Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
Online ISSN : 1880-358X
Print ISSN : 0013-7626
ISSN-L : 0013-7626
Volume 58 , Issue 4
Showing 1-29 articles out of 29 articles from the selected issue
  • Masashi ISHIDA, Hajime HIRATA, Akira KITAJIMA, Yoshitsugu SOBAJIMA
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 793-800
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This work was undertaken to clarify the development and density of stomata on fruit surfaces and diurnal changes in opening and closing of stomata during the growing of nectarine fruit, by using a scanning electron microscope.
    1. It was observed that the stomata on the fruit surfaces had not yet been differentiated at full bloom. During stage 1 of fruit growth, stomata development was rapid. Well-developed stomata on fruit surfaces were found abundantly in the equatorial areas of the fruit when fruitlet grew rapidly.
    2. The density of the stomata on the fruit surfaces was highest on equatorial areas, intermediate in distal areas and lowest in proximal areas. There were no stomata in the suture zone.
    3. The size of stomata was larger and they were well developed in proximal areas. The size of stomata seemed to be only slightly influenced by the surface expansion rate per unit area of fruit.
    4. Diurnal changes in opening and closing of stomata in exposed and shaded fruitlets of nectarine indicated two peaks, one of which was in the day (10:00) and the other at midnight (22:00). The stomata were also open at both 14:00 and 22:00 in the dark-treated fruit. The stomatal aperture increased slightly in the evening and attained its maximum at midnight in the dark treatment. The degree of opening of stomata appeared to be related to changes in diurnal fruit growth. These results indicated that the stomata were open at midnight and in the case of the dark treatment, gases were exchanged through the opened stomata.
    The existence of starch grains in guard cells on fruit surfaces suggested direct fixation CO2 into organic acids and resynthesis of starch from the translocation of assimilation matter out of leaves to fruit during darkness.
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  • Hironobu TSUCHIDA, Susumu MIZUNO, Nobuyuki KOZUKUE
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 801-805
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Changes in contents of abscisic acid (ABA) and phaseic acid (PA) of peach fruits were examined during post-harvest ripening and senescence.
    1. Immediately after harvesting, the content of ABA in peach fruits was 0.12μg per g. of fresh weight. Its content increased to maximum 4.20μg/gFW) after 5 days in storage at 20°C. The presence of two isomers (cis- and trans forms) ABA was confirmed by GLC and GLC-MS and their contents were determined by an internal standard method. The results indicated that most of the increased ABA during ripening was trans-isomer.
    2. Phaseic acid, which is known as an ABA-like bioactive compound among some ABA-metabolites, was detected in peach fruits. The content of PA in the fruits increased with proceeding of ripening and senescence. A correlation between the increase of PA content and softening of the peach flesh may involve a certain participation of PA in the softening process of peach flesh (ripening and senescence).
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  • Hisashi HARADA, Hiroyuki ITAMURA, Satoshi TAIRA, Guo-hua ZHENG
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 807-811
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    When grown in colder northern districts of Japan, pollination constant/non-astringent (PCNA) persimmon fruits often remain astringent at harvest season.
    Fruit growth and changes in soluble tannin content in flesh of PCNA persimmon cv. Jiro were compared between fruits from Yamagata (colder, northern district) and from Kyoto (warmer, middle district) with reference to changes of mean temperature in both districts in 1983 and from 1985 to 1987.
    Loss of astringency occurred before early or middle of August in Kyoto. In Yamagata, however, it varied with years; in some years the fruit had an astringent taste even in late September. This is suggested to be mainly due to the difference in mean temperature between the two areas during the period after bloom, especially in late stage of fruit growth. In Yamagata, the high mean temperature accelerated fruit growth in early stage, resulting in faster decrease of soluble tannin content. Larger fruit contained less soluble tannin than smaller fruit harvested on the same day at the same place. In the colder area, a little astringent taste is sometimes retained in the fruit at the later stage, after August. No clear relationship was observed between complete disappearance of the astringency and the mean temperature in the later stage.
    In Kyoto, fruit growth and soluble tannin content were investigated on several PCNA cultivars. There was no clear relationship between fruit growth and soluble tannin content. Cultivars retaining astringent taste at the late stage tend to contain more tannin substances at the immature stage. The rate of removal of soluble tannin, however, was not different among the cultivars.
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  • Satoshi TAIRA, Hiroyuki ITAMURA, Kishio ABE, Kinya OOI, Shunzo WATANAB ...
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 813-818
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effect of harvest maturity on removal of astringency in Japanese persimmon, ‘Hiratanenashi’ fruits was examined.
    Individual fruits were put in a plastic chamber with different concentrations of ethanol solution as the reagent for removal of astringency at 20°C.
    The more immature the fruits and the higher the concentration of the reagent for removal of astringency, the faster the decrease in soluble tannin content and the decline in flesh firmness during the treatment.
    Ethanol which was taken into the fruits during the treatment was greater as the concentration of the reagent increased, and there was almost no effect of harvest maturity on the amount of ethanol in flesh. Acetaldehyde content in flesh was, however, greater in younger fruits than in mature ones.
    These results suggest that the fact that removal of astringency occurred more easily in younger fruits than in more mature ones may be mainly due to more active conversion of ethanol, which was taken into the fruits during the treatment, to acetaldehyde in flesh.
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  • Junichi SOEJIMA, Masako WATANABE, Takaya MORIGUCHI, Shohei YAMAKI
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 819-826
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) contained in various organs of apple was examined to determine if there was a good correlation between the amounts determined, both by gas chromatography using an electron capture detector (GLC-ECD) and by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay using monoclonal antibody (ELISA-MA).
    Clear peaks corresponding to the retention time of sABA appeared on GLC-ECD analysis of methyl esterified samples after preparing the sample with the following steps: MeOH extraction, ethyl acetate partitioning and thin layer chromatography (TLC) separation of free and conjugated ABA extracts. The peaks resulting from the analysis of various organs included endogenous free and conjugated ABA in apple organs and were confirmed to be mainly ABA by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) identification. This supports the conclusion that ABA can be determined quantitatively by GLC-ECD analysis.
    Endogenous ABA content of stems, leaves and fruits of apple determined by ELISA-MA coincided with those measured by the GLC-ECD method after preparing samples using the above purification steps. Some purification steps on leaf or stem samples could be omitted for ELISA-MA analysis. Moreover, as the binding affinity of ELISA-MA to ABA is very high, it was possible to detect it in samples of only 50, 50 and 200μg fresh weight of stems, leaves and fruit, respectively. Thus, the ELISA-MA method is an excellent tool to determine the endogenous ABA content in micro-size samples of tissue, if the appropriate pre-purification steps are established for individual sample types.
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  • Hiroo KOIKE, Shiori YOSHIZAWA, Kazuyuki TSUKAHARA
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 827-834
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Normally to heavily cropped ‘Fuji’/M.26 apple trees were compared to examine the influence of corp loads on growth, yield, fruit characteristics and flower bud formation during 1986 and 1987. High correlation coefficients were observed between the leaf-fruit ratio and mean fruit weight, shoot weight, flower bud formation and yield. The results of the studies indicated that yeild, mean fruit weight, brix of fruit, current shoot weight and flower bud formation were very sensitive to crop load. The optimum crop load of ‘Fuji’/M.26 apple trees was estimated to occur at 50 to 60 leaves per fruit.
    Nine-year-old normally and heavily cropped ‘Fuji’/M.26 apple trees were used during the 1987 growing season to determine the distribution of leaf photosythate in the trees on a dry weight basis. Five trees in each of the normal and heavy-crop load treatments were fractioned into the trunk, branches, new shoots, leaves, fruit, and roots. Total dry matter accumulation per tree was essentially the same in heavily or normally cropped trees, but the distribution of the dry matter resulted in significant differences between the two treatments.
    The distribution of the accumulated dry matter was 73% in fruit, 9% in leaves, 15% in wood and 4% in roots in the heavily cropped trees. In the normally cropped trees, the proportions of dry matter in fruit was 49%; the other sections were approximately equal with 9 to 12% each. The heavily cropped trees produced 137% more total dry matter per unit weight of leaves than normally cropped trees.
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  • Keiichi WATANABE, Bunjiro TAKAHASHI, Kazushi SHIRAT
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 835-840
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Somatic chromosome numbers of Actinidia deliciosa cvs. ‘Matua’ (staminate clone), ‘Abbott’ and ‘Bruno’ (pistillate clones) and two native wild species, A. polygama and A. arguta were studied using the squash and flame-drying methods. The chromosome counts of the commercial cultivars were 2n=174, whereas those of A. arguta were 2n=58, 116 and 174 and those of A. polygama were 58. These data confirm earlier findings that the basic chromosome number is x=29(11) and that with increasing polyploidy, the number of nucleoli increased correspondingly.
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  • Isao SHIMURA, Yukio HIGUCHI, Shunji ISHIKAWA
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 841-847
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Shoot formation was tested on callus induced primarily from internode of Kiwifruit using 4PU, and effect of GA was investigated on shoot elongation.
    Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium was used as basal medium with sucrose (30g/l) and agar (7g/l). Explants were cultured on the basal medium supplemented with 4PU.
    1. When treated with 4PU (0.02-20.0ppm), shoot formation occurred from the primary callus. In the high concentration (0.2-20.0ppm) of 4PU, leafy shoots were formed just as bush type on the primary callus, showing no elongation. In the low concentration (0.02ppm), the shoots elongated normally. Shoots were induced on the basal medium without 4PU and any other plant growth regulators.
    2. A higher percentage of shoot formation was observed on the medium with 2.0ppm 4PU than on that with 0.02ppm through growing seasons of Kiwifrtuit, ‘Hayward’. Shoots formed on the medium with 2.0ppm 4PU, however, were always leafy type in all the tests.
    3. Explants were cultured on the medium containing with 2.0ppm 4PU and 0.1-10.0ppm GA to elongate the leafy shoots, but all the shoots remained in the leafy type. Formation of the leafy shoots were decreased by the treatment of high concentration of GA.
    4. Shoot primordia were found on the primary callus 20 days after culture on the medium with 2.0ppm 4PU.
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  • Sanae SAWANOBORI, Isao SHIMURA
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 849-857
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Characteristics of ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit during fruit growth and development were studied in 1985 and 1986 using fruits from two locations, Odawara in Kanagawa Prefecture and Makioka in Yamanashi Prefecture. The two locations have significantly different climatic conditions. The former location has a warmer climate and thus has a longer growing season. The latter has an early Autumn, and a correspondingly shorter growing season.
    Seasonal changes in fruit length, diameter, weight, flesh firmness, respiration, etylene production, soluble solids (S. S.) content, titratable acidity (T. A.), starch, sugars, and organic acids content were assessed at intervals of 2 or 4 weeks, and the influence of growing location and season on fruit growth and development was evaluated.
    1. Fruit showed rapid increase in size for the first 6-8 weeks after full bloom, followed by a slower increase until about 20 weeks after full bloom.
    2. Respiration rate was highest in young fruit, gradually declining to reach a minimum rate around 20±2 weeks after full bloom, followed by a slight increase. No ethylene production was observed at any stage of growth or development.
    3. Starch content increased gradually to reach a maximum around 20±2 weeks after full bloom, then decreased rapidly. Total sugar and S. S. content rose rapidly from 18-20 weeks after full bloom. Major sugars present were glucose, fructose, and sucrose.
    4. There was little apparent seasonal change in total organic acid content, but there were significant changes in the concentrations and components of major organic acids. Quinic acid was the main organic acid present in young fruit, which decreased concomitantly with increasing citric acid until about 20 weeks after full bloom. In mature fruit, the main acids present were citric acid and quinic acid. Citric acid content rose to the same level or slightly higher than for quinic acid.
    5. A difference in growing location or season did not have a great effect on the patterns of seasonal changes in fruit characteristics. However, starch and citric acid content, together with the ratio of citric/quinic acid, differed between growing locations. The timing of increases in S. S. and sugar content, and the component sugars all differed between seasons.
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  • Toru MAOTANI, Akira SUZUKI, Keiichi TANAKA, Kazuhiko KIMURA, Toshihiko ...
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 859-863
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Control of fruit cracking of Japanese pear ‘Kosui’ and ‘Niitaka’ by gibberellin tape was examined, and the mechanism of occurrence of fruit cracking was discussed.
    1. Gibberellin tapes were tied at the calyx ends (‘Kosui’ only) or peduncles about one month after full bloom. Gibberellin tape restrained fruit cracking conspicuously. Especially the effect was excellent with the treatment of calyx ends.
    2. At the time of harvesting, average fruit weights from gibberellin tape treatments of calyx ends and peduncles were heavier than from non-treatment. No difference appeared in flesh firmness or in refractive index of fruit juice by different treatments.
    3. The cell number of the flesh did not increase by gibberellin tape treatments. We can estimate from the results that the treatments maintained a balance of growth of the whole fruit by advancing the enlargement of the fruit apex, and then fruit cracking was restrained.
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  • Tadashi TAKAMIZO, Nobuo SUGIYAMA
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 865-869
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of N forms on the growth and concentrations of N fractions in plant parts were studied in order to evaluate the assimilating capability of rabbiteye blueberry plants f or NH4 and NO3. One-year-old rooted cuttings were grown in sand culture at 3 levels of N and at 3 levels of pH with NH4, NH4NO3 or NO3 as N sources.
    The dry weight of plant tops was reduced at 14ppm N supplied as any of 3 N forms. At 56ppm and 140ppm N, NH4NO3-fed plants grew better than NH4- and NO3-fed ones. At pH 4 and 5.5, there was no difference of growth between NH4-fed and NO3- fed plants, but at pH 7 NH4-fed plants were larger than NO3-fed ones.
    NH4-fed plants had higher concentrations of total N and soluble N than NO3-fed ones. In NH4-fed plants, free NH4 concentrations in leaves increased much more than amide-N concentrations as N supply was increased. In NO3-fed plants NO3 accumulated scantly in leaves and roots even at 140ppm N. NO2 was not detected in any part of a plant.
    These results showed that blueberry plants did not assimilate NH4 efficiently nor absorb NO3 sufficient for sustaining growth, which is distinctly different from such NH4-loving plants as rice and tea.
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  • Sunao TACHIBANA
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 871-875
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Two-year-old trees of ‘Miyagawa’ Wase, an early maturing cultivar of satsuma mandarin, were planted in 1967 at various planting densities and grown until they were 21 years old. The effect of planting density on fruit productivity (bearing amount per unit leaf area), yield per unit land area, leaf area index (LAI) and crown density, and the relations between fruit productivity, LAI, crown density and yield were determined in lower planting density (1, 250 and 2, 500 trees/ha) and higher planting density (5, 000 and 10, 000 trees/ha).
    1. While fruit productivity showed a slight decrease from 1.21kg/m2 to 1.00kg/m2 with an increase of tree age from 10 to 21 in lower planting density, it showed a large decrease from 0.93kg/m2 to 0.50kg/m2 with an increase of tree age from 4 to 17 in higher planting density. Higher planting density showed larger LAI and crown density than lower planting density at any age.
    2. The relations between LAI and fruit productivity, and between crown density and fruit productivity showed that fruit productivity hardly changed when LAI and crown density were lower than 5 and 80%, respectively, but decreased when they were over these values.
    3. An increase in yield for early-stage trees was mainly dependent on a rapid increase in LAI or crown density, and a subsequent decrease in yield was mainly dependent on a large decrease in fruit productivity.
    4. Yield (60t/ha) in the higher planting density was nearly equal to that in the lower planting density (60t/ha) for 11-year-old trees. The higher planting density had the superior yield for trees younger than 11 years old, but after 11 years its yield was surpassed by the lower planting density.
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  • Hidemi IZUMI, Takuji ITO, Yasuji YOSHIDA
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 877-883
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Sugar and ascorbic acid (AsA) contents in juice were investigated in satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Hayashi) fruits picked from exterior and interior canopy of 21-year-old trees during fruit development, to elucidate the effect of light intensity on fruit quality.
    1. The fruit from exterior canopy was superior in diameter, weight, peel color (a/bvalue) and soluble solids content, but inferior in titratable acid content to the fruit from interior canopy.
    2. The content of sugars in juice, which were detected as glucose, fructose and sucrose, was higher in exterior fruits throughout growing period than in interior fruits. The difference in sugar content (g/100ml of juice) between the fruits from the two positions of canopy remained nearly constant during the sampling period, whereas difference in sugar content in a fruit (g/juice of one fruit) tended to increase during the period.
    3. The fruits from exterior canopy contained higher AsA in juice than the interior canopy fruits, and the difference in AsA content (mg/100ml of juice) between the two positions was nearly the same throughout fruit development. On the other hand, the difference in AsA content in a fruit (mg/juice of one fruit) between the two increased as growth advanced.
    4. A significant correlation was found between contents of sugars (g/juice of one fruit) and of AsA (mg/juice of one fruit) in a fruit. In all cases, the coefficient of correlation was found to be 0.98**.
    5. The contents of sucrose and AsA in the juice of fruits at maturation stage were decreased by shading treatment during fruit growth.
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  • Hidemi IZUMI, Takuji ITO, Yasuji YOSHIDA
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 885-893
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Changes in fruit quality and some other components during storage at 5°C and 15°C were investigated in satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Hayashi) fruits harvested from exterior and interior canopy of 21-year-old trees.
    1. The rate of microbial decay including stem-end rot was much higher in the fruit from interior canopy than from exterior canopy during storage at 15°C. On the other hand, no decay was observed at 5°C except in a few fruit infected with blue and green mold. The peel of fruits from exterior canopy tended to puff during first 60 days of storage at 5°C and 15°C in contrast to fruits from interior canopy.
    2. The respiratory rate of fruits from exterior canopy was higher than that from interior canopy during storage at 5°C and 15°C.
    3. Peel color (a/b value) of the fruits from exterior canopy showed a marked increase compared with the fruits from interior canopy during storage at 5°C and 15°C. The difference in a/b value between the fruits from the two positions tended to increase significantly at 5°C.
    4. The reduction in titratable acid content of the juice was less in the fruits from exterior canopy than from interior canopy during storage at 5°C and 15°C. The difference in the content between the fruits from the two positions of canopy tended to increase at 5°C in the later period of storage.
    5. The content of sugars in a fruit (g/juice of one fruit), which were glucose, fructose and sucrose, showed no significant change in the fruits from either position of canopy during storage at 5°C and 15°C. The fruits from exterior canopy maintained notably higher content of sugar in the juice than those from interior canopy. The rate of decreasing total sugar in the flavedo was higher in the fruit from interior canopy than from exterior canopy during storage at 5°C, although there was no significant difference in total sugar in the flayed flavedo of fruits from the two positions at 15°C.
    6. Ascorbic acid (AsA) content in a fruit (mg/juice of one fruit) remained nearly constant at 5°C, but decreased gradually during storage at 15°C. The exterior fruits that had received more sunlight during development maintained a higher AsA content in the juice throughout storage period for 110 days than did the shaded interior fruits. AsA content in the flavedo of fruits showed a continuous decrease at 5°C and 15°C. The reduction in AsA content in the flavedo of exterior fruits was greater at the end of storage than in interior fruits.
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  • Yoshikazu T. YAMAKI
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 895-898
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Seasonal changes in organic acid concentration were determined for ‘Eureka’ lemon (Citrus limon Burm. f. Eureka), an acid citrus species, Natsudaidai (C. natsudaidai Hayata) and Hyuganatsu (C. tamurana Hort. ex Tanaka), two table citrus species.
    Citrate was the major organic acid throughout the season in all three species, amounting to 63.7 to 96.7% of the sum of recovered acids. Malate was the next abundant organic acid. Its concentration was less than 10% of citrate. The sum of citrate and malate amounted to 71.0 to 99.9% of the sum of recovered acids.
    Harvest season of Natsudaidai and Hyuganatsu was when the concentration of both citrate and malate had decreased, while that of ‘Eureka’ lemon was when citrate showed its maximum concentration and malate was relatively high.
    The highest value of the ratio of citrate to malate in ‘Eureka’ lemon was in May, well after the harvest season, while that of Natsudaidai and Hyuganatsu was prior to the harvest season.
    Concerning the ratio of citrate to malate, the harvest season was similor for acid citrus species and table citrus species, i.e. the harvest season was fairly close to the season when the ratio decreased from a higher value.
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  • Yoshikazu T. YAMAKI
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 899-905
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of lead arsenate on citrate synthase (CS) activity were examined in order to obtain information on the mechanism of lead arsenate in decreasing the concentration of citrate in citrus fruits, with the hope of finding non-toxic acid-reducing chemicals. Solution of 0.3% lead arsenate was sprayed on satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) trees 3 to 7 weeks after full bloom.
    Free acidity of juice at harvest was 15 to 36% lower in fruits sprayed with lead arsenate than in fruits unsprayed. Lead arsenate sprays did not affect protein content of the pulp. At the stage when juice acidity increased rapidly, CS activity was lower in the sprayed fruits than in the unsprayed ones. An interrelation between the reduction of CS activity and the reduction of free acidity was observed. A correlation between rate of decrease in CS activity by lead arsenate 9 to 12 weeks after full bloom and rate of decrease in free acidity at harvest season was also seen.
    When lead arsenate was added to measuring cuvettes containing enzyme extract from unsprayed fruits picked in August, CS activity decreased in proportion to the amount of lead arsenate added to the cuvettes.
    When fruits began to color, CS activity of sprayed fruits exceeded that of unsprayed fruits. The fact that high CS activity at fruit coloring stage did not increase the free acidity of juice may be explained by the changes in metabolism of organic acids.
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  • Yoshikazu T. YAMAKI
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 907-911
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effect of lead arsenate on coenzyme A (CoA) was examined in order to investigate the involvement of CoA in the reduction of free acidity of juice by the chemical in hopes of finding non-toxic acid-reducing chemicals.
    0.3% lead arsenate solution was sprayed on satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) trees 3 to 5 weeks after full bloom.
    Total CoA concentration was not affected apparently, but acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) concentration decreased meaning a proportional decrease of AcCoA to total CoA. Meanwhile the free acidity of juice in lead arsenate sprayed fruits was 16 to 22% lower than that in unsprayed fruits.
    The decrease in proportion of AcCoA in total CoA about five weeks after lead arsenate spraying showed a high correlation with the decrease of free acidity of juice at harvest in sprayed fruits. It was suggested that arsenolysis could cause acidity of juice to decrease by reducing production of citric acid.
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  • Hiroshi INOUE
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 913-917
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    One-year-old potted satsumas (cv. Okitsu Wase) on trifoliate orange rootstocks ere grown at 15, 20 and 25°C in a growth chamber and in the field for 6 months from mid-June. They were sprayed twice each month with 100ppm of gibberellic acid on 11th and 26th from June to November. Effects of gibberellic acid sprays and temperatures in summer and autumn on shoot sprouting and flower bud differentiation were observed. Moreover, after defoliating and transferring the trees into 25°C room in mid-December, flushing of flowers and vegetative shoots was investigated.
    1. Gibberellin sprays promoted flushing of summer shoots on spring ones at 25°C and in the field. The spring shoots without summer flushes increased in diameter as spraying times were earlier and temperatures were higher.
    2. After defoliating and transferring the trees into 25°C room in mid-December, a smaller number of flowers developed in higher temperatures. Earlier sprays of gibberellin strongly depressed development of flower buds. Even the latest spray in November decreased the number of flushes below a quarter of the number of flowers in the non-sprayed trees.
    3. On the defoliated trees after transferring into 25°C room in mid-December, more shoots flushed at lower temperature treatments. Effects of gibberellin sprays were different between temperature treatments. Earlier sprays at 15°C produced more shoots. However, later sprays at 25°C decreased flushing of shoots. In the field, the fewest number of shoots were observed in the non-sprayed trees. Gibberellin sprays promoted flushing of more shoots in and after September than in June to August.
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  • Hiroshi INOUE
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 919-926
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    One-year-old potted satsuma trees (cv. Okitsu Wase) on trifoliate orange ootstock were used to examine the relation between dormancy and flower induction of axillary buds under different temperature conditions maintained in growth chambers.
    1. A summer growth flush on the spring cycle shoots resulted after defoliation was observed half-monthly from mid-June in the field. Time required for a growth flush was 12 or 13 days when defoliated early, but decreased gradually to several days until mid-September. No growth flush occurred in the field from early October when the air temperature fell below 20°C. Trees with leaves brought forth summer cycle shoots from early July to early August. However, no trees sprouted flower buds.
    2. After defoliating and transferring the trees from the field into a 25°C room in the growth chamber, the number of days required for a summer growth flush was determined half-monthly from mid-June. Time required for a growth flush was 10 days when treated until mid-July, whereas it decreased to 3 or 4 days when treated from mid-July to mid-September. Thereafter, days required for a growth flush increased toward the peak (12 days) in late October. Delayed growth flushes around late October seem to imply the dormancy of axillary buds in satsuma trees.
    3. Trees in the field were first transferred into 15, 20 and 25°C rooms in mid-June, and then defoliated and transferred again into a 25°C room at half-month intervals. Number of days to a growth flush was recorded. Until mid-July, trees both in the field and in the 25°C room resumed growth about 10 days after defoliation; thereafter the mean number of days for a growth flush decreased to less than 5 days from late July to late August. Until late August, however, the trees kept in the 20 and 15°C rooms for 1.5 months and over required more than 10 days for a growth flush initiated by defoliation. It seems that the dormancy of axillary buds was induced by low temperature condiions. Therefore, flower buds sprouted on the trees defoliated from late July in the 15°C room and from late August in the 20°C room. Regarding 25°C as the threshold temperature for differentiation of flower buds, cumulative temperatures below 25°C necessary for producing 2 flowers per bearing shoot were 750°C, being applicable to fruit production in a heated plastic greenhouse.
    4. Trees placed in the 15°C room from mid-June were transferred into a 25°C room at different times. The longer the periods of preliminary 15°C treatments, the fewer the number of days required for regrowth in the 25°C room. Trees with leaves placed in the 15°C room for 2.5 months or more commenced regrowth about 20 days after transferring them into the 25°C room. Flower bud sprouting at 25°C was observed in the pretreatment of 15°C for 2 months or more. In particular, more flowers were produced by the longer periods of 15°C pretreatment.
    5. Trees were placed in the 15°C room for 3.5 months from mid-June, and defoliated or left intact with leaves. After defoliation, the trees with or without leaves were kept in the 15°C room, and then transferred to the 25°C room in late September. Defoliation from mid-June to mid-July resulted in sprouting of 2 or 3 summer cycle shoots within 30 days in the 15°C room. When the trees were defoliated after 1.5 months or later in the 15°C room, no summer cycle shoots sprouted. A few days after transferring trees into the 25°C room, vegetative shoots flushed. Flower buds sprouted only in those trees which were defoliated after mid-July. The longer the periods with leaves at 15°C, the larger the number of flowers produced. On the other hand, the shorter the periods with leaves at 15°C, the larger the number of vegetative shoots initiated. Percentage of flower buds to total buds sprouted was higher in the trees with leaves kept for longer periods at 15°C.
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  • Hiroaki INOUE, Bunjiro TAKAHASHI
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 927-934
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    1. In order to clarify flower morphology and the effects of temperature on the flowering behaviors of the Avocado tree (Persea americana), cultivars ‘Mexicola’, ‘Zutano’, ‘Jalna-J’, and ‘Fuerte’ were studied in Yamada Orchard, Numazu, Shizuoka.
    2. The flowering dichogamy phenomenona were observed and photographed through a scanning electron microscope (SEM).
    3. In terms of flower behavior, ‘Mexicola’ was of type “A” (female-functioning in the morning), ‘Zutano’ and ‘Fuerte’ of type “B” (female in the afternoon); these results agree with earlier published observations. But, ‘Jalna-J’ in Japan was of “B” type, contrary to previous ‘Jalna’ descriptions.
    4. At high flowering temperatures (15-25°C), the sexual organs of all cultivars behaved normally, a high percentage of flowers opened female, the life span of one flower was short, and the period of female receptivity was short.
    5. At a low temperature (below 15°C), a low percentage of flowers opened female, some flowers were male-functioning when they first opened, the flowering period was extended, and the life span of one flower was long. Below 7°C, there was no anther dehiscence.
    6. With warm temperatures, each flower was female-functioning at its first opening, male-functioning at its second opening the next day. Each day, flowers opened male that had opened female the day before-two days before in cooler weather.
    7. Avocado flowers behaved more normally in the warmer weather of middle and late May, as compared with mid-April.
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  • Susumu YAZAWA, Takanori SATO, Takakazu NAMIKI
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 935-943
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Dwarfism and a virus-like syndrome (VLS) were studied in interspecific hybrids of Capsicum annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens and C. baccatum.
    Two cultivars of C. chinense used in this experiment had the same dwarfness gene as C. chinense ‘No. 3341’, which had been proven to produce the dwarfism in interspecific hybrids with C. annuum in the previous paper(8).
    C. frutescens cv. ‘Tabasco’ also had the same dwarfness gene as C. chinense ‘No. 3341’.
    Cytoplasmic inheritance was not implicated in the dwarfism.
    The VLS was produced when C. chinense or C. frutescens was used as the female parent in crossing with C. baccatum, while it was not produced in the reciprocal crossing. Production of the VLS was related to the cytoplasm of C. chinense or C. frutescens as well as to the nuclear gene. The VLS was also produced in crossing C. annuum cv. ‘Black Prince’×C. baccatum ‘No. 3985’. These results suggested that a portion of the cytoplasm was genetically common in C. chinense, C. frutescens and C. annuum cv. ‘Black Prince’.
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  • Koki KANAHAMA, Takashi SAITO, Ying-hua QU
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 945-950
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    First sepal, numbered 1 in Fig. 1, developed to the opposite side from the terminal leaf on the main shoot of tomato plants with left-handed phyllotactic spirals. Second, 3rd, 4th and 5th sepals, numbered 2, 3, 4 and 5 in Fig. 1, respectively, developed in anticlockwise direction. The reverse was true on plants with right-handed phyllotactic spirals.
    Although the developing order in 5 petals, 5 stamens and 2 carpels could not be determined, the same orderlines as in 5 sepals was presumed.
    The main vascular connections observed in the fruits of tomato and pepper fruit were as follows: (1) peduncle to receptacle to sepal, (2) peduncle to receptacle to petal, (3) peduncle to receptacle to stamen, (4) peduncle to receptacle to pericarp to fruit distal end, (5) peduncle to receptacle to fruit axis to placenta to seed.
    The direction of vascular bundles in each part was as follows: centrifugal in the sepal, petal and stamen, and acropetal in the pericarp and fruit axis. Vascular bundles in the pericarp were situated on the center of each carpel, and those in the fruit axis were on the border of each carpel.
    The basic number of vascular bundles in each part was 1 each in the sepal, petal and stamen. In pericarp and fruit axis, the number of vascular bundles was as many as the number of carpels.
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  • Masaharu MASUDA, Toyohide TANAKA, Shigeru MATSUNARI
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 951-957
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The uptake of water and minerals during the day and the night was investigated or tomato and cucumber plants grown in a nutrient solution containing 8meq/l each of KNO3 and Ca (NO3)2 and 4meq/l each of NH4H2PO4 and MgSO4, to obtain further information for improving nutrient solution management in NFT water culture.
    Water uptake during the night (from 6:00 P.M. to 6:00 A.M.) was about 12% of that in a whole day, while mineral uptakes were 28 to 45% of those in a whole day for tomatoes, and 18 to 46% for cucumbers. Therefore, the uptake ratios for mineral (me)/water (l) were higher during the night. Those values were 52, 25, 25, 20, and 8 for tomatoes, and 38, 27, 25, 23, and 4 for cucumbers, of NO3-N, P, K, Ca, and Mg, respectively.
    When the nutrient solution was increased to double strength, water uptake decreased and mineral uptakes increased. The ratio of night uptake to day uptake of water was unchanged, but that of minerals increased except for P. Electric conductivity (EC) increased slightly during the day, and decreased slightly during the night, irrespective of the strength. The increment of pH was greater during the night than during the day, and greater in the weaker solution than in the strong one.
    With tomato culture in NFT system, the EC values and mineral concentrations in the nutrient solution decreased from evening, at 6:00 P.M. to moring, at 6:00 A.M., and increased from morning to evening. Based on these results, nutrient solution managements during the day and the night are discussed in respect of calcium deficiency in tomato fruits.
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  • Takashi HOSOKI, Akihiro ISHIBASHI, Hitoshi KITAMUR, Norihiko KAI, Mori ...
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 959-970
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In order to make a systematic classification scheme of oriental melons (Cucumis melo L.), 32 melons with different ecotypes were collected from Japan, China, Taiwan and South Asia, and differences in morphological and physiological characters of these melons were investigated.
    For morphological differences, basal size of spine on the petiole was the largest in Japanese melons and the smallest in those in South Asia. Leaf stomatal density and depth of leaf incision were the smallest in melons in South Asia. The numbers of inner cell layers in the seed coat were 2, 3 or mixed in Japanese melons, mostly 2 in Chinese melons and 2 in all the melons in South Asia. For ecological differences, resistance to water stress was stronger in melons in South Asia than in those in the other areas. Resistance to low temperature was stongest in Japanese melons. For physiological differences, all the melons in South Asia had 4 clear isozyme bands in acid phosphotase at seed-germination time. Some of the Japanese or Chinese melons had a few thin bands or even lacked one of the 4 bands. The component of leaf phenolic- like-compounds in some melons in South Asia slightly differed from that in melons in the other areas. Many of Chinese and Japanese melons had sucrose in the fruit, which was lacking in melons in South Asia. Half of Chinese melons and most of melons in South Asia had another unidentified sugar, which was lacking in Japanese melons.
    All the melons in South Asia showed deep seed dormancy while many of Chinese and Japanese melons showed weak dormancy. All 26 characters, including the other data, were analyzed by cluster analysis to obtain a similarity value among various melons. All the melons in South Asia, a few Chinese melons, conomon group and weedy melon belonged to one major group. Many of the Chinese melons and all Japanese melons except ‘Katsurashirouri’ belonged to another major group. These results suggest that Japanese sweet melons were introduced from China after some breeding process while conomon melon and weedy melon were introduced with little change in China or directly from South Asia.
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  • Takashi HOSOKI, Katsumi OHTA, Tadashi ASAHIRA
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 971-976
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Cultivar differences in fruit malformation in tomato were studied using 5 cultivars
    with multilocular and oligolocular fruits. When the seedlings were exposed to low temperature, occurrence of fruit malformation was severe in multilocular cultivars (‘Ponderosa’ and ‘Ogatafukuju’) but it was slight in oligolocular cultivars (‘Kyokko’ and ‘Sweety’). When the seedlings were treated with TIBA (2, 3, 5-triiodobenzoic acid) and GA3 (gibberellic acid), ‘Ponderosa’ and ‘Ogatafukuju’ also showed severer fruit malformation than the other oligolocular cultivars. ‘
    Ogatafukuju’, which showed a higher degree of fruit malformation than ‘Kyokko’, accumulated more total sugar and gibberellin in the shoot apex when the seedlings were exposed to low temperature.
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  • Mohammad ALI, Kunimitsu FUJIEDA
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 977-984
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Pollen tube growth behavior and success of interspecific crosses between eggplant and wild relatives were studied. Solanum gilo, S. insanum and S. integrifolium were found compatible to eggplant. S. indicum, as the male and female parent, produced mostly unfilled seeds with eggplant ‘Senryo 2 gou’. This species as seed parent produced about 50% filled seeds when it was pollinated by eggplant ‘Uttara’. Only pollination by ‘Senryo 2 gou’ produced a few viable seeds on S. surattense and S. xanthocarpum. Pollen tubes of S. mammosum grew normally in the pistils of ′Senryo 2 gou′ resulting 100% parthenocarpic fruit development. The ‘Uttara’ produced no parthenocarpic fruit, while the former cultivar produced parthenocarpic fruit with 8 different species. Failure or poor germination of pollen, retarded growth of pollen tubes, termination of pollen tube growth before reaching the ovary, weak fluorescence of the pollen tubes, irregular deposition and size of callose plugs, swollen and/or branched pollen tube apex alone or in combination were observed in most of the incompatible crosses.
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  • Susumu MAEKAWA, Yoko TORISU, Noboru INAGAKI, Motoichi TERABUN
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 985-991
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This study was carried out to clarify the relation between occurrence of leaf injury, so-called “leaf spot”, and amount of electrolytes leaked from leaf tissue of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl cv. Beth Elen. Leaves were dipped in water at a temperature lower than leaf (rapid fall of leaf temperature) for the development of leaf spot, and the leakage of electrolytes from leaf discs to water at different temperatures was determined.
    1. Leaves were dipped in water at 40, 45 and 50°C for 60sec, followed by a dipping in water at 25°C for 60sec. The degree of leaf injury increased with the increasing differences between water and leaf temperatures.
    2. The degree of leaf injury due to rapid fall of leaf temperature was influenced by temperature conditions during plant growth and pre-treatment.
    3. Electrolyte leakage from leaf discs was minimum by soaking in 20-25°C water and increased above and below these temperatures. In this case, the amount of leakage in darkness was larger than that in exposure to light.
    4. Exposure of leaf discs to a rapid fall of leaf temperature considerably increased the amounts of K+ and Mg++ leakage.
    5. Leaf discs were divided transversely into two portions, adaxial and abaxial, and they were exposed to rapid fall of leaf temperature. The adaxial half containing palisade tissue had a greater amount of K+ leakage than the abaxial half.
    6. Shrinkage of palisade cells was microscopically observed in injured leaf portions one day after rapid fall of leaf temperature, and then breakdown of chloroplasts was observed.
    7. Electrolyte leakage from old leaves was greater than that from young leaves.
    8. Exposure of leaves to high light intensity before rapid fall of leaf temperature increased leaf injury and electrolyte leakage.
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  • Genjiro MORI, Yoshihiro SAKANISHI
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 993-998
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The value of Rhodohypoxis baurii as flowering potted plants has recently een appreciated. There is now a need to study how to control the flowering time.
    In this study, the growth periodicity of plants grown outdoors was clarified and the effect of temperature on the initiation and development of flower buds was investigated.
    1. A corm shows a sympodial branching system, and each unit of the sympodial branch is composed of one foliage leaf and a terminal inflorescence, which bears 1-3 florets.
    2. During the growth period from late April to late October, repeated sympodial branching resulted in about 25 inflorescences being initiated. Many of these aborted after the first floret reached the carpel primordia formation stage, and 4-6 inflorescences which passed through the winter at the earlier stage than carpel primordia formation flowered in early June to early July.
    3. Corms did not flower when they were moved from outdoors to a greenhouse kept above 20°C on or before January 20. In order to determine the critical temperature and duration for chilling effects, plants were treated with constant temperature of 6, 10, 15 or 20°C at intervals of 2 weeks up to 18 weeks and were then shifted to the greenhouse kept above 20°C. As a result, normal flowering was observed in corms treated at 6°C for more than 12 weeks and at 10°C for more than 16 weeks.
    4. After the chilling requirement was fully satisfied, temperatures from 20°C to 30°C advanced flowering. However, some depression in flower size and fading flower colour were observed at 25 and 30°C. Anthesis was hardly influenced by the photoperiod, but the number of emerged leaves decreased in the 8-hour photoperiod.
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  • Yuichi YOSHIDA, Michio OHI, Kohei FUJIMOTO
    1990 Volume 58 Issue 4 Pages 999-1006
    Published: 1990
    Released: July 05, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Four cultivars of melons (Cucumis melo L.) were harvested at different ages. Sugar content, the rate of CO2 and C2H4 evolution, and flesh firmness were measured.
    1. Fruits of var. reticulatus Naud. (‘Earl′s Favourite’ and ‘IW-57’) showed climacteric rise in respiration. ‘IW-57’ especially, showed extremely high rate of CO2 and C2H4 evolution. ‘Ginsen’ (var. acidulus Naud.) and ‘IW-57’ which can not be stored for a long time, showed higher respiration rates than ‘Hony Dew’ (var. inodorus Naud.) and ‘Earl′s Favourite’.
    2. Ethylene treatment (1, 000ppm, 20h) reduced flesh firmness. However, the effects were slight in ‘Ginsen’ and in the climacteric phase of ‘Earl′s Favourite’ and ‘IW-57’.
    3. Soluble solid contents (SSC) of ‘Honey Dew’ were high at the early stages of development and did not increase much at the period of 40 to 55 days after anthesis; sucrose content was relatively low at harvest even at the commercial harvesting stages. However, sucrose content increased after harvest, especially with ethylene treatment. In other cultivars, SSC and sucrose content increased rapidly just before the commercial harvesting stages. Fruit quality of ‘Earl′s Favourite’ decreased with the decrease of SSC and total sugar contents (TSC) after harvest.
    4. In ‘Honey Dew’ fruits, the relationship between SSC and TSC was low just after harvest but ethylene-treated fruits showed a high relationship. In other cultivars, the relationships between SSC and TSC were high. However, the values of SSC and TSC were not equal and SSC always showed relatively higher values than TSC.
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