The anthocyanin pigments of black-purple grapes, ‘Campbell Early’, ‘Ishihara Wase’, ‘Kyoho’, ‘Kokuho’and‘Takao’were examined by thin-layer chromatography. Nineteen anthocyanins were identified in these grapes. The aglycones were delphinidin, petunidin, cyanidin, malvidin and peonidin. All varieties contained monoglucosides and diglucosides, characteristic of hybrids of V. vinifera and V.labrusca. ‘Kyoho’(‘Ishihara Wase’×‘Centennial’) contained five aglycones. ‘Campbell Early’ and ‘Ishihara Wase’ (‘Campbell Early’ 4X) lacked malvidin. Cyanidin was not detected in ‘Kokuho’ and ‘Takao’, which are progeny of ‘Kyoho’.
In order to make clear the cause of necrosis occurring in lateral buds in grapevines and its control measure, the effects of shoot vigor on the occurrence of bud necrosis, and also on the bud sprouting and the cluster development in the next spring were examined in a necrosis-sensitive cultivar, ‘Kyoho’. Further, the effects of foliar application of GA (gibberellic acid) and SADH (succinic acid-2, 2-dimethylhydrazide) before or after full bloom on the shoot growth and the occurrence of bud necrosis were studied in the same cultivar. Each lateral bud on a shoot consisted of a central bud and mostly two additional axillary buds in the cultivar, and the central bud deterioration was found in about 80% of the lateral buds at the nodes from the 6th to the 20th in the strong shoots (average length: 390cm) of a vigorous‘Kyoho’vine. On the other hand, only about 20% of them suffered from the necrosis in the weak shoots (average length: 88cm) of a moderately growing vine. When the data of the strong and weak shoots in both vines were combined, highly significant correlation (r=0.77**) was found between the shoot length and the percentage of the necrotic lateral buds below the 15th node. Further, when the strong (long) shoots were used as fruiting canes, they tended to show the lower rate of sprouting, the smaller number of florets per cluster and the shorter length of cluster. The spraying of GA solution at 100ppm against the leaves (from the 5th to the 9th) 9 days before or 7 days after full bloom remarkably acceralated the occurrence of the necrosis in the central buds of the lateral buds located at the wide range of nodes from the 1st to the 25th. Also, the number of axillary buds per lateral bud was extraordinarily increased by both treatments. Shoot growth, especially above the 10th node, was promoted more effectively by the prebloom application than the postbloom one. When the SADH solution was sprayed at 5, 000ppm against the leaves (from the 5th to the 9th) 14 days before or 10 days after full bloom, both of the treatments, particularly the prebloom application, significantly depressed the growth of internodes from the 10th to the 25th, and the occurrence of the necrotic buds at the wide range of nodes under the 25th. From these results, a close relationship is estimated between the occurrence of necrotic buds in the grape shoots and the level of endogenous GA in the buds, and it can be said that the foliar application of SADH before full bloom is very effective for controlling the necrosis.
Clusters of‘Delaware’grapes were shaded or exposed to high moisture by covering them with bags of black cheesecloth or polyethylene film in the early, middle and late stages of fruit growth. Effects of these treatments on the formation of surface wax and the resistance to berry splitting were examined. 1. The amount of surface wax and waxy bloom was not significantly decreased by cluster shading at any stage of fruit growth. High moisture treatment at the late stage significantly decreased these factors. However, these treatments did not have a significant effect on berry splitting. 2. Cluster shading at the late stage increased the thickness of sub-epidermal cell walls, and tended to decrease berry splitting. The high moisture treatments at the early and middle stages increased the critical turgor pressure of berries, markedly promoted the development of sub-epidermal cell walls, pedicels and their lenticels and reduced the frequency of berry splitting.
The present paper deals with changes in proteins in the developing style and ovary of Japanese pear cv. Chojuro (Pyrus serotina Rehd.) to see if a relationship exists between protein composition and overcoming self-incompatibility following bud pollination. Results obtained are as follows; 1. In the immature excised-styles that can overcome self-incompatibility by bud pollination, incompatible pollen tubes grew similarly with compatible ones; while a clear distinction could be observed between compatible and incompatible growth of pollen tubes in the mature excised-styles. 2. The analysis of proteins in the styles by isoelectricfocusing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (IEF-PAGE) showed two unique bands which began to increase 4 days before anthesis; those which existed only in the style but not in other flower tissues such as ovary, petal, calyx, anther and peduncle. The PI values of the proteins were 6.0 and 6.1, respectively, both of which were glycoproteins. 3. According to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two new protein bands were also detected in the developing style. These bands appeared 4 days before anthesis and increased thereafter. Molecular weights of these proteins were about 5.2×104 and 5.8×104, respectively. The floral stage when the new proteins were detected in styles by both IEF- and SDS-PAGE corresponded well with the stage the style began to possess strong self-incompatibility.
In the majority of middle and late maturing citrus species and cultivars, the relationships between climatic parameters including temperature, precipitation, sunshine and solar radiation, and morphological characteristics and inherent quality of the fruit, for which data were collected from many locations in Japanese citrus growing areas during several years, were analyzed by single and multiple regression analysis. The objective of the investigation was to determine the range of variations in temperature, precipitation, sunshine and solar radiation in the citrus growing areas where citrus fruits of distinctive quality are produced. Temperature is the climatic factor which was found to have greatest effect on fruit quality characteristics, in particular the citric acid content, Brix/acidity ratio, juice pH, rind thickness, flesh percentage, shape index of fruit and fruit weight. The parameters related to temperature included the annual mean temperature, mean temperature from Apr. to Nov. and annual effective cumulative temperature. Rainfall was also found to significantly affect several fruit quality characteristics. Contradictoly results were obtained for relationships between the precipitation and the citric acid content in juice. These disagreements may be ascrived to the interaction of factors including the duration of rainfall, the rainfall intensity in each period and the development and maturation period of fruit. The changes observed in the fruit quality characteristics related to the climatic parameters did not correspond to variations in the Brix values but corresponded to variations in the citric acid content and the Brix/acidity ratio. Five multiple regressions among the fruit quality characteristics (Dependent variable) and the climatic parameters (Independent variable) were obtained. The climatic conditions associated with a high fruit quality in 8 citrus species and cultivars, based on the relationships obtained from the regression lines, were tabulated. The relationships between mean monthly temperature, monthly duration of sunshine and monthly solar radiation were highly significant. In further investigations, the annual cumulative solar radiation should be determined to assess the adaptability of citrus species.
Various guanidine compounds were detected in 1-year-old stems and developing shoots of fruit trees such as citrus, apple, peach, loquat and persimmon. GSA, CT, GAA, AARG, GPA, GBA, ARG, GBAD, G and MG were identified and quantified. CTN, HARG and AGM were not identified. More than 20 species of unidentified guanidine compounds were present in all samples. Seasonal variations of GBAD, GBA, GAA, AARG, CT and G in the bark and wood of 2-year-old stem, buds and burst buds, and in 1-year-old leaves parallelled those of arginine. These results suggest that the metabolic pathway of ARG via GBAD, GBA, GABA to the TCA cycle operates in fruit trees, and also that different metabolic route for guanidine compounds connected to arginine metabolism operates.
Early digging of nursery stocks will profit nurserymen through early dealing in failing nursery stocks. However, digging too early is desirable as it affects the growth after planting. The effects of digging time on the growth after planting were investigated in 1 year-old nursery stocks of Japanese pear‘Kosui’, Japanese chestnut‘Tsukuba’ and Japanese persimmon‘Fuyu’from 1980 to 1983. The nursery stocks were dug and planted temporarily at intervals of about 15 days from September 15 to December 15, then replanted in a field during the winter. The growth was recorded in the following October or December. Sugar and starch levels in the shoot and root of the pear were also determined for each digging time. 1. Death and dieback were observed in the early-digging nursery stocks, but not in the nursery stocks of pear and chestnut dug after November or in persimmon dug after October 15. 2. The earlier the digging time, the shorter the total shoot length in all fruit studied. 3. There was more new root production in the nursery stocks of the pear and chestnut dug on November 1 and 15 than in those dug before October 17. 4. Sugar levels in the shoot and root of the pear nursery stocks did not change greatly from October 2 to November 15. Starch levels in the above increased to November 2 and decreased slowly since then. 5. A digging time later than November 1 is recommended for nursery stocks of pear, chestnut and persimmon.
The vascular system in the main stem and peduncles of the female flower of cucumber was investigated. The vascular system of the main stem showed both right- and left-handedness. At each internode, nine vascular bundles were observed, arranged in double concentric circles with 5 outside (cortical bundles) and 4 inside (medullary bundles). The bundles were not connected in the internodes, but were connected at each node by an annular vascular bundle‘0’. Most of the vascular bundles of the petiole connected with those of the internode just below the node of the petiole. Many were also connected with the next internode down, but few were connected with those of the internode just above. Vascular bundles of tendril, lateral shoot and first and 2nd female flower on a given node fused together at their base and were connected with the vascular bundle‘0’in the node. From these observations, it is suggested that photosynthates from the leaf might be translocated first in a basipetal rather than acropetal direction, especially to the first and second internodes below the node of the attached leaf, before being distributed to various parts of the plant. In the peduncle of the female flower, 5 vascular bundles were observed at the proximal end and 10 at the distal end. Five types and 48 subtypes of division could be distinguished. The pattern of division also showed asymmetry as well as right- and left-handedness. Among the 5 types of division, 83.2% were type II, i.e. peduncles with 1 undivided vascular bundle +3 bundles each divided into 2+1 bundle divided into 3. Out of the total number of peduncles examined, 15.8% were type II peduncles with 1 undivided bundle at the stem side and 1 bundle opposite the stem side divided into 3, according to the illustration in the previous paper(5). From these results, it is suggested that the direction of curvature of ovaries is associated with the asymmetry in the division of vascular bundles of the peduncle and also with the vascular arrangement in the main stem.
Concentrations of root total lipids and their fatty acid composition were compared between cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cultivars and figleaf gourd (Cucurbitaficifolia Bouchè) grown at different root temperatures for 10 days. Total lipid and lipid-P concentrations increased at lower root temperatures in all crop roots, but they were higher at all temperatures in figleaf gourd which was more tolerant of low root temperature than cucumber cultivars. Great difference was observed between figleaf gourd and cucumber roots in the fatty acid composition of total lipids in relation to root temperature. In figleaf gourd, linolenate continued to increase toward lower temperatures to attain 57% of total fatty acids at 12°C whereas it increased only at 15°C to a lesser extent in both cultivars of cucumber. This resulted in higher degree of fatty acids unsaturation at lower temperatures in the former plant roots. Relationships between fatty acid composition and plant tolerance to low root temperature are discussed.
In recent years, there has been a rapid increase in the demand for shredded vegetables. Optimum techniques for preserving such vegetables, however, have not yet been established. Browning is a major problem for the preservation of shredded cabbage. The study was attempted to find an effective way to prevent it from browning. 1. Differences in browning, ethylene production and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) concentration in shredded cabbage were investigated among 10 cultivars of cabbages. Cultivars‘Ginryoku’and‘Shikidori’showing a slight browning (less than 4 in ΔE(Lab)) 24 hours after shredding, produced a small amount of ethylene (less than 0.9nl•g-1•h-1) and contained a large amount of AITC (more than 3mg•100g-1 F. W.). In contrast, ‘Akimakichuwase 2’, ‘Shin A go’, ‘Shutoku’, ‘Derishasu’, ‘Shinkashu’, ‘Kandori 1’, ‘Shuki’and‘Koshinohikari’showed an intense browning (more than 9 in ΔE(Lab)), produced a large amount of ethylene (more than 2.3nl•g-1•h-1) and contained a small amount of AITC (less than 1.2mg•100g-1 F.W.). 2. Exogenously supplied AITC inhibited browning, ethylene production and respiration in shredded cabbage. 3. Isothiocyanates, such as ethyl, butyl, phenyl, benzyl, and cyclohexyl isothiocyanates, were found to have the same effects as allyl isothiocyanate on inhibition of browning, ethylene production and respiration, except that cyclohexyl isothiocyanate did not inhibit browning.
Ecological characteristics of spring-flowering gladiolus were studied, using 5 cultivars with different 5 pedigrees (‘Comet’ of Herald, ‘Charm’ of Tubergenii, ‘Elvira’of Herald×Nanus, ‘Robinetta’ of Ramosus and‘Albus’of Colvillei) and compared with summer-flowering gladiolus. ‘Comet’and‘Traveler’of summer-flowering gladiolus flowered earlier when grown at 30-25°C (day-night) than at 20°C (whole day), whereas‘Charm’flowered earlier when grown at 20°C.‘Robinetta’and‘Albus’flowered normally only when grown at 20°C. The effect of day length on flowering was small.‘Elvira’flowered a little earlier when grown under short day than under long day, whereas‘Comet’, ‘Charm’, ‘Robinetta’and‘Albus’flowered a little earlier when grown under long day. Flowering of‘Comet’was severely affected by low light intensity, resulting in 100% blasting. Flowering of‘Elvira’and‘Charm’were appreciably affected whereas flowering of‘Robinetta’was not affected at all. Flower bud initiation and development of‘Charm’, ‘Robinetta’and ‘Albus’ were promoted by low temperature treatment on the corms, whereas those of ‘Elvira’and‘Comet’were not. For breaking corm dormancy, high temperature storage (30°C) was more effective than low temperature storage (5°C) for all the cultivars. Cold hardiness was strongest in‘Robinetta’, intermediate in‘Charm’, ‘Albus’ and‘Comet’, and weakest in‘Elvira’. Drought resistance was strongest in‘Robinetta’, intermediate in‘Albus’and ‘Charm’, and weakest in‘Elvira’and‘Comet’. Thus, spring-flowering gladiolus, which has been regarded as one group, could be ecologically classified into 3 groups: a typical spring-flowering gladiolus type, ‘Albus’and‘Robinetta’, an intermediate type, ‘Charm’, and a summer-flowering type, ‘Comet’and‘Elvira’. Ecological characteristics of these groups well reflected those of their parental species.
In this study, the existence of eleven cultivars of the‘Gaisen’type tetraploid group, thirty-five cultivars of triploid group, seven cultivars of the‘Egao’type tetraploid group, and seven cultivars of pentaploid group of Camellia vernalis were recognized. An origin for each group was postulated as follows: 1) the ‘Gaisen’type tetraploid group was the primary hybrid between C. sasanqua and C. japonica; 2) triploid and pentaploid groups were backcross generations via the‘Gaisen’type tetraploid group with C. japonica and C. sasanqua respectively; 3) the‘Egao’type tetraploid group was the second backcross generation between triploid group and C. japonica.
Changes in endogenous gibberellins in the first and upper internodes of tulip were investigated under light and dark growing conditions. In darkness, the elongation of the first internode was increased. The level of polar, free gibberellin also increased, while the level of the bound form decreased. Under natural light, a rapid increase in the length of the last internode was parallelled by an increase in non-polar free gibberellin. It is suggested that two different gibberellins are involved in controlling the elongation of the lower and upper internodes of tulip flower stalk. An interconversion system between free and bound forms of polar and non-polar gibberellins, which act in the first and the upper internodes respectively, and the dependence of these upon light conditions were also suggested.
Previous study (1983) on Limonium sinuatum Mill., one of the perennials, revealed the following facts. L. sinuatum could be vernalized when germinating seeds were chilled at 2_??_3°C for 30 days, and if the vernalized seedlings were transferred to a high temperature condition immediately after the termination of chilling, the vernalization effect was reduced or completely nullified suggesting occurrence of devernalization. Recently, a study was conducted using the same kind of flower L. sinuatum. This was to find out the effect of high temperature on the devernalization of seed-vernalized plants with varying growth stage. Early flowering cultivar ‘Early Blue’ was used under this study of which the following results were obtained. 1. The vernalized seedlings transferred to a high temperature condition (29°C daily maximum, 21_??_22°C daily minimum) immediately after the chilling were devernalized. 2. Devernalization did not occur, when the vernalized seedlings were grown under a temperature (27°C±2°C day- and 17°C±2°C night-temperature) after chilling, and these seedlings were kept under this condition until having a leaf number of 8_??_10, then transferred to the natural high temperature (32°C daily maximum, 24 °C daily minimum) in late August. It was observed that seedlings with 2_??_3 leaves when exposed to natural high temperature after chilling were partially devernalized. The degree of devernalization depended on the plant age where the seedlings were exposed to the high temperature. A conclusion could therefore be extracted from the result of this experiment that is, the younger the plant, the higher the degree of devernalization. And the inductive temperature to devernalization became higher as the plant age increased. 3. Cut flowers of L. sinuatum could be harvested in October under field condition by planting the seedlings in late August or early September which had been vernalized at 2_??_3°C for 30 days during the germinating stage and grown in the cool greenhouse for about 35 days until obtaining a leaf number of 8_??_10.
It has been thought that natural removal of astringency in three types of Japanese persimmon fruits, i.e. pollination-variant/astringent (PVA), pollination-variant/nonastringent (PVNA) and pollination-constant/astringent (PCA), depends on the level of volatile compounds such as ethanol and acetaldehyde produced by their seeds during fruit development. We studied the internal gas condition of the fruit in relation to ethanol production by the seeds, and also examined the effect of several artificial gas environments on detached whole fruits or excised seeds. 1) Ethanol production by the seeds of any type of fruit seemed to be partly triggered by the anaerobic conditions and high carbon dioxide concentration generated in the early stage of fruit development. No differences in the degree of anaerobicity were observed between the fruit types. 2) When whole fruits or excised seeds were placed in different concentrations of gas mixtures (N2, O2 and CO2), PVNA seeds produced more ethanol than PCA seeds under given anaerobic conditions. 3) In conclusion, the level of ethanol production by the seeds mainly reflected the differences in their inherent ethanol producing capacity. The observed differences may partly be due to differences in permeability of the seed coats to ethanol, resulting in a differential ability to remove astringency.