Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
Online ISSN : 1880-358X
Print ISSN : 0013-7626
ISSN-L : 0013-7626
Volume 64 , Issue 1
Showing 1-24 articles out of 24 articles from the selected issue
  • Naohiro Kubota, Emiko Hikasa
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 1-8
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Fruit development with particular reference to physiological fruit drop, which occurs between late Stage 2 and early Stage 3, was investigated on each of three (No. 1, 2, and 3), orchard-grown, bearing peach trees, 'Shimizu-hakuto' and 'Setouchi-hakuto'. The percentage of fruit drop in tree No. 3 of both cultivars was higher every year than that in the other two trees. The highest fruit drop of 36.3% occurred in tree No. 3-of 'Setouchihakuto'; in others it was less than 5%. On the same tree, increase in fruit weight, length, diameter, and width, pit length and diameter, and seed weight were larger during Stage 1 than they were in Stage 2. Among the test trees the percentages of split-pits and abortedseeds were higher in tree No. 3 of 'Setouchi-hakuto' and in all trees of 'Shimizu-hakuto'. No clear relationship between fruit drop and the occurrence of split-pits or aborted-seeds was observed. Seed of No. 3 'Setouchi-hakuto' tree aborted early. The percentage of fruits containing two seeds per fruit was not correlated with the % fruit drop. Although more ethylene was evolved by fruits of tree No. 3 of 'Setouchi-hakuto' throughout Stage 2, no clear-cut correlation occurred between the % fruit drop and ethylene production. In 'Setouchi-hakuto', no differences in total carbon in the leaves, flesh tissue, and seed were observed among the three trees, but total nitrogen content in leaves and seeds was lower in tree No. 3 than it was in the other two trees. The nitrogen content in the seed decreased rapidly at the beginning of Stage 2 and continued until harvest. The nitrogen content in the flesh also decreased, but it did not differ among trees. A possible relationship between these observations and the occurrence of June drop in peaches is discussed.
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  • Hitoshi Okuda, Takeshi Kihara, Isao Iwagaki
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 9-16
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Apparent photosynthesis (Pa), dark respiration (Dr), net photosynthesis (Pn) and abscisic acid concentration were measured on current shoots of 19-year-old satsuma mandarin cv. Aoshima. These new growths are spring shoots that may differentiate simple and/or mixed flower buds the following season depending on whether adjacent shoots on the same branch units are bearing or not. Morphorogical characteristics and the alternate bearing tendency of vegetative shoots on currently bearing (VS-A) and non-bearing (VS-B) branch units were compared for three successive seasons.
    1. There were no significant differences in number of nodes between VS-A and VS-B, but the internode lengths of the former were shorter than those of the latter; therefore, VS-B were shorter than those of VS-A.
    2. In the following spring, VS-A produced more non-bearing shoots than did VS-B;conversely, VS-B initiated more flower buds than did VS-A.
    3. Both apparent and net photosynthesis rates were at maximum from September to October but those on VS-B were consistently higher than those on VS-A. Both rates diminished from October to November; Pa of VS-A and VS-B became equal in November; whereas, Pn of VS-B remained higher than that of VS-A. No significant difference in Dr between branch units was observed during the growing season until November when Dr of VS-B exceeded that of VS-A.
    4. The ABA levels of the terminal three leaves from VS-B were consistently and significantly lower than those in VS-A in October.
    These results suggest that the inhibition of floral initiation on vegetative shoots of small branch units is related to lower phothsynthesis and higher ABA oncentration in leaves during the previous growing season.
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  • Kiyohide Kojima, Yoshio Yamada, Masashi Yamamoto
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 17-21
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) injections into citrus fruits in autumn on fruit drop, ABA catabolism, and sugar and organic acid contents were evaluated. Fruit drop increased after ABA injection proportional to the ABA concentration. Ninety-two percent of citrus fruits were retained 16 days after injection with 0.2 μmol ABA per fruit. Injection of 14C-ABA revealed that exogenously applied ABA was catabolized to a level of about 10% in the fruits within four days. Injection of ABA caused an increase in the glucose and fructose concentrations, but had no effect on the organic acid in the juice. ABA appears to play a role in increasing sugar content of fruit juice.
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  • Masashi Yamamoto, Ryoji Matsumoto, Yoshio Yamada
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 23-29
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The relationship of female and male sterility, and self-incompatibility to seed content in citrus were investigated using 22 male sterile and fertile cultivars. The male fertile cultivars were grouped into self-compatible and self-incompatible. Positive correlation (r = 0.927**, r2=0.859) existed between the average number of seeds per fruit obtained by hand pollination, which indicated the degree of female fertility, and that yielded by open pollination. This result indicates that the degree of female fertility and sterility can be estimated from seeds derived by open pollination. The difference between the average number of seeds per fruit by hand pollination and that by open pollination was greater in male sterile cultivars and in self-incompatible cultivars than it was in self-compatible cultivars. This indicates that self-incompatibility as well as male sterility is effective on the reduction of seediness. In open pollination, self-compatible cultivars produced very few seedless fruits, whereas male sterile and self-incompatible cultivars produced many seedless fruits.
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  • Osvaldo Kiyoshi Yamanishi, Yoshikazu Nakajima, Kojiro Hasegawa
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 31-40
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Seven-year-old 'Tosa Buntan' pummelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) trees on trifoliate orange rootstocks grown in a plastic house were used in this study. The trunks were strangulated using 1.6, 2.0 or 2.6 mm steel wires at a depth of wire diameter in midNovember 1991. The wire was removed 3 months later. The enlargement of the trunk girth in the treated trees, especially in the 2.6 mm treatment, was smaller than that in the control. Specific leaf weight (SLW) of the previous year's leaves increased by treatment with 1.6 and 2.0 mm wires, but it occurred later in 2.6 mm treatment. Net photosynthetic rates (Pn) of the leaves, especially in the 2.6 mm treatment, decreased on treated trees. The numbers of inflorescences and flower buds on treated trees were much larger but shoot growth was reduced compared to control trees in 1992. Conversely, treated trees produced fewer flowers in 1993. The percentage of fruit set on treated trees ranged from 2.4 to 3.1% in 1992; no significant difference was noted among treatments. Fruits, harvested in February 1993, from the treated trees weighted less, had thinner peel, and higher contents of sucrose and citric acid in the juice than those in the control trees, but the yield and the number of fruits at harvest were, respectively, 1.4 to 1.6 times and 1.6 to 2.3 times larger in the treated trees than those obtained from control trees. The 2.6 mm treatment resulted in significant reduction in yield in 1994, whereas, the other treatments yielded as well as the control trees, the percent return bloom was significantly reduced. The wire sizes of 1.6 mm and 2.0 mm in diameter were suitable to strangulate the trunks of 7-year-old 'Tosa Buntan' pummelo trees.
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  • Hiroshi Yakushiji, Masahiko Yamada, Keizo Yonemori, Akihiko Sato, Nobu ...
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 41-46
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Fuyu' and 'Jiro' Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) are normally pistillate constant, producing only female flowers. However, shoots of individual trees of both cultivars were found bearing male flowers. When these shoots were top-worked on other stocks, the new shoots emerging from the scions yielded male flowers which produced viable pollen grains on an agar medium. There were no differences in starch gel electrophoretic patterns for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and phosphoglucomutase (PGM) between the leaves on the shoots with male flowers and leaves from the original source trees. The leaves, shoots, fruit and seeds derived from the top-grafted branches could not be morphologically distinguished from the other original trees. These results indicate that the shoots with male flowers are morphologically and enzymatically identical to 'Fuyu' and 'Jiro', except that the bud sports are staminate-sporadic.
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  • Fumio Tamura, Kenji Tanabe, Masashi Katayama
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 47-53
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    1. To estimate flooding tolerance of several pear rootstocks, wilting of leaves, shoot growth and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) reducing activity of fine roots were measured under an experimental flooding condition. Two strains of Pyrus calleryana, No. 6 and No. 8, were most tolerant to flooding, followed by strains No. 7 and No. 10. Seedlings of P. betulaefolia and P. pyrifolia were not tolerant to flooding.
    2. Evolution of HCN from the pear roots was determined by treating them with N2 gasand NaN3 solution. Root systems of the plants evolved the same level of HCN whether they were kept anaerobic or treated with NaN3. Untreated control pear roots did not evolve any HCN.
    3. The fine roots were collected before and after seven days of flooding and oxygen uptake measured in a 1mM KCN solution. KCN inhibited oxygen uptake about 10% in the fine roots of P. calleryana strains No. 6 and No. 8 collected before flooding; the inhibition decreased after seven days of flooding. But in the cases of P. betulaefolia and P. pyrifolia, KCN inhibited oxygen uptake of fine roots by more than 30% after flooding.
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  • Takashi Nishizawa
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 55-61
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    June-bearing strawberry plants (Fragaria xananassa, cv. Toyonoka) were grown in a greenhouse kept at 25 0/20 °C (day/night) and a 15-hr photoperiod (forcing) under one of the following treatments : 1) all unfolded leaves (OL) were removed at the onset of forcing (DOL), 2) all leaves which unfolded during the forcing period (NL) were removed as they emerged (DNL), 3) both OL and NL were removed (DAL), and 4) undefoliated control. Changes in the carbohydrate levels were determined in the roots and leaves on days 0, 21 (full bloom for the primary truss), and 63 (picking date for the primary truss).
    1) Petiole length of the first two NL was shorter in DOL than it was in undefoliated control. On the other hand, leaf area did not differ significantly between the treatments, irrespective of leaf positions.
    2) Dry weight of fruit on primary truss (total weight of 7 fruit) on day 21 was greater in DNL than it was in undefoliated control. However, the weight on day 63 did not differ significantly among the treatments.
    3) In DAL, fruit of the primary truss grew normally during the first 21 days of forcing. However, when stipules and sepals were removed and peduncles were shaded on day 21, all plants died within a week.
    4) Reducing sugar, sucrose, and starch levels of roots decreased rapidly during the first 21 days of forcing, they decreased slightly thereafter, irrespective of the treatments. Starch level on day 63 was lower in defoliated plants than it was in undefoliated control.
    5) The present study reveals that the stored reserve carbohydrates in the strawberry roots are consumed during the early phases of plant growth after forcing.
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  • Toyoki Kozai, Byoung Ryong Jeong, Chieri Kubota, Yuki Mural
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 63-71
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Single-node stem cuttings each with a leaf of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Benimaru) plantlets were cultured in vitro under photoautotrophic conditions for 24 days on full, half or quarter strength Murashige and Skoog liquid media (16 or 32 ml per vessel, or 4 or 8 ml per explant) in fibrous polyester cubes in 480-ml glass jars. The environmental conditions were 25 ±1°C air temperature, 7592% relative humidity, 12 mmol-mol-1 CO2 in the culture room during photoperiod, 16 hr•d-1 photoperiod, 170 μmol•m-2•s-1 photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), and number of vessel air exchange per hour of 1.4.
    After 24 days of culture, fresh and dry weights, shoot length, number of leaves, leaf area, net photosynthetic rate per until leaf dry weight and relative growth rate per day of the plantlet were enhanced, while percent dry matter was suppressed, with increasing volume and initial strength of the medium.
    The concentration of P in the medium was near zero g•m-3 on day 24 in all the treatments. The concentration of NH4 was also near zero g•m-3 except in the full strength with 32-ml medium after 24 days of culture. Uptake rate per plantlet gram dry weight of NO3, NH4, P, K, Ca and Mg over the 24-day period increased with increasing the volume and initial strength of the medium. Both the volume and initial strength of the medium, which affect the initial ion content, affected the growth, photosynthesis and ion uptake of potato plantlets in vitro over the 24 day period.
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  • Masaharu Masuda, Motohumi Nomura
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 73-78
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Mineral uptake and oxygen consumption by tomato roots as affected by pinching and fruit removal were investigated.
    The pinching had little or no effect on mineral uptake of tomato roots, whereas fruit removal markedly promoted the uptake of nitrate, calcium, and magnesium. The uptake of phosphorus and potassium was unaffected by either treatment. The concentrations of nitrate, calcium, and magnesium in the xylem sap were higher in plants with fruit removed than they were in the control plants. However, there were no differences in phosphorus and potassium concentrations between treatments.
    Pinching had no effect on root dry weight, whereas fruit removal increased it. Roots of pinched plants consumed slightly less oxygen than did roots of control plants on a dry weight basis; fruit removal had no influence on O2 uptake, but the combined treatments decreased it significantly. Oxygen consumption rate by roots on a per plant basis was slower in pinched plants than it was in the control or de-fruited plants; it was slowest in plants given the combined treatments. Therefore, the removal of upper growing parts of shoot tip and fruits promoted root growth but decreased root respiration rate on dry weight basis.
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  • Takao Kawai, Mitsuharu Hikawa, Yoshiro Ono
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 79-84
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of sulfur-containing chemicals on the incidence of internal browning, the polyphenol concentration, and the oxidase activity in Japanese radish.
    Application of either 4080 kg•a-1 calcium sulfate or 416 kg•a-1 sublimed sulfur tended to reduce the occurrence of internal browning and at the same time enhance the sulfur content of roots. In the latter treatment, the concentration of polyphenol and the polyphenol oxidase activity were reduced.
    Applications of calcium sulfate resulted in an increase in S and Ca in the roots, whereas, incorporation of super phosphate increased P content but lowered polyphenol oxidaseactivity.
    The addition of slaked lime to the sublimed sulfur not only failed to reduce the soil acidity, but it also induced internal browning and decreased sulfur content of roots. Increasing the level of calcium in roots via application of calcium carbonate did not alleviate the incidence of internal browning. These results suggest that the inhibition of internal browning was caused by the increased level of sulfur in roots rather than that of calcium.
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  • Hiroshi Kumakura, Yoshihiro Shishido
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 85-94
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Flower bud initiation at apices of axillary branches of four everbearing strawberry cultivars grown in growth chambers held at 20°, 25°30°C and photoperiods of 4, 8, 12 and 16 hr was studied.
    1. Almost 100% of the apices of axillary branches differentiated flower buds on all cultivars under all growing conditions.
    2. In all four cultivars, a high frequency of flower buds aborted before anthesis occurred at 30°C, whereas a low frequency of aborted flower buds occurred at 20°and 25°C.
    3. The number of leaves which formed on the axillary branches (branch leaves, BL) before flower buds were differentiated was counted. The number of BL was not uniform on branches, ranging from 0 to 6. At 20°C, BL averaged 2, whereas, at 25°and 30°C, it was 3. However, the effect of photoperiod and cultivar on BL was not clear.
    The differing intensity of recurrent flowering trait in these everbearing strawberry cultivars is the result of varying degrees of flower bud abortion which is attributed to the competition between the terminal inflorescence and the newly developing lateral branch in the axil of the leaf just below it.
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  • Narongchai Pipattanawong, Nobuaki Fujishige, Kenji Yamane, Ryosuke Oga ...
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 95-102
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Variations in vegetative and reproductive growth patterns in response to chilling treatment were evaluated in four day-neutral strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cvs. 'Miyoshi', 'Summerberry', 'Enrai' and 'Everberry') under the NFT (nutrient film technique) system in plastic house. The results indicated that vegetative and reproductive growth of all cultivars responded to chilling. Apparently, the petiole length and leaf area responded to chilling after planting until early June, while the chilling had little effect on leaf production until April. Chilling also promoted flower production of the four cultivars so that it appears to be the dominant factor governing yield. 'Everberry' and 'Enrai' evidently have low yields and adaptability, and cannot be manipulated satisfactorily under the NFT system whereas 'Summerberry' was intermidiate and responded favorably to manipulation. We conclude from our findings that 'Miyoshi' grew and yielded better under the NFT system than did the other three cultivars with or without chilling.
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  • Yuzuri Iwamoto, Takashi Kagi
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 103-111
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The vegetative propagation rate of Japanese butterbur plants is low, it often permits four viruses to be transmitted to the next generation through the rhizomes as in other vegetatively propagated crops. All of the butterbur plants in the field are eventually inflicted with viruses. The purpose of this study is to establish an efficient masspropagation system of virus-free plants by tissue culture.
    Shoots from flower-heads were induced on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) solid medium containing 0.1 mg•liter-1 NAA and 1.0mg•liter-1 BA. After 12 weeks of culture, 5.2 shoots per explant were obtained from 80% of the flower-heads.
    Rapid clonal propagules were obtained when 2-cm shoots were transferred to MS liquid medium supplemented with 0.01mg•liter-1 NAA and 3.0mg•liter-1 BA and placed on a gyrating, rotary shaker set at 100 rpm. After 8 weeks of culture, 80.9 shoots from axillary buds were obtained. These shoots rooted remarkably well in half-strength B 5 liquid medium without phytohormones while being gyrated.
    All regenerated plants became acclimated readily when grown in a sandy loam at 25°C.
    Although no cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) or butterbur mosaic virus (BuMV) was detected in the plants, 8.1% were infected with arabis mosaic virus (ArMV). Thus, 91.9% of the regenerated plants were virus-free.
    These results indicate that this micropropagation system of using flower-heads and axillary buds seems adaptable for a large-scale system of supplying virus-free Japanese butterbur plants.
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  • Shiro Isshiki, Masahiro Nakada, Noriyoshi Nakamura, Yosuke Tashiro, Sa ...
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 113-119
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Mode of inheritance of isozyme variations for aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH) and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) were studied using the progenies of wild taros introduced from Bangladesh. Genetic variations were observed among the wild diploids and triploids for the isozyme loci.
    Through the segregations of the isozyme phenotypes in the five progeny populations obtained from artificial crosses, and the observation of diploid accessions, three isozyme loci, Aat-1, Skdh and Gpi-2 were identified and the presence of two alleles both at Aat-1 and Skdh and three alleles at Gpi-2 are inferred. No evidence for linkage was detected between the three loci. These isozyme patterns are inherited in Mendelian manner and are expected to be useful as genetic markers for studying the genetics, systematics, and breeding of taro. The triploid accessions were found to contain the same alleles that are possessed by the diploid accessions at all the three loci. This suggests that the component genomes of the triploids are the same as those of the diploids. Therefore, the triploid wild taros from Bangladesh are postulated to have originated from diploid ones.
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  • Masayoshi Shigyo, Yosuke Tashiro, Shiro Isshiki, Sadami Miyazaki
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 121-127
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) was studied to establish the genetic system of GDH isozymes in section Cepa of Allium. Detailed analyses of the GDH zymograms of the diploid and triploid hybrids between A. fistulosum and A. cepa Aggregatum group revealed that the degree of association of the GHD subunit varied from monomer to hexamer. The GDH expressions in the two cultivated and four wild species used in this study were governed by two alleles Gdh-1F and Gdh-1A at a single locus (Gdh-1). In A. fistulosum, A. galanthum, A. oschaninii and A. altaicum, the allele Gdh-1F was observed, while Gdh-1A was noticed in A. cepa Aggregatum group, A. cepa Common onion group and A. vavilovii. These results indicate that the GDH isozyme genes are useful genetic markers in section Cepa.
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  • Yosuke Tashiro, Masayoshi Shigyo, Takayuki Mizutani, Sadami Miyazaki
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 129-133
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) was studied to establish the genetic system of GOT isozymes in the wild species in section Cepa of Allium. From the results of isozyme analyses using two cultivated species (A. fistulosum, A. cepa Aggregatum group), three wild species (A. vavilovii, A. oschaninii, A. galanthum), one hybrid between A. fistulosum and A. cepa Aggregatum group and six hybrids between the cultivated and wild species, it was revealed that 1) the three wild species possessed the two GOT gene loci (Got-1, Got-2) in common with A. fistulosum and A. cepa, 2) two alleles were detected at Got-1 and three alleles at Got-2, 3) A. fistulosum possessed Got-1F and Got-2F and A. cepa Aggregatum group had Got-1A and Got-2A, and 4) A. vavilovii possessed Got-1A and Got-2A;A. oschaninii had Got-1A and Got-2F ; A. galanthum had Got-1A and Got-2G. These conclusions indicate that the GOT isozyme genes are useful genetic markers in the wild species in section Cepa.
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  • Kazuo Ichimura, Masayuki Oda
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 135-141
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Cotyledon segments of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were cultured on the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.1 mg•liter-1 IAA, 1.0 mg•liter-1 zeatin, and 3% sucrose, and agar, agarose or gellan gum as a gelling agent and supported on a polyester material. Many adventitious buds were induced and the induced adventitious shoots grew normally on all the agars and gellan gum. Normal adventitious shoots were rarely obtained using agarose and polyester support.
    Shoot regeneration was stimulated by a water extract from agar when explants were cultured on the polyester support. Ethanol soluble and insoluble fractions of agar extract stimulated shoot regeneration; the former was less effective than the latter.
    These results indicate that the extractable, highly hydrophilic substances in agar are probably one of the factors that make them suitable for the regeneration of tomato plants.
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  • Koshiro Kawase, Hiroshi Mizutani, Mari Yoshioka, Sonoko Fukuda
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 143-148
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    For the purpose of achieving micropropagation in Japanese iris (Iris ensata Thunb.), various explants, namely pistils, perianths, stamens, anthers, filaments, perianth-ovary junctions, ovaries and pedicels, were cultured in vitro on MS media with or without BA and NAA.
    Shoot formation was observed from explants of perianth-ovary junctions and upper portions of ovaries on media containing BA and NAA. Explants of lower portions of ovaries formed shoots only on the medium containing 5 mg•liter-1 BA and 5 mg•liter-1 NAA. A higher frequency of shoot formation was observed in explants of perianth-ovary junctions than those of ovaries.
    No roots were differentiated from any explants except those from ovaries and pedicels. Most explants of lower portions of ovaries showed root formation on media with BA and NAA, but those from upper portions showed root formation only on a medium with 1 mg•liter-1 each of BA and NAA. Those of pedicels showed root formation with a frequency of 33 percent on a medium without plant growth regulators.
    Callus formation occurred from ovary and stamen explants. The frequency of callus formation from ovary explants was 100 percent on media with BA and NAA. Stamen explants showed 11 percent callus formation on a 5 mg•liter-1 BA plus 5 mg•liter-1 NAA medium.
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  • Tong Hua Li, Yoshiji Niimi
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 149-159
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Growth and morphology of pollen tubes and formation of seeds were investigated in several Lilium species and cultivars after self-, intraspecific and interspecific pollination by two pollination methods: stigmatic and cut-style pollination.
    1. The relative pollen tube length as a percentage of the style length from the stigma to the base of style was 100% for 96 to 120 hr after stigmatic pollination between compatible mating partners; it was significantly less between incompatible partners because pollen tube growth was retarded. In the latter case, growth inhibition was evident 24 hr after pollination. Based on the relative tube length, L. longiflorum 'Hinomoto' and 'Georgia' had a stronger tendency for self-incompatible reaction than did L. ×'Enchantment'.
    2. There was a possible relationship between the intensity of the self-incompatible reaction and the rate of deformed pollen tubes having bulbous or rugged tips. The deformed tubes made up 60 to 70% of the population after self-pollination of L. longiflorum 'Hinomoto' and 'Georgia; they were 37% in L. × 'Enchantment' and less than 10% in other compatible matings.
    3. Viable seeds were obtained in the compatible mating by cut-style pollination as well as by stigmatic pollination. The number of seeds produced by the former method was significantly smaller, ranging from 10 to 50% of the latter. In the self-incompatible mating viable seeds were also obtained in L. longiflorum 'Georgia' and L. ×'Enchantment' by the cut-style pollination but not in L. longiflorum 'Hinomoto'.
    4. After self- and intraspecific pollination of L. longiflorum 'Hinomoto' and 'Georgia' by cut-style pollination, pollen tubes were observed by a scanning electron microscopy. Pollen tubes of self-pollinated 'Hinomoto' passed by or stopped in front of the micropyles but did not enter them. In other matings, the pollen tubes entered the micropyles even though some had deformed, flat tips.
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  • Nyoyen J. L. Roxas, Yosuke Tashiro, Sadami Miyazaki, Shiro Isshiki, Ak ...
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 161-168
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To understand the cytogenetic behaviors and pollen resource potentialities, meioses and pollen fertility were examined in the 16 cultivars of Higo chrysanthemum (Dendran-thema ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitam.).
    Bivalent formation was highly regular at metaphase I in the pollen mother cells of all the cultivars although univalents and quadrivalents were also sporadically distributed. Considerable abnormalities such as lagging chromosomes and chromosome bridges at telophase I and II, and unequal sizes and abnormal numbers of microspores at tetrad stage were observed in the succeeding stages of microsporogenesis in all the cultivars. Pollen fertility varied from 0.4 to 97.7% among the cultivars and they could be grouped into 3: high (71100%), 8 cultivars; intermediate (3170%), 5 cultivars; and, low (030%), 3 cultivars.
    It is indicative from the above results that majority of the cultivars of Higo chrysan-themum are potential pollen resources for the improvement of modern chrysanthemums.
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  • Yoshihiro Kageyama, Kohji Shima, Kuniyoshi Konishi
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 169-176
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    The relationship between calcium (Ca) uptake and growth of chrysanthemum, cv. Shu-hounochikara, grown hydroponically for the cut flower market was investigated.
    1. In experiment 1, plants grown with 20, 40 and 80 ppm Ca, grew vegetatively at a similar rate for 22 days, but their Ca uptake increased proportionately to the Ca concentration in the culture solution.
    2. In experiment 2, which began on 4 August and ended on 5 November, involved 5 plots; one plot was readjusted weekly to 40 ppm Ca; the other 4 plots were supplied with 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg Ca per plant (two-stem training system) at the beginning of the experiment. The photoperiod was interrupted at midnight (night break by use of fluorescent lamps) from 6 Aug. to 20 Sept. to inhibit flowering. Plants supplied with 400 mg Ca produced good quality cut flowers, whereas those supplied with 200 mg had small inflorescences and the upper leaves exhibited Ca deficiency symptoms. In plants, supplied with 50 and 100 mg Ca, the shoot tips and young leaves exhibited severe Ca deficiency symptoms, these plots were discontinued at 12 and 14 weeks after planting, respectively. Plants grown at a constant 40 ppm level of Ca had excessively large leaves and thick stems.
    From our results, we recommend that 400 mg Ca per plant (or 200 mg per cut flower shoot) in the hydroponic system is ideal for producing good quality chrysanthemum flowers.
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  • Kohji Shima, Yoshihiro Kageyama, Kuniyoshi Konishi
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 177-184
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The relationship between magnesium (Mg) uptake and growth of chrysanthemum plants grown hydroponically in various Mg levels of the culture solution was investigated.
    Experiment 1. The growth rate on fresh weight basis of chrysanthemum cv. Seiun plants grown at 0, 10, 20, and 40 ppm Mg in the culture solutions for 18 days was evaluated.
    1. Mg uptake by chrysanthemum plants increased with increasing Mg concentration in the culture solution.
    2. The plant growth rate was unaffected by the Mg concentration at 10, 20, and 40 ppm Mg.
    Experiment 2. The optimum Mg application level for cut flower production of chrysanthemum cv. Shuhounochikara was determined. There were five plots: one was adjusted weekly to 20 ppm Mg in the culture solution; the other 4 plots, the concentration was fixed at the beginning of the experiment at 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg Mg per two-stem plant.
    1. In the 25 and 50 mg Mg plots, Mg was completely absorbed by the roots by the 5th and 7th week after planting, respectively. The upper leaves in the 25 and 50 mg plots appeared undernourished.
    2. Mg in the 100 mg plot was wholly absorbed by the 11th week after planting and 2 weeks before flowering. However, the plants flowered normally and produced high quality cut flowers.
    3. Plants applied 200 mg Mg produced the cut flowers of high quality. Plants grown at a constant 20 ppm Mg level grew and flowered normally, but had excessively large leaves and stalks.
    Based on our results, we recommend that the optimum Mg level in a hydroponic system for producing high quality cut flower is 100 mg per plant or 50 mg per flowering shoot.
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  • Akira Uda, Yoshihiko Koyama, Keiichiro Fukushima
    1995 Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 185-191
    Published: 1995
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Cut carnation flower stems were immersed in solutions of silver thiosulfate (STS) having Ag to thiosulfate ratios of 1 : 1, 1 : 2, 1 : 4, 1 : 8, 1 : 16 and 1 : 32. The solutions were prepared by mixing AgNO3 and Na2S2O3•5H2O to give a final Ag+ concentration of 1 mM or 0.2 mM. Ag chelate in the solutions with high ratios of thiosulfate to Ag, i. e. 1 : 8 to 1 : 32, was quite stable, whereas at ratios of 1 : 1 to 1 : 4, it was not.
    1. Ag was detected in the flower head by atomic absorption analysis after cut carnations were treated with the solutions at ratios from 1 : 2 to 1 : 32. It was not detectable in the flower head when treated with AgNO3 solution alone (1 : 0). All or most of Ag was located in the lower stem when stems were treated with solutions having a ratio of 1 : 0 or 1 : 1.
    2. The amount of Ag translocated to the carnation flower head was closely associated with vase life. Treatment of cut flowers with solutions at the ratios of 1 : 4 to 1 : 32 doubled the vase life compared with flowers treated with deionized water. The solutions with ratios of 1 : 4 to 1 : 32 were equally effective in prolonging vase life. Treatment with the solutions with ratios of 1 : 0 to 1 : 2 extended vase life only slightly.
    3. Injury to upper leaves increased proportionally with the increase in Ag accumulation and with the increasing ratios of thiosulfate to Ag. Leaf injury symptoms appeared when stems were immersed in 1 mM Ag solutions.
    Thus, to extend the vase life of carnations we recommend the use of a 1 : 8 molar ratio of AgNO3 to Na2S2O3•5H2O in the STS solution.
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