Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
Online ISSN : 1880-358X
Print ISSN : 0013-7626
ISSN-L : 0013-7626
Volume 65 , Issue 2
Showing 1-24 articles out of 24 articles from the selected issue
  • Haruyuki Kuroda, Yasunao Nishiyama, Kazuhiko Chiba
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 227-236
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In 1975, 'Starking Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) grafted on dwarfing (M. 9 and M. 26) and semidwarfing (M. 7 and MM. 106) rootstocks were planted radial-ly in a geometric series to examine the relationship between the planting denstiy and tree growth. This system provided seven planting densities ranging from 453 to 3, 178 trees per hectare for trees on M. 9 and M. 26, and eight planting densities ranging from 330 to 3, 178 trees per hectare for trees on M. 7 and MM. 106.
    1. A high correlation coefficient (r=0.994**) was obtained between the standing crop (total dry matter yield, Y) and the trunk cross-sectional area (TCA; θ) regardless of the differences in rootstock and tree age. The regression equation is :
    Y=0.726 θ-12.636 (1)
    2. In the 3rd leaf of 'Starking Delicious'/M. 26 and on M. 7; the 5th leaf of trees on MM. 106; and the 6th leaf of trees on M. 9, a slight inhibition in the increase of TCA was observed in the higher density plots. As the trees aged, the inhibition shifted to lower de-nsity plots. This shifting rate was accelerated in trees on M. 26, M. 7, and MM. 106, com-pared with trees on M. 9. These results suggest that the effect of the density on tree growth depends on the kinds of rootstocks as well as tree age.
    On all four rootstocks, the above-mentioned relationship between the planting density (ρ) and the TCA (θ) could be represented by the following reciprocal equation,
    1/θ=Aρ+B (3) where A and B depend on the tree age and rootstocks.
    3. The average net production per hectare calculated by Eqs. (1) and (3) increased with increasing density, reaching a constant level at the density of 3, 0004, 000 trees per hectare. Also, the average net production tended to increase for the trees grafted on semi-dwarfing rootstocks more so than on dwarfing stocks.
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  • Kiyohide Kojima, Masashi Yamamoto, Akihiko Goto, Ryouji Matsumoto
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 237-243
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellins (GAs) in reproductive organs of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Ozaki) were determined by gas chromatograph (GC)-electron capture detector, GC-mass spectrometry-selective ion monitoring and dwarf rice bioassay. Their probable roles are discussed.
    1. As anthesis approached, IAA concentration in styles and stamens did not change, while ABA concentration of styles increased six-fold. Until 39 days after flowering (DAF), the fresh weigth of fruitlets increased dramatically, while that of 'sepals' which included floral disks, sepals and receptacles increased a little.
    2. Fruitlets attained their maximum concentration of ABA 4 DAF and then declined rapidly. Its level remained much lower than that of 'sepals' from 7 DAF. IAA concentrations of fruitlets reached a maximum 7 DAF, and thereafter decrease; that in the 'sepals' increased from anthesis to 31 DAF surpassing that of fruitlets about 15 DAF.
    3. GAs concentrations of fruitlets continued to increase from 7 to 31 DAF, and decreased sharply 39 DAF.
    4. Because there was a sequence of peaks of endogenous ABA, IAA and GAs levels in fruitlets, it seemed that these hormones may play a sequential and synergistic role in the retention and growth of fruitlets.
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  • Tsuneo Ogata, Hiroyuki Hasukawa, Shuji Shiozaki, Shosaku Horiuchi, Ken ...
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 245-253
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Seasonal changes of contents of endogenous GAs in vegetative organs and effect of harvesting date on endogenous GA synthesis were surveyed. Simultaneously, the influence of paclobutrazol, a gibberellin (GA) synthesis inhibitor, on the induciton of flowering in satsuma mandarin was evaluated.
    1. GA1 content in leaf of vegetative shoot increased from 26 Jul. to 26 Sep., decreased to 28 Jan., and increased again to 24 Mar. On the contray, GA20 and GA19-like activities were the lowest on 26 Sep.; their maximum acitvities were recorded on 29 Nov. and 28 Jan., respecitively. The trends of GAs in the axillary buds were closely paralleled with those in the leaves.
    2. A foliar spray with 1, 000 ppm pacloburazol on 1 Feb. increased the numbers of flowers, and decreased GA20 and GA19-like activities in leaf, but it did not affect GA1 acivity.
    3. The early harvest in October increased the number of flowers the following season compared to the late harvest in December. GA20 activity in the leaves of the vegetative shoots on the ealy harvested tree was lower than those of the late harvested tree at the end of November and January.
    Thus, paclobutrazol treatment reduced the level of GA1 precursor, but not GA1, which is in agreement with the metabolism of endogenous GAs in the early harvested tree. The inhibition of GA synthesis by paclobutrazol is one of the physiological evidence which indicate that GA plays a role in flowering in satsuma mandarin.
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  • Pichit Toolapong, Haruki Komatsu, Masao Iwamasa
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 255-260
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In order to establish a triploid grapefruit-like cultivar adaptable to the citrus area of Japan, 'Banpeiyu' (Citrus grandis Osbek) was crossed with 'Ruby Red' grapefruit (C. para-disi Macf.). Out of 2, 049 seeds, 82 were selected as small seeds. Among the seedlings obtained from the small seeds, one haploid, 18 diploids, and 51 triploids segregated. The haploid seedling has a dwarf growth habit with a roseate leaf type. When grafted onto trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf.) rootstock, however, it grew normally. The tri-ploids grew poorly immediately after germination, but after one year they grew as vigor-ously and as well as the diploid seedlings derived from the normal large seeds.
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  • Fumio Tamura, Kenji Tanabe, Masashi Katayama, Akihiro Itai
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 261-266
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Effects of waterlogging on ethanol and ethylene production by flood-tolerant pear rootstocks, Pyrus calleryana Decne, strains No. 6 and No. 8 and intolerant rootstocks, P. be-tulaefolia Bunge and P. pyrifolia Nakai were studied.
    Ethanol content and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity in the roots were measured under flooded condition. Ethanol content increased in the roots with no significant difference among the rootstocks, whereas ADH activity in P. calleryana, No. 6 and No. 8 was three times higher than that in P. betulaefolia and P. pyrifolia three days after the treatment. Roots of P. calleryana, No. 6 and No. 8 seemed to secrete ethanol into the incuba-tion medium, whereas P. betulaefolia and P. pyrifolia did not.
    CO2 evolution from the fine roots was measured in 10 to 10, 000 ppm of ethanol solution. There was a little difference among the rootstocks in respiratory tolerance to ethanol.
    Internal ethylene concentrations and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content in the roots and leaves were measured during the flooding treatment. The rootstocks had similar patterns of ethylene and ACC fluctuations; they increased for 3 days after the treatments started then decreased gradually. Increase in ethylene concentration and ACC content in the leaves was observed after the treatment for 5 days ; it occurred first in P. pyrifolia then detected in P. betulaefolia and two strains of P. calleryana in that order.
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  • Takanori Yamamoto, Noriko Kitamura, Takayuki Niida, Hide Satoh
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 267-282
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Several variables, e. g. cell shape, cell arrangemnt in the peel tissue, and proportion of the cell wall area to the radial section area were measured at harvest in 14 apple culti-vars. The data were analyzed in relation to : 1) the 4 indices of susceptibility to fruit cracking, 2) the distributions of density of fracture on a fruit surface, 3) the occurrence of fine cracks and 4) the physical properites of the peels.
    It was evident from the analysis that cultivars possessing the following characters were more susceptible to fruit cracking : a) flatter cells in the outer cell layers, b) larger tangential and radial cell diameters in the inner and the outer layers, c) larger cell surface areas, d) larger differences in cell surface area between the two layers, and e) higher percentage of cell wall area stained by fast green or safranine in the radial section area.
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  • Mikio Shiraishi
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 283-289
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Amino acid profiles in juice were determined by using 259 grape germplasm including 169 cultivars, 81 breeder's lines, 5 rootstocks and 4 clones of wild species. Amino acid contents of cultivars and breeder's lines were higher than those of rootstocks and wild species. For amino acid composition, arginine (Arg), alanine (Ala) and glutamic acid (Glu) were predominant compared with asparatic acid (Asp), threonine (Thr), serine (Ser), valine (Val), methionine (Met), isoleucine (Ile), and leucine (Leu). Based on the primary amino acids, the grape accessions could be classified into the following five types: Glu, Arg, Ala, Arg+Ala and Ala+ Arg. Furthermore, to evaluate amino acid composition easi-ly, a new biochemical descriptor designated as γ ratio= [Thr+Ser+ Ala] /([Asp+Glu] + [Val + Met + Ile + Leu + Arg] ) was introduced. The variation in γ ratio is significantly associated with both use and species parentage, indicating that genetic differentiation for amino acid composition exists among grape germplasm. In addition, as the biochemical descriptor, amino acid profiles in grape germplasm were defined as 3 classes of amino acid content (3 : ?? 1.00 mmol ; 5 : 1.012.00 mmol ; 7 : 2.01 mmol ??, class interval= 1.0 mmol/100 ml equivalent), and 5 classes of γ ratio (1 : ?? 0.50 ; 3 : 0.511.00 ; 5 : 1.011.50 ; 7 : 1.512.00 ; 9 : 2.01 ??, class interval=0.5), respectively.
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  • Masashi Yamamoto, Shozo Kobayashi
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 291-296
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) diversity was studied in Citrus, Poncirus and Fortunella, based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Total genomic DNA was digested with restriction endonucleases singly or in combination, Southern blotted, and hybridized with a Nicotiana tabacum cpDNA probe. According to the fragment patterns, Citrus was divided into four groups; mandarin/citron, pummelo, Yuzu, and lime. The fragment patterns of mandarin/citron group (mandarin, citron and tangor) differed from those of pummelo group (pummelo, sweet orange, sour orange, lemon, ' grapefruit, Kunenbo, Hassaku, Natsudaidai, Sudachi, Hyuganatsu and Iyo) in Pst I, Pst I/Pvu II, Pst I/Kpn I and Pst I/ Sac I digestion. The fragment patterns of lime were identical to pummelo group in Pst I and Pst I/ Sac I digestion, but differed in Pst I/Pvu II and Pst I/Kpn I digestion. Yuzu was not distinguishable from mandarin/citron group in the fragment patterns of Pst I, Pst I/ Pvu II and Pst I/ Kpn I digestion, but was distinguishable in that of Pst I/ Sac I digestion. The fragment patterns of Poncirus and Fortunella were always identical to those of mandarin/citron group.
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  • Yoh-ichi Matsubara, Takuya Karikomi, Minoru Ikuta, Hirotaka Hori, Shiz ...
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 297-302
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The means of enhancing the growth of seedlings of apples. Malus pumila Mill. var. domestica Schneid. (cv. McIntosh, American Summer Pearmain, Jonathan, Golden Deli-cious, Starking Delicious, Fuji, Mutsu and Red Gold) and Malus sieboldii Rehd., through inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus [Glomus etunicatum (GE) and Gigaspora margarita (GM)] were investigated.
    Eight weeks after inoculation, AM fungus infection occurred in all combinations of apple cultivars and fungus species. The rate of AM fungus-infected portions in a whole root system were: 31.7% in 'Golden Delicious', 50.5% in 'Jonathan' in GE-inoculated plants, and 24.0% for Mains sieboldii Rehd., and 50.7% in 'Starking Delicious' in GM-inoculated ones. Plant height and dry weights of top and roots were greater in all GE-infected seedlings than in noninoculated ones. The GM-infected seedlings made larger height and weight increments than did the noninoculated ones in all seedlings except those of 'Golden Delicious' and Moans sieboldii Rehd.. In 'McIntosh' seedlings, plant growth enhance-ment through symbiosis clearly appeared associated with both fungi. With both fungal species, P concentrations in the top or roots were higher in infected plants than in non-inoculated plants; the effect appeared more noticeably in roots than in top.
    Consequently, it was confirmed that GE and GM infections and their plant growth en-hancement through symbiosis occurred with the seedling stage in several apple cultivars.
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  • Yoh-ichi Matsubar, Takashi Harada
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 303-309
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effect of inoculating seedlings of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Glomus etunicatum) on their growth and N, P, K, Ca and Mg contents was investigated.
    AM fungus infection became distinct approx. 7 days after inoculation. Arbuscules (the organs of nutrient transfer between the host and fungus) and vesicules (fungal storage organs) were formed approx. 12 and 32 days after inoculation, respectively. The rate of AM fungusinfected portions in a whole root system (percentage of total portions in-fected with AM fungus in a whole root system) increased most rapidly between 2 and 4 weeks after inoculation.
    The emergence of shoots and roots and their elongation were promoted by host-fungus symbiosis, especially after the second emergence. Dry weights became greater in AM fungus-infected plants than in noninoculated plants after a lapse of 4 weeks from inoculation.
    The 5 mineral nutrients contents, especially that of P per plant, were increased by the infection, with or without the increase in nutrient concentration. P concentrations in-creased considerably 4 weeks after inoculation, particularly in the 3rd and 4th shoots, the 1st and 2nd roots, and the rhizome including buds. The available-P concentration in bed soil used for raising infected plants decreased more rapidly than that for raising noninoculated plants.
    These results indicate that, in asparagus seedlings, the growth enhancement due to AM fungus infection was mainly caused by the increase of phosphorus concentrations in the plants.
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  • Hiroyuki Kohmura, Teisuke Ito, Naoki Shigemoto, Masashi Imoto, Hiroaki ...
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 311-319
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Micropropagated clonal plants were derived through somatic embryogenesis (from young spears in adult plants or nodal segments of seedlings) of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L. cv 'Hiroshima Green' (2n=30), 'Mary Washington 500W'). They were cultivated by "mother stalk method" in the field of HPARC for 4 years (1990-1994) and their growth characteristics and yields were compared with those of 4 cultivars propagated by seeds or crown division. In micropropagated plants, the flower types were identical with the parent and flowering occurred simultaneously. The quality of young spears, such as head shape and colors resembled the parent. Spear size and shoot diameter of mother stalks, yield and other growth characteristics of them were more uniform than those of seed propagated cultivars. In the triploid clone of 'Hiroshima Green', the high brix content of spears and resistance to disease were maintained through propagation by somatic embryogenesis. Thus, micropropagation of superior asparagus clones through somatic embryogenesis is an economical means of producing uniform spears of high quality and yield.
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  • Joseph G. Dubouzet, Takeomi Etohl, Ken-ichi Arisumil, Tetsuo Yoshitake
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 321-326
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A crude extraction procedure for DNA was modified and used for small leaf samples (2-4 mg) in Allium. Six random decamers (OPD 5, 7, 14, 15, 18 and 19) generated characteristic random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles from leaf DNA of Allium tuberosum Rottl. ex Spreng. 'Tender pole' obtained using a crude micro extraction process These RAPD profiles were roughly similar to those of DNA purified using a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) extraction procedure.
    Crude extracts of leaf DNA were prepared from three accessions of A. tuberosum 'Tender pole', 'five 'Yoshitake hybrids' (A. chinense G. Don × A. thunbergii G. Don) and seven putative trispecific hybrids between these two groups. DNA amplification with four random decamers (OPD 14, 15, 18 and 19) by polymerase chain reaction produced a total of 186 bands : 49 bands were found only in the RAPD profiles of the putative hybrid and the corresponding male parent (M bands), whereas 58 bands were found in both female parent and trispecific hybrid plants (F bands). One of the seven putative hybrids had no M band, indicating that it had no relationship to its putative male parent and that it may have been the product of an unwanted pollination.
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  • Kazuko Ota, Akira Kagawa
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 327-332
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Effects of nitrate concentrations and the ratio of NO3-: NH4+ in nutrient solutions on the oxalate content of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Shoryoku) leaves were examined Solutions containing 0 to 100 ppm of NO3- were used to grow the plants. When the ni trate level of nutrient solutions was lower than 10 ppm, plants grew poorly and the total nitrogen and oxalate contents of the leaves were low.
    When grown on the solutions containing different ratios of NO3- : NH4+, the total and watersoluble oxalate contents decreased as the ratio was decreased. The effects of different nitrogen sources and concentrations on the growth of plants varied depending on the seasons of the year. Generally when the ratio exceeded 1 : 3 (75% NH4+), plant growth was depressed. However, when the ratio was less than 3 : 1 (25% NH4+), the plants grew well. Thus, the oxalate content of spinach leaves can be reduced without depressing plant growth.
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  • Naoko Fukuta, Tomoyuki Yukawa
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 333-338
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings planted in Hokuriku area in the fall are often covered by snow. Some cultivars withstand the snow, whereas others do not. This study sought the relationship of snow tolerance with seeding time and nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) concentration among cultivars to clarify the tolerance mechanism.
    1. Varietal differences in snow tolerance in 33 cultivars revealed that tolerant cultivars were shorter in stature and had lighter foliage and numerous branches before snow cover than had the snowvulnerable ones. If NSC concentration in the cotyledons was two to tree times higher than.that in the foliage, it contributed significantly to snow tolerance.
    2. With delayed seeding time in the fall, high water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) con-centration in the foliage accompanied by a proportional decrease in plant dry weight before snow cover promoted snow tolerance.
    The cultivars and late seeding plants possessing high NSC in the cotyledons showed high snow tolerance, indicating the importance of NSC protecting the overwintering pea seedling under snow.
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  • Koji Kawagishi, Toyoo Miura
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 339-347
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Seasonal changes of N, P, K, Ca and Mg contents in the spring-planted edible lily (Lilium leichtlinii Hook f. var. maximowiczii Baker) 'Hakugin' were investigated.
    1. The N and P concentrations in the aerial parts were highest after sprouting in June and then, declined until harvest. In the old bulb, the concentrations also decreased at flower budding stage in July. However, N and P contents per plant basis changed little between planting and flower budding period, and increased rapidly thereafter. The N and P contents in the underground parts were greater than the aerial parts at harvest.
    2. K concentration in the leaf and bulbs changed slightly during the growing season ; the seasonal change of K content per plant basis had the same pattern as those of N and P. At harvest, K content was highest among elements analyzed.
    3. Leaf Ca and stem Mg concentrations on dry weight and per plant basis increased with growth, especially after sprouting. The aerial parts had more Ca and Mg than the underground parts at harvest.
    4. The total K uptake per plant was 1, 011 mg, whereas that of N and Ca amounted to about 500 mg ; P and Mg content averaged under 150 mg per plant.
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  • Takako Goto, Masanori Miyazaki, Masakazu Oku
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 349-354
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Protoplasts of Spinacia oleracea L. were cultured in a modified half-strength MS medium supplemented with KM8p vitamins, 1.0 mg•liter-1 BA, 1.0 mg•liter-1 2, 4-D, and glucose or mannitol. Plating efficiency in the medium containing glucose as an osmoticum was much higher than that in the medium containing mannitol. The addition of KM8p organic acids to the glucose medium promoted the division of protoplasts slightly ; the same addition to a medium containing mannitol appeared inhibitory to the cell division. Several shoots were formed from calli obtained on the MS medium containing 1.0-10.0 mg•liter-1 IAA or IBA. Adventitious root was developed most vigorously on the MS medium containing 2% sucrose, 0.5 mg•liter-1 IBA, and 0.8% agar when pH was adjusted to 6.3. Some regenerated plantlets transferred to a greenhouse produced many seeds.
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  • Kohji Shima, Yoshihiro Kageyama, Kuniyoshi Konishi
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 355-361
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    The effect of phosphorus application rates on growth and cut flower quality of chrysanthemum cv. Shuhounochikara plants grown using a nitrogen application curve in NFT system was investigated.
    The phosphorus treatments consisted of four P : N ratios ; P being 6, 12, 18, and 24%of the amount of initial nitrogen applied. In the fifth treatment plot, 24 ppm phosphorus were applied, which was equivalent to 12% of the nitrogen supply. In this treatment, however, nitrogen was not supplied along a nitrogen application curve, but was applied and adjusted on a weekly basis to 200 ppm.
    Plants of P 6%plot had shorter flower stems and had incipient symptoms of phosporus deficiency. In the P 12% plot, plants grew and flowered normally, and produced high quality cut flowers. However, plants of both the P 18% and P 24% plots exhibited symptoms of excess phosphorus and had short flower stems. Plants of the P24 ppm plot flowered normally, but had excessively large leaves and stems for marketable cut flower.
    Based on these results, the optimum applied phosphorus to nitrogen ratio, along nitrogen application curve in NFT system was 12 : 100.
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  • Kazuhisa Haruki, Kazuto Yamada, Takashi Hosokil, Katsumi Ohtal
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 363-371
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    We investigated conditions which promote bulb enlargement of Lilium japonicum Thunb. cultured on a horizontal rotary shaker before transplanting in the soil.
    Sucrose, maltose or glucose was added to the liquid Murashige Skoog's (MS) medium, and their utilization by the bulbs was monitored.. Sucrose was hydrolyzed into glucose and fructose, which resulted in an increase in osmotic pressure and subsequent sup-pression of bulb growth. Little maltose was absorbed by the bulbs, and therefore it was useless for bulb growth. A 3% glucose medium was optimum for bulb growth.
    Bulb growth, as measured by fresh weight increase, in the shaking medium kept at 20°C was better than that kept at 25°C. However, cumulative absorption by the bulbs of NH4+, NO3- and glucose from the medium at 25°C was almost equal to that at 20°C. It suggested that the consumption of sugar at 25°C was greater than that at 20°C.
    More bulbs which were cultured in the MS medium with glucose, chilled at 0°C, potted, and planted in the greenhouse sprouted and bolted at 20°C than did those kept at 25°C. The chilling period for maximum sprouting and bolting was three months.
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  • Eiichi Kodaira, Genjiro Mori, Mariko Takeuchi, Hideo Imanishi
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 373-380
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    The growth periodicity of Allium unifolium plants grown in an unheated plastichouse was assessed while simultaneously investigating the effect of temperatureon the initia-tion and development of flower buds.
    In bulbs grown in an unheated plastic house, the first inflorescences were initiated in mid-November. They formed tepals and stamens in mid-January of the following year and bloomed from early to mid-April. Two weeks later, the 2nd and 3rd inflorescences were initiated in axillary buds and bloomed in mid- to late April.
    When bulbs, which were planted in early October were grown in an unheated plastic house or a greenhouse kept above 10°C, they flowered satisfactorily. However, those grown in a greenhouse kept above 20°C had fewer flowered and shorter scapes.
    When bulbs were stored at 9°, 15°, 20°, 25° or 30°C from 1 August to 1 October, flower bud initiation occurred at 9° to 20°C, but the optimum range was 9°-15°C. Bulbs stored at 9°C bloomed earlier, but had fewer inflorescences when they were grown in a greenhouse kept above 10°C.
    Flower buds of bulbs stored at 10°C for 3 months were the earliest to differentiate; they flowered in mid-January if the greenhouse was kept above 10°C.
    Bulbs harvested from plants grown in an unheated plastic house in the previous season flowered 1 month earlier than did those harvested from plants grown outdoors, when they were stored at 10°C for 3 months (early July to October) and grown at or above 10°C.
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  • Kazuyuki Chatani, Hideyoshi Toyoda, Kenji Yoshida, Kazuharu Koreeda
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 381-385
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    Rose plants moderately resistant to the powdery mildew were selected from leaf callusderived regenerants. The process was facilitated by developing an efficient system for inoculation with the powdery mildew pathogen, Sphaerotheca pannosa. Fifty regenerants obtained from leaf explants of rose (Rosa hybrida cv. Carl Red) were grown and propagated in a greenhouse. The compound leaves of the fourth node of the new shoots were used to inoculate with conidiospores of S. pannosa KS-pl, using an apparatus devised for a large scale inoculation. Seven days after inoculation, disease severity of test plants was determined by a scale ranging from asymptomatic (0) to entirely pustule-engulfed leaves (3). Control leaves prepared from susceptible 'Carl Red' and resistant 'Magic' were rated 2.8 and 0, respectively, for disease severity. Some regenerants fell into the range of resistance, in particular, RHCL-203 and -263, which were rated 1.1 and 1.2, respectively. When leaves were harvested at random from these two regenerants cultivated in a greenhouse and retested for their resistance to the pathogen, their disease severities were ranked as being moderately resistant to powdery mildew. Therefore, these regenerants were selected as possible candidates for commercial use.
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  • Kazuhisa Haruki, Kazuto Yamada, Takashi Hosokil, Katsumi Ohta
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 387-396
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    For liquid-shaking culture of bulbs of Liliurn japonicum Thunb., we analyzed the concentration changes in macro-inorganic ions in the culture media to clarify their relationships with bulb growth.
    1. Inorganic ions, SO42-, NH4+, and especially H2PO4- were consumed in large quantities by bulbs during culture, whereas the consumption of K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ was very slow.
    2. The optimum concentration of NH4+ for bulb enlargement was 10-20 mM. The application of NO3- alone or NH4+ higher than 30 mM as nitrogen source retarded the bulb growth. Root elongation was promoted by application of NO3- as the sole nitrogen source.
    3. Root growth was poor in the medium containing a high ratio of NH4+ /NO3-. Application of glutamine instead of NH4+ promoted root growth.
    4. The in vitro rooted bulbs sprouted and bolted abundantly after planting in the soil. Based on the above results, bulbs should be cultured first in a medium containing NH4+ for bulb enlargement and then transferred to a NH4+ free medium for root development. These treatments improved shoot growth after transplanting.
    5. Although the absorption rate of H2PO4- from the medium with the high concen-tration of NaH2PO4 was higher than that from the medium with the low concentration, bulb enlargement was not promoted.
    6. High concentration of SO42- in the medium inhibited bule growth.
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  • Yasutaka Kubo, Akitsugu Inaba, Reinosuke Nakamura
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 397-402
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
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    The effects of O2 level on respiration rates in twelve kinds of fruits and vegetables were investigated. Critical O2 concentration (COC), the O2 level at which CO2 output is minimum, and extinction point (EP), the lowest O2 level at which the respiratory quotient (RQ) remains at 1.0, were estimated for each fruit and vegetable. Fruits such as apples, peaches, Japanese persimmons, and satsuma mandarins exhibited a clear classical CO2. response with progressively lower O2 level. However, CO2 output in cucumber, eggplant, cauliflower, lettuce, and cabbage increased slightly even under 1 or 0% O2 level, whereas broccoli and carrot showed no Pasteur effect, the minimum CO2 output being at 0% O2. The EP of peaches, cucumber, eggplant, cauliflower, and sweet potato coincided with the COC, but the EP of Japanese persimmon, satsuma mandarins, lettuce, and carrot was relatively higher than the COC. Our results suggest that EP is more reliable than COC in evaluating the O2 level at which the aerobic-anaerobic transition phase occurs in fruits and vegetables.
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  • Yasutaka Kubo, Osamu Hirata, Akitsugu Inaba, Reinosuke Nakamura
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 403-408
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The rates of respiration and ethylene production in various fruits and vegetables held in 0-60% CO2 at 25 °C or 60% CO2 at 5-25 °C were determined by an automated microcomputer system.
    In peaches, apples, tomatoes, and broccoli, dose-dependent decreases of O2 uptake and C2H4 production were observed during treatment with various concentrations of CO2 at 25°C. Oxygen uptake in bananas was inhibited at 10% CO2 and higher, whereas C2H4 production increased as the ambient CO2 concentration was elevated. CO2 concentration had little or no effect on O2 uptake in satsuma mandarin. Oxygen uptake in lettuce at 20% CO2 and below was similar to that under air, whereas induction of C2H4 production and an enhanced O2 uptake were observed in lettuce held in 40% CO2 and higher.
    Inhibition of O2 uptake and C2H4 production in peaches by 60% CO2 declined as the temperature was lowered to the range of 5-25 °C. In broccoli held in 60% CO2, the inhibition of O2 uptake was temperature-dependent, but C2H4 production was suppressed to trace level at all temperatures. The induction of C2H4 production and enhancement of O2 uptake in lettuce by 60% CO2 occurred distinctly at 25 °C, slightly at 15 °C, but not at 10 °C and 5 °C.
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  • Yasutaka Kubo, Kazuhiro Sakota, Akitsugu Inaba, Reinosuke Nakamura
    1996 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 409-415
    Published: 1996
    Released: May 15, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Ethylene production, oxygen uptake, the activities of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase in vivo and the contents of ACC and 1-(malonylamino)cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (MACC) were determined in peach and tomato fruits held in carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere. Ethylene production in peaches decreased to a trace level with 60% carbon dioxide and in tomatoes to 50% of the initial level. The ethylene production rates in both fruits reverted to the initial level when the fruits were transferred back to air. Oxygen uptake in both fruits was markedly inhibited during carbon dioxide exposure. In vivo activities of ACC oxidase and ACC synthase in both fruits were also inhibited during carbon dioxide exposure. ACC content in peaches held in carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere decreased but it increased in tomatoes. The level of MACC in peaches was constant during carbon dioxide treatment, whereas that in tomatoes slightly increased. These results indicate that inhibition in ethylene production by carbon dioxide may be mediated mainly by reduced conversion of ACC to ethylene in tomatoes, whereas in peaches, the inhibition is attributed to both reduced conversion of S-adenosylmethionine to ACC and ACC to ethylene.
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