significantly by 10 to 20 ppm KT-30 as compared to the control.
    3. Treatment with KT-30 from anthesis to 20 days after full bloom delayed color development. Moreover, the later the time of application and the higher the dosage, the more effective was the treatment in delaying fruit color development. However, if the harvest time was delayed, the treated fruit eventually became highly colored and contained high soluble solids.
    4. In conclusion, treatment of persimmon with 10 ppm KT-30 is a practical procedure for increasing fruit set and size in cvs. Saijo and Hiratanenashi.
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  • Shoichi Nakagawa, Shosaku Horiuchi, Hiroyuki Matsui, Eiji Yuda, Shogo ...
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 31-39
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Studies on the identification and classification of species and varieties of wild grapes native to Japan by their leaf morphology were initiated. Samples were collected from all over Japan and compared with specimens kept in the herbaria of six Japanese universities. Their relationship were also compared with the several wild grape taxa native to Korea, Taiwan and China.
    Scions of wild grapes collected in their native habitats were rooted and planted in the Horticultural Experiment Field, University of Osaka Prefecture at Sakai City for morphological and ecological studies. The results obtained are as follows:
    1. In Japan, 6 species and 9 varieties of wild grapes were identified. The main ones are;Vitis coignetiae Pulliat which are found growing in Hokkaido, Tohoku, and the alpine regions of Chugoku, Kinki and Shikoku; V. flexuosa Thunb., native to Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Amami Islands; and V. ficifolia Bunge var. lobata Nakai syn. V. thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc. which is endemic to the low altitude areas all over Japan except for the northern part of Hokkaido and Okinawa. Two new species, tentatively named, Shiohitashibudo and Daisankakuzuru were discovered at Shiohitashi in Kagoshima Prefecture and at Koshu City in Korea, respectively.
    2. V. amurensis Rupr. which is distributed in Korea and the northern part of China, was not found in Hokkaido or in the six university herbaria.
    3. Leaf shape of wild grapes were coded using the Galet's Ruler by measuring the length and angles of the veins, the ratio of length to width and the depth of the lateral sinuses. The code numbers arranged on the basis of the formula ABC-r-S1S2 revealed that intermediate values existed between related species. Hence, the taxonomic key may be able to use for the identification and classification of wild grapes.
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  • Tadashi Takamizo, Nobuo Sugiyama
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 41-45
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Effects of different NH4+/NO3- ratios in the nutrient solutions on the plant growth and the concentrations of free NH4+ in the leaves were compared between rabbiteye and highbush blueberries. One-year-old rooted cuttings of both blueberry species were grown in sand culture and supplied with 56mg•liter-1 of N at NH4+/NO3- ratios of 0/56, 42/14, 28/28, 14/42 and 0/56. The pH of the nutrient solutions was maintained at 5.5 in each treatment.Dry weight of plant tops was greatest at 28/28 of NH4+/NO3- ratio for both species. At 42/14 or the 0/56, plants of both blueberry species showed leaf scorch. The reduction in growth caused by excessive NH4+ supply at concentrations higher than 42mg•liter-1 was more noticeable in highbush blueberries than it was in rabbiteye blueberries. Highbush blueberries grew equally well at 28/28 and 14/42 of NH4+/NO3- ratio, whereas rabbiteye blueberries grew poorly at 14/42.For both blueberry species, the concentration of free NH4+ in the leaves increased as NH4+/NO3- ratio of nutrient solution increased. When NH4+/NO3- ratio was 56/0, highbush blueberries had lower concentrations of free NH4+ in leaves than rabbiteye blueberries did.Hence, highbush blueberries are seemingly less tolerant to the excessive supply of NH4+ than do rabbiteye blueberries, although NH4+ was assimilated more efficiently in highbush blueberries.
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  • Masahiro Nakamura
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 47-53
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Bur abscission in Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc.) 'Yamato-Wase' was investigated in relation to development and degeneration of ovules.
    1. In bagged burs with non-pollinated flowers and unbagged burs with open-pollinated flowers, the first bur abscission ceased before mid- and late July, and cumulatively reached 40% and 15%, respectively. Moreover, it occurred prior to fertilization, which seemed to occur early in August.
    2. The second bur abscission occurred with a peak at the end of August both in bagged and unbagged burs, and the percent abscission in this period reached 60 and 16, respectively. Thus, all of the bagged burs abscised by early September.
    3. Both bagged and unbagged burs increased in weight rapidly after 31 July, but after 7 August bagged burs were a little inferior in the increase and after 21 August became unmeasurable due to abscission.
    4. Each of three ovaries in a bur produced 16 18 ovules, which grew equally until early August both in bagged and unbagged burs. In and after mid-August, however, only one ovule per ovary in unbagged burs enlarged rapidly and the rest degenerated gradually. On the other hand, in burs which had been bagged during the pollination period, no enlarged ovule was found and all ovules degenerated.
    5. The weight of ovaries, each with an enlarged ovule, increased rapidly from mid-August, and at the peak of the second bur abscission it was twice that of ovaries without an enlarged ovule in unbagged burs. Weight increase of ovaries in bagged burs was equal to or slightly less than that of ovaries without an enlarged ovule in unbagged burs.
    6. The second bur abscission seemed to be due to the failure of fertilization. It occurred about 3 weeks after fertilization, about 2 weeks after the recognition of an enlarged ovule in each ovary and at the time of rapid growth of the ovule and ovary in unbagged burs.
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  • Junichiro Watanabe, Kazuomi Kadoya
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 55-60
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    To study the basis of pigment for mationin Iyo fruit, the ffect of spectral quality of light on color development was examined. In the first experiment, white, yel1ow, pink, red, blue, and violet cellophane bags were used. Fruit of 'Miyauchi' Iyo were bagged on 2 August and 1 September and kept covered until they were harvested on 9 Jan, The harvested Iyo fruits were used for the second experiment. On 13 January, the uncovered fruits were irradiated with a 100W mercury vapor lamp. The spectral quality of the lamp wasred (600 to 700nm).
    1.Results of the August bagging revealed that the unbagged control fruit had the highest "a" value; fruits in the white or yellow bags had intermediate "a" values, whereas, those in the blue, red, and violet had the lowest values. The light intensities in the white and yellow bags were higher than were those in the pink bags; the light intensities in the blue, red, and violet bags were lowest and the colord evelopment of the fruit with in was poorest. In the autumn bagging experiment, fruit color was most intense in the red bags.
    2.Red light irradiation promoted pigment for mation in stored fruit. Color development tended to highest at the stem end area of the fruit where light impinged on the surface directly; it was intermediate in the equatorial area and lowest at the stylar end.
    3.Sugar content in the peel increased in response to the irradiation, Among the sugars, increase in sucrose was greatest.
    4.Our results stress that red light irradiation with a 100W mercury vapor lamp is useful for promoting colord evelopment of Iyo fruit during storage.
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  • Kunihisa Morinaga, Fukio Ikeda
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 61-69
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Trees of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) grown under plastic greenhouse (PGH)culture are characterized by their annual high yield of fine quality fruit. In this experiment, morphological characteristics and seasonal changes in net photosynthesis (Pn) of leaves of trees grown under PGH culture were compared with those of trees grown in the open (control).
    1. In the PGH, air and soil temperature conditions were kept within a range favorable for Pn throughout the year except during October. Leaf chlorophyll content was maintained over 2 mg/g FW all year; moderate leaf water potential (ψL) was also maintained for Pn, that is, over -20 bars from Aug. to Mar. Although specific leaf weight and stomatal density of leaves on trees grown under PGH culture were less than that of control leaves, the mean leaf area of PGH leaves was 150% greater.
    2. With regards to characteristics of photosynthesis, the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) transmitted through the plastic film was reduced by 50 to 60% of that which impinged on leaves out in the open. Maximum Pn per unit leaf area of trees under PGH was similar to that of control trees. In control trees, spring leaves exhibited high Pn activity from July to Oct., whereas, in PGH trees, summer leaves exhibited high Pn rate between Sept. to Mar., and spring leaves, which sprouted in Dec., had high Pn rates from Jan. to Mar. Older leaves under PGH culture maintained higher Pn activity than did comparable leaves on control trees throughout the year.
    3. Fruit yield of trees under PGH culture was about twice that of control trees whether the comparison was based on per 10 ares, per tree, or per canopy volume. Thus, trees under PGH culture produced high yields annually.
    We postulate that the primary cause for the difference in yield between the two cultures is the result of greater Pn efficiency of trees under PGH. This is because environmental conditions under PGH were nearly optimum which allowed newly formed spring and summer leaves to maintain a higher Pn rate over a longer period than similar leaves on control trees. These PGH conditions, likewise, favored older leaves to outperform comparable leaves on control trees so that the yields were greater on PGH trees.
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  • Takashi Hosoki, Tetsuya Kigo, Kazuyoshi Shiraishi
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 71-75
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Transformation and plant regeneration of broccoli cv. Early De Cico were studied using Agrobacterium rhizogenes-vector system. Hairy roots were induced from inoculated leaf tissue within 3 weeks whereas only callus was induced from uninoculated tissue. Four root clones out of 18 grew well on the hormone-free Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium. Each root clone was sectioned and cultured on the medium supplemented with 0.1 mg•liter-1 or 1 mg•liter-1 α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in combination with 1 mg•liter-1 or 5 mg•liter-1 zeatin. Two root clones out of 4 produced adventitious buds on the 5 mg•liter-1 zeatin-containing medium.
    The other two clones produced only callus. Mannopine, which is indicative that genetic transformation had occurred, was detected in the regenerated shoots and in one callus from a root clone. The compound was not detected from another callus and in other shoots of the control mother plants.
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  • Hideaki Kobayashi, James H. Keithly, Henry Yokoyama
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 77-81
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Applicaiton of the tertiary amine bioregulator, 2- (3, 4-dichlorophenoxy) triethylamine hydrochloride (DCPTA), as a soak-treatment to ungerminated seeds of eggplant (Solanum melongena L. cv. Senryo-Nigo) reduced the days to harvest, increased the fruit set, and concentrated the harvestable yield of plants that were grown in pot culture. Of plants harvested 107 days after seed planting, the total fruits per plant, harvestable yield, and harvest index (dry weight basis) of 3 and 30 μM DCPTA-treated plants were increased significantly (p <0.05) when compared with the control values. The improved yield characteristics of DCPTA-treated plants were not dependent on DCPTA-mediated improvements in vegetative plant growth.
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  • Masashi Mizuno, Hironobu Tsuchida, Shozo Hongo, Takeyoshi Ijichi, Susu ...
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 83-88
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Evaluation on the ripening stage of melon fruit by non-destructive analysis, an acoustic impulse response method, was studied. The number of proper vibration and wave length from the acoustic indices were compared with the results of an uniaxial compression test of handoperated puncture testers, sensory ratings and brix. It was found that there were highly significant correlations between the proper vibration and flesh firmness from the compression test or sensory ratings with the netted melon ('Earl's Seine' and 'Andes'), but not the nonnetted melon ('Kinsho'). Moreover, there were slightly significant correlations between the wave length and the flesh firmness only from the compression test with all examined melon. However, there were not any significant differences in brix and sensory sweetness. Therefore, this method by the acoustic impulse response can probably be used as a non-destructive evaluation on ripeness, particularly firmness, of the netted melon fruit.
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  • Katsumi Ohta, Norihiro Ito, Takashi Hosoki, Hideyuki Higashimura
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 89-95
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to determine the effect of the concentration of nutrient solution and application of sodium chloride and potassium chloride on the soluble solids content, titratable acidity, weight, dry matter content of cherry tomato fruit and yield.
    By increasing the concentration of nutrient solution to 1.5 or 2.0 times of the standard concentration (control), the soluble solids content and titratable acidity in the fruits increased more between the immature-green and fully ripe stage than did the control fruits. These responses suggest that fruit quality was improved. However, the fruit weight tended to decrease at high concentrations of solution, resulting in a sub-optimal yield.
    Sodium chloride (1000 or 2000 ppm) and potassium chloride (600 or 1200 ppm) were added to the standard nutrient solution. Adding 2000 ppm sodium chloride or 1200 ppm potassium chloride enhanced the soluble solids content, titratable acidity, and dry matter content of fruit; the degree of enhancement was higher than that when plants were cultured in a solution twice the standard concentration. The addition of potassium chloride noticeably increased the acidity but fruit weight and yield tended to decrease slightly.
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  • Nobuaki Fujishige, Tadayoshi Sugiyama, Ryosuke Ogata
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 97-103
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    In this study, the effects of root temperatures on flower formation and fruit yield of tomato plants were investigated.
    1. Roots of young tomato seedlings were bathed in containers of nutrient solution kept at temperatures ranging from 10°to 35°C at 5°C intervals. The experiments ran from 14 to 21 days beginning at cotyledon expansion. Shoot and root growths of seedlings kept at root temperatures 25°and 30°C were greater than those of seedlings grown at other root temperatures. The number of flowers on the first truss of plants whose roots were exposed to 25°C was greater than those on trusses of seedlings grown at other root temperatures, whether the air temperature remained constant at 20°or fluctuated between 20°and 30°C. No difference in the number of nodes on the primary axes among plants was found in this experiment.
    2. In experiments conducted during three different times of the year; spring, late spring to early summer, and late fall to early winter, roots of plants were exposed to various temperatures from anthesis of flowers on the first truss to fruit harvest on the third truss. Shoot growth of plants grown at root temperatures between 20°and 30°C was better than that of plants grown at other root temperatures. Root temperatures favorable for root growth have a range lower than that for optimum shoot growth. Fruit production from plants grown at root temperatures of 10°and 35°C was very low because of poor fruit set and growth, especially on those of second and third trusses.
    3. Fruit ripening was accelerated on plants grown at root temperature of 10°and 15°C, especially in the 15°C treatment if the nutrient solution was low in nitrogen.
    4. These results confirm that the optimum range of root temperatures for the growth of tomato vines widens with increasing size and age of plants from the young seedling stage to mature producing vines, that is 25°30°C during the flower differentiation period in the first truss, 20°30°C for the vegetative growth stage, and 15°30°C during fruit production.
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  • Shinichi Adaniya, Satoshi Tamaki
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 105-112
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Of the 537 shoot apices of Allium wakegi Araki cultured on MS medium with 0.2% colchicine, 85 plants which developed revealed various cytochimeras when their ploidy of three germ layers (L-I, L-II and L-III) were analyzed. The ploidy of the L-I, L-II, and L-III layers was determined by measuring the size of guard cells, counting the number of nucleoli per mesophyll cells, and counting the number of chromosomes in the root tip cells, respectively. From among these cytochimeras, 2-4-4 and 4-2-2 plants were selected and their growth characteristics were compared with those of wholly diploid and tetraploid plants. Tests were made under natural short-day, 13 and 14 hr day length conditions during the winter months.The 4-2-2 plants yielded the greatest number of tillers and leaf blades and formed bulbs earlier than did diploid plants. The 2-4-4 plants were similar to tetraploid ones in nearly all growth characteristics.
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  • Harumi Takahashi, Takatsugu Takai, Tsutomu Matsumoto
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 113-118
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    This work was undertaken to elucidate the heritability of susceptibility in strawberry cultivars to Alternaria alternata strawberry pathotype and the origin of susceptible cultivars. To resolve the first question, SI strawberry seedlings derived from self pollination of 37 cultivars and 13 strains and F1 strawberry seedlings obtained by means of diallel cross among susceptible cultivars (S), 'Morioka-16' derived from ('Fairfax' × 'Ettersburg') × 'Chiyoda' and 'Robinson' from 'Howard-17' × 'Washington', and resistant cultivars (R), 'Hokowase' and 'Donner', were inoculated with the spores (isolate OH-5). The following summarizes the results of disease reaction of SI and F1 seedlings to the pathogen.
    1. Regarding successive generation of the tested cultivars and strains, the segregating ratio of susceptible plants to resistant plants was almost 3 : 1 in susceptible cultivars, 'Morioka-16' and 'Robinson'. The segregation ratio was 0 : 1 among all progenies resulting from the other 48 cultivars and strains resistant to the pathogen. These include progenies of 'Fairfax' and 'Chiyoda', cross parents of 'Morioka-16' and 'Howard-17', a cross parent of 'Robinson'.
    2. In the case of disease reaction of F1 seedlings obtained by diallel corss among 'Morioka-16', 'Robinson', 'Hokowase' and 'Donner' to the pathogen, the ratio of susceptible plants to resistant plants in the F1 generation was as follows.
    (1) 'Morioka-16' (S) × 'Robinson' (S) and vice versa 3 : 1
    (2) 'Morioka-16' (S) × 'HOltOwase' (R) and vice versa 1 : 1
    (3) 'Robinson' (S) × 'HOkawase' (R) and vice versa 1 : 1
    (4) 'Hokowase' (R) × 'Donner' (R) and vice versa 0 : 1
    3. As to the origin of the susceptibility of 'Morioka-16' and 'Robinson' to the pathogen, it seems highly probable that 'Ettersburg' which transmitted the trait to 'Morioka-16', and 'Washington', which passed the trait to 'Robinson', are carriers of the dominant susceptible gene. We come to this conclusion because the cross parents, 'Fairfax', 'Chiyoda' and 'Howard-17' are resistant, recessive homozygote with respect to the susceptible gene.However, the origin of the susceptible cultivars, 'Morioka-16' and 'Robinson', could not exactly be traced, because 'Ettersburg' and 'Washington' are not available in Japan.
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  • Motoaki Doi, Eiko Morita, Nobuyoshi Ogasawara, Yasuaki Takeda, Tadashi ...
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 119-124
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Four vegetative lines of Gypsophila paniculata L. 'Bristol Fairy' were grown under natural conditions in autumn. Shoots of lines 09 and 13 initiated flower bud. In contrast, shoots of lines 04 and 20 formed rosette. However, rosette formation was not accompanied by decreased new root growth.
    Lines 13 and 20 which were grafted on their own roots and reciprocally, produced the scion/stock combinations of 13/13, 13/20, 20/13 and 20/20. The grafted plants were then exposed to chilling which was sufficient to promote flowering for ungrafted line 13 rooted cuttings but insufficient for those of line 20. The onset of shoot elongation was delayed and the percentage of blooming plants was decreased on 13/20, 20/13 and 20/20 graft combinations.Shoot elongation of 13/20 combination was delayed nearly 6 weeks compared with that of 13/13 plants.
    Plants of line 04 showed rapid growth after their shoot and root were chilled. All the plants with their shoot unchilled and root chilled bloomed during the chilling treatment. In this case, removal of the flower stalks after the chilling treatment resulted in rapid growth and high percentage of blooming in lateral shoots which had not been chilled. This suggests that the chilling effects were translocated from root to shoot and retained in basal nodes.
    These results indicate that chilled roots have the great influence on shoot growth and consequent flowering in gypsophila.
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  • Koichi Ota, Koichi Morioka, Yukio Yamamoto
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 125-132
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Effects of some factors on CAM (Crassulacean acid metabolism) photosynthesis in Phalaenopsis were investigated by measuring diurnal CO2 exchange patterns. Following results were obtained.
    1. The diurnal CO2 uptake pattern of Phalaenopsis leaves is nearly typical of CAM photosynthesis. Leaf age had no influence on CAM photosynthesis; the youngest leaf absorbed slightly more CO2 during the day and less at the night than did mature leaves. Although the third and forth leaves were shaded by the upper leaves, they fixed CO2 via CAM photosynthesis at rates similar to the upper two leaves fully exposed to light.
    2. Formation of inflorescence did not influence the diurnal pattern of CO2 uptake of CAM photosynthesis. But the plants without inflorescence had lower activities in CO2 uptake via CAM photosynthesis than those with inflorescence.
    3. When the day and night temperature were kept constant, 20°C was the optimum for the night time CO2 uptake. Although the day time CO2 uptake decreased as temperature increased, total CO2 uptake during 24 hr was maximized at 20°C. Higher day and lower night temperatures (25°15°C) were more favorable than a constant 20°C with respect to CO2 assimilation of CAM photosynthesis at night or during the entire day. Low day time temperature of 10°C depressed CO2 uptake rates at night and promotes during the day so that the Phalaenopsis leaves approximated those of plants with C3-photosynthetic system.
    4. The day and night time CO2 uptake increased with higher light intensity up to 130μE/m2/sec. Above 130μE/m2/sec the capacity of leaves to assimilate CO2 at night was saturated and that during the day became lower. Therefore, CAM photosynthesis in Phalaenopsis has a lower light saturating point than other plants.
    5. Under our growing conditions, withholding water for 10 days resulted in a severe water stress which significantly depressed CO2 uptake both day and night.
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  • Yoshihiro Kageyama, Mari Takahashi, Kuniyoshi Konishi
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 133-139
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Influences of nitrate nitrogen levels in hydroponic culture solution, growth temperature, and natural light intensity on growth and nitrogen uptake by chrysanthemum cv. Otomezakura plants at the vegetative stage were investigated.
    Comparison among three temperature regimens revealed that plant growth at 20°C was better than that at 15° or 30°C. At 20°C, no difference in growth in plants was detected between those supplied 100 or 200 ppm N. At 30°C, plants given 200 ppm N grew better than those supplied 100 ppm N.
    At 15°C, plants supplied with 100 ppm N absorbed the same amount of N as those grown at 20°C, whereas, plants given 200 ppm N took up more N than those supplied 100 ppm N.
    Under sufficient natural light intensity for normal growth, chrysanthemum plants grew equally well whether they were supplied with 100, 200 or 300 ppm N. Reducing natural light intensity 70% by shading decreased plant growth markedly at 100 ppm N. However, equally shaded plants supplied with 300 ppm N grew better than those given lower conc. of N. All other factors being equal, nitrogen uptake by plants was proportional to the nitrogen conc. in the nutrient solution.
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  • Yoshihiro Ishihara, Kiyoshi Ohkawa, Hiroshi Hyodo
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 141-147
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    The rates of ethylene production and respiration (CO2 production), and the levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and N-malonyl ACC (MACC) were determined in the third floret of cut sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus L. cv Diana) flowers held at 20°C. The rate of ethylene production followed a typical climacteric pattern and the floret wilted one day after the peak of ethylene production. The respiration rate gradually decreased after harvest, only with a temporary rise. The ethylene produced by the florets originated mostly from the petals and stamens. It was observed that the levels of ACC and MACC increased as the rate of ethylene production was increased. The patterns of ethylene production by individual petals and stamens nearly coincided with those of the intact florets.
    The rates of ethylene production and respiration of the third floret held at 10°, 20°and 30°C were compared. At all temperatures the patterns seemed to be similar, but the peak of ethylene production was delayed and its amount was smaller at the lowest temperature. The respiration rate was also reduced at lower temperatures.
    The rates of ethylene production and respiration in the florets treated with silver thiosulfate (STS) were studied in relation to flower wilting. Although the ethylene production rates of the florets and each organ in the floret were markedly inhibited by the pretreatment with STS, the respiration rates were barely affected. Wilting of the floret was strongly suppressed by the pretreatment with STS, which resulted in a considerable elongation of vase life of cut sweet pea flowers.
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  • Hajime Ohno
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 149-157
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    To clarify at what stage of development flower buds are subject to blasting by high temperature, a correlation between the length of perianths and the stage of pollen formation in a miniature Cymbidium orchid (C. × Sazanami 'Haru-no-umi') was investigated.
    1. High correlations between the variables were obtained during the stages of sporogenous cells and pollen mother cells (PMC) regardless of the position of the flower buds. Flower buds exposed to high temperatures (30°C day/25°C night) at sporogenous cell stage became blasted without entering into the meiotic stage. Similarly, buds which were heated at premeiotic stage became blasted at various stages after chromosomes underwent meiosis.
    2. Flower buds reaching the meiotic prophase of PMC never responded to the high temperature and bloomed normally.
    3. The application of gibberellic acid (GA3) reduced the low temperature requirement for bud development. GA3-treated buds entered the meiotic cell differentiation stage and proceeded to develop normally with mature viable pollen, even when the GA3 spray was combined with the high temperature treatment.
    4. The results indicate that buds at premeiotic stage are very sensitive to blasting by exposure to high temperature, and that temperatures below 20°C are required for cells to undergo meiosis, form mature pollen, and develop normal flowers.
    5. Different patterns of microspore arrangement were observed even in the same anther.Most uninucleate microspores of blasted flower buds were diads, fewer progressed to tetrads.On the other hand, binucleate microspores of both blasted and normal flower buds were mainly in the tetrad stage. The patterns and kinds of tetrads were not changed by the GA3 treatment, whether the buds were blasted or normal.
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  • Hajime Ohno, Syunji Kako
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 159-165
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Effects of floral organs and phytohormones on the flower stalk elongation were investigated using a miniature Cymbidium hybrid (C. x Sazanami 'Haru-no-umi'). Complete excision of flower buds from an inflorescence greatly inhibited the elongation of the flower stalk (peduncle).When the basal two-thirds of flower buds on an inflorescence were removed, the flower stalk elongated nearly to the length of an intact peduncle. On the contrary, when the distal flower buds were excised, the upper part of the peduncle did not elongate. The elongation was also greatly reduced by removal of anthers alone or the entire perianths.
    Under high temperature conditions that induce blasting of flower buds, 13-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) stimulated flower stalk elongation whether flower buds did or did not set. NAA also reversed the cessation of peduncle elongation caused by anther excision. However, this treatment did not promote flower opening. The application of gibberellic acid (GA3) stimulated both peduncle elongation and flower bud development, but the treatment failed to restore the elongation of peduncles from which flower buds were excised. These findings suggest that the peduncle elongation is stimulated mainly by auxin supplied from developing flower buds, especially from the anthers, and that flower bud development is primarily caused by gibberellin (GA). The elongation of the stalk is a secondary effect of developing floral parts brought about by GA.
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  • Takahiro Hayashi, Kuniyoshi Konishi
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 167-173
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    The process of inflorescence development from flower initiation to anthesis was observed in a dichasium, kalanchoe (Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln.) 'Red Glow'. Our major interests were why, when, and how florets aborted. To describe and analyze inflorescence development, an inflorescence was classified into 4 structural hierarchies: An inflorescence, an inflorescence unit, a module, and a phytomer. Remarkable regularities in inflorescence development of kalanchoe were observed as follows.
    1. Floret primordia regularly differentiated by dichasial branching in the inflorescence unit.Some of florets which differentiated at higher orders failed to develop and aborted as they became macroscopic. Competition for assimilates among florets might be responsible for ther abortion.
    2. The branching order at which florets abortion began and the number of florets per inflorescence unit were significantly correlated with the diameter of the inflorescence unit axis.
    3. In inflorescence units and modules, there were an exponential relationship between the fresh weight (W) and the axis diameter (D), represented by the equation W = 0.0967D3.13.
    4. There was a close relation between the position of florets and their abortion. After several dichasial branching, the branches of the inflorescence unit partly tended to form a uniparous scorpioid cyme, generating the zigzag branching by a regular abortion of florets.
    5. Module development was also influenced by its position in the inflorescence. When modules developed outwardly and had sufficient space to expand, they were vigorous and eventually produced many florets. However, if the modules developed inwardly and competed with adjacent ones for space, their growth stopped at lower branching orders. When growing conditions were favorable for both modules, they developed symmetrically. Consequently, the inflorescence became almost flat because the florets were horizontally oriented.
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  • Akinobu Nagao, Teruhiko Indou, Hiroshi Dohi
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 175-181
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    The effects of curing treatments and storage temperatures on the keeping and flavor qualities of squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) cultivar 'Ebisu' were studied. Harvested squash fruits were cured at 20°, 25°, and 30°C for 11 and 16 days and then stored at 10°C. For comparison, a control sub-sample was stored immediately after harvest at 10°C without curing.The effects of different storage temperatures were also examined by storing fruits cured for 12 days at 25°C at 7.5°, 10.0°, 12.5°and 15.0°C.
    The results are summarized as follows:
    1. Starch content of the fruit decreased throughout the storage period irrespective of storage temperature. Total sugar content increased, reaching a maximum and then gradually decreased. When starch content was equal to the total sugar content, eating quality of the fruit was estimated to be most favorable. Water content of the fruit tended to increase during the storage period. After 60 days of storage, the water content increased rapidly and, simultaneously, the taste of the fruit became poor.
    2. The curing treatment of fruits at higher temperature and for longer periods was more effective in promoting the conversion from starch to sugar. In addition, the curing treatment at higher temperature prevented rotting. Since the skin color of fruit cured at 30°C became yellow rapidly, the optimum temperature for curing appears to be lower than 30°C.
    3. Reducing sugar content and total sugar content increased more during storage at lower temperatures than at higher temperatures. At all storage temperatures, β-carotene content on the 43th day of storage reached a maximum, which was twice or three times the content of that at harvest.
    No chilling injury was observed in fruits stored at 7.5°C. The ratio of hydrochloric acid soluble pectin to total pectin content decreased much earlier during storage at 15.0°C than at lower temperatures. Furthermore, the rate of water loss was fairly constant, but it was also more rapid at 15.0°C than at the lower temperatures. The optimum temperature for storage seemed to be 10.0° ±2.5°C.
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  • Shiming Zhang, Kazuo Chachin, Takashi Iwata
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 183-190
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    The effects of packaging with polyethylene bags and the inclusion of ethylene absorbent and/or CO2 absorbent on the keeping quality of mume (Japanese apricot) fruits were investigated. Concurrently, the concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, ethylene, ethyl alcohol, and acetaldehyde in the bags and their production by the fruits were monitored.
    1. Yellowing and softening of green mume fruit were noticeably retarded by the combination of packaging with polyethylene bags (0.02 mm) and the inclusion of an ethylene absorbent. This retardation of the ripening process was reversed when a carbon dioxide absorbent was included.
    2. The inclusion of ethylene absorbent in the bags kept ethylene concentration at very low level, whereas oxygen concentration was higher and carbon dioxide concentration lower compared with bags in which the absorbents were omitted. In sealed bags with carbon dioxide absorbent or without both absorbents, acetaldehyde and ethyl alcohol accumulated, resulting in a physiological disorder known as internal browning. Addition of the ethylene absorbent suppressed the accumulation of both volatiles and prevented the occurrence of the internal browning. Inclusion of carbon dioxide absorbent with ethylene absorbent negated the beneficial effect of the latter and resulted in the accumulation of volatiles which induced the physiological disorder.
    3. The respiration rate of the fruit was slower in sealed polyethylene bags with ethylene absorbent than in that without the absorbent; this suppression of respiration was overcome by the inclusion of the carbon dioxide absorbent. The ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) content in the fruit changed, parallelling the trends of ethylene evolution in all treatments. Among the different treatments, the ethylene forming enzyme (EFE) activity was lowest in fruits sealed in polyethylene bags containing the ethylene absorbent.
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  • Ryoji Matsumoto, Naomi Okudai
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 191-200
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    An enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) is described; it can be used for the qualitative analysis of flavanone neohesperidosides in citrus.
    Naringin, a hapten, was conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) at the position of sugar moeity of naringin with BrCN. Using the alkaline diethylene glycol method of Davis, the coupling ratio was found to be 18 mol of naringin/mol BSA. The naringin-BSA conjugate at 2.53 mg was emulsified by mixing with Freund's complete adjuvant and injected intradermally to a rabbit biweekly 4 times to make the anti-naringin antibody. The assay was carried out by direct competitive solid phase immunoassay using anti-naringin antibody and naringin-alkaline phosphatase conjugate prepared by the same conjugation method as hapten-BSA conjugate.
    The antibody showed a marked specificity for the dissaccharide linkage at position C7 of flavanone glycosides. Flavanone neohesperidosides were highly immunoreactive ; prunin was less reactive, whereas rutinosides and aglycones were not immunoreactive.
    The assay showed a high sensitivity within a range of 0.120 ng naringin. Therefore, leaf extracts had to be diluted 10- to 160- fold, corresponding to 0.1 mg6.25 μg leaf fresh weight, respectively. Flavanone neohesperidosides could be detected qualitatively by the naked eye by the color change from yellow to transparent in accordance with the increase in the amount of flavanone neohesperidosides.
    Thus, the qualitative ELISA of flavanone neohesperidosides could be carried out accurately using 10-fold dilution of the extracts. An average of 2, 000 samples of citrus seedlings could be analyzed within 10 days including the pretreatment of the leaf extract and the ELISA.
    Fruit juice and leaf extracts of 40 cultivars and some hybrid seedlings were analyzed qualitatively for flavanone neohesperidosides by ELISA and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results of the analysis for flavanone neohesperidosides coincides completely by ELISA for leaf extracts and by HPLC for fruit juice and leaf extracts.
    Thus, we conclude that the ELISA method described in this paper is well suited for the analysis of flavanone neohesperidosides, particularly when a large number of samples must be analyzed. For example, the method would be useful to study the inheritance of citrus bitter component by analyzing leaves of the young citrus seedlings.
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  • Ryoji Matsumoto, Naomi Okudai
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 201-207
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Inheritance of flavanone neohesperidosides, the bitter component, in citrus was studied using about 9, 000 F1 seedlings obtained from 131 crosses. Flavanone neohesperidosides in leaf extract were analysed with a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using rabbit anti-naringin antiserum derived from naringin-bovine serum albumin conjugate and alkaline phosphatase-naringin conjugate. This antiserum is specific for the flavanone neohesperidosides, i. e., naringin, neohesperidin and poncirin, and does not react with the non-bitter isomeric rutinosides, i. e., narirutin, hesperidin and didymin.Inheritance of flavanone neohesperidoside was proposed as follows:
    1. Formation of bitterness for flavanone neohesperidosides is controlled by dominant genes.and pomelo cultivars are homozygous for 1 or 2 pairs of dominant genes.
    2. Among progenies of interspecific crosses between cultivars of mandarins, oranges and others which do not contain neohesperidoside (N-), the bitter compounds were not detected in leaf extracts of any F1 seedlings. Thus, these cultivars are homozygous for the recessive genes.
    3. Among crosses between cultivars which contain neohesperidosides (N+), except the pomelo, and those cultivars which do not contain the bitter constituents (N-), the seedling progenies segregated into N+ : N- ratios of 1 : 1 or 3 : 1. Therefore, the N+ parents were designated as the (1 : 1) or as the (3 : 1) segregant types, respectively.
    4. When the (1 : 1) segregant cultivars (N+) were selfed or crossed with the same (1 : 1) genotype, the segregation ratio, N+ : N-, was 3 : 1. When the (1 : 1) type was hybridized with the (3 : 1) type, the progenies segregated into a N+ : N- ratio of 7: 1, whereas selfing or crossing of two (3 : 1) types resulted in a N+ : N- ratio of 15 : 1. From these segregation ratios, it was concluded that the formation of citrus bitter component, flavanone neohesperidoside, is controlled by two dominant multiple genes.
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  • Norio Kakiuchi, Akemi Ohmiya
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 209-216
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Changes in the composition and amounts of volatile constituents in white peach cv. Hakuho before and after artificial ripening, were investigated in fruits picked at three different maturity stages, in order to determine the optimum time for harvest in relation to some quality attributes.
    1. Based on the color-chart value, firmness, Brix degree and titratable acidity, it was found that the eating quality of the fruits picked at the stages referred to as "hard mature" and "firm mature" was acceptable after fruit had been ripened for 4 days at ambient temperature. After the same time, fruits of the "soft mature" stage were considered to be overripe.
    2. Typically, for peaches of all three maturities the volatile concentrates were separated into 89 or more peaks by capillary gas chromatography, of which 33 were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, The most abundant constituents were C6 aldehydes, C6 alcohols and C6C12 lactones.
    3. The total amounts of the 33 volatile constituents, which were identified at harvest and at all stages of fruit maturity, decreased rapidly after ripening for 4 days at ambient temperature. This decrease in the total amount of these volatile constituents was mainly a result of the reduction in the amount of aldehydes and alcohols which generated the "green aroma".
    4. Eleven kinds of C6C12 lactonic compounds were detected at all the stages of maturity, and γ-decalactone was a major constituent accounting for about 40% of the total lactonic compounds. The content of almost all the lactones increased with advancing fruit maturity and during ripening.
    5. Based on the evaluation of the odor threshold, it was calculated that the increase in odor units of γ-lactones made an important contribution to the "fruity aroma" with advancing maturity, in contrast to the decrease of the C6 compounds which were responsible for the "green aroma".
    6. The most suitable picking time based on the changes in the composition and amount of volatile constituents corresponded to the firm mature stages followed by artificial ripening for 4 days including postharvest handling.
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  • Takeshi Miyazaki, Wakako Tsuzuki, Tateo Suzuki
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 217-224
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    Thirteen anthocyanins were isolated from the periderm of 'Beniaka' and 'Beniazuma' sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.). By means of absorption spectra, HPLC, 1H-NMR and FAB-MS analysis, the structures of major anthocyanins were identified as:cyanidin-3-diglucoside-5-glucoside, peonidin-3-diglucoside-5-glucoside, p-hydroxybenzoyl-cyanidin-3-diglucoside-5-glucoside, p-hydroxybenzoyl-peonidin-3-diglucoside-5-glucoside, caffeoyl-p-hydroxybenzoyl-cyanidin-3-diglucoside-5-glucoside, caffeoyl-p-hydroxybenzoyl-peonidin-3-diglucoside-5-glucoside, and caffeoyl-peonidin-3-diglucoside-5-glucoside.
    The anthocyanins contained in the flesh of 'Yamagawamurasaki' and 'Tanegashimamurasaki' sweet potatoes, were acylated with cinnamic acid derivatives. The analyses revealed that the compositions of anthocyanins differed from those found in the periderm.
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  • Hong-Gang Wang, Hiroshi Gemma
    1991 Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 225-230
    Published: 1991
    Released: May 15, 2008
    The influence of low temperature on ethylene formation, membrane permeability, and free fatty acid composition were investigated in callus derived from 'Sensyu' apple (Malus pumila Mill.) fruits harvested at 71 days after full bloom (DAFB). 1-Aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid (ACC) level, ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) activity, and the rates of ethylene and carbon dioxide production in callus were stimulated by exposure to the low temperatures (-1°, 0°or 5°C). Electrolyte leakage and levels of free fatty acid in callus at chilling temperatures (-1°, 0°C) for 2 days were higher than those of callus stored at non-chilling temperatures (5°, 25°C). Thus, there seems to be a relationship between the increases in membrane permeability of callus chilled at 0°or -1°C and the release of fatty acids from intact membrane lipids.
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